June 12, 2019

Government of India has constituted a multi-specialist team to assist the Bihar government in containment of the rising cases of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Muzaffarpur and Japanese Encephalitis (JE) in Gaya.


  • It is an inflammation and swelling of the brain which is caused 
    • either by an infection invading the brain (Infectious Encephalitis) or

    • through the immune system attacking the brain in error (Post-infectious or Autoimmune Encephalitis). 

  • The infection is mainly caused by Rarely bacteria, fungus and parasites can also cause it. 

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES): 

  • It is characterized by an acute onset of fever and clinical neurological manifestation that includes mental confusion, disorientation, delirium, or coma. 

  • The most common causes of acute viral encephalitis are Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Chandipura virus (CHPV) etc.

  • AES is reported mainly from Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu which contributes approximately 80% of cases.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE):

  • It is a brain infection caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).

  • JEV (a virus from the family FLAVIVIRIDAE) is transmitted to humans through bites from infected rice field breeding mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus).

  • There is no transmission from person to person and therefore patients do not need to be isolated. Also one can get JE from animals other than domestic pigs & Wild birds or from insects other than mosquitoes. 

  • This disease is most prevalent in Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Asia. 

  • Although individuals of any age may be affected, but JE primarily affects children. 

  • Treatment: There is no specific therapy. Intensive supportive therapy is indicated.