Nov. 28, 2019

Doctors at Delhi’s Sir Ganga Ram Hospital have removed a kidney weighing 7.4 kg from a 56-year-old man suffering from Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). This is believed to be the “largest kidney” in India and the third-largest in the world. A human kidney on average weighs between 120-150 grams.


  • What is it? Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys. These cysts form inside the kidneys on the walls of hair-sized structures called nephrons, which help to filter out waste from the blood.

  • Symptoms: The most common symptoms include pain in the back and between the ribs and hips, headaches, blood in the urine, high blood pressure, and kidney insufficiency.

  • Cause:
    • ADPKD is caused by mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 gene, that create proteins for the proper functioning of the kidneys and other parts of the body.

    • ADPKD is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in families. This means that if one parent has the disease, there is a 50-percent chance that the disease will pass to a child of either gender.

  • Impact:
    • ADPKD is one of the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease (when kidneys can no longer function properly).

    • Though a kidney disease, ADPKD can affect other organ systems leading to a multisystem disorder. Organs that can be affected include the liver, pancreas, prostrate and glands of the male reproductive tract.

  • Treatment: Although there is no cure for ADPKD, treatment can ease symptoms and prolong life. Treatment includes dialysis and renal (kidney) transplant.

  • Vulnerable groups: ADPKD was earlier known as adult polycystic kidney disease, since it usually occurs in the fourth or fifth decade of life — but it has been reported in children and infants as well. Both men and women are equally likely to develop this disease.