Nov. 15, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 15, 2019

Q. World trade organisation (WTO) as a multilateral body is facing challenges on various counts. In this light discuss the relevance of WTO and also suggest suitable reform in its functioning.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction (about WTO)

  • Challenges faced by WTO

  • Relevance of WTO

  • Reform in functioning of WTO

Model Answer

WTO was set up under Marrakesh Treaty (1994) and as an organization aim to improve living standards, generate employment, and expand global trade.

However, in recent years WTO is facing challenges on various counts such as:

  • Consensus based rule making has become a root cause in stagnation in reforms.

  • Further, the very existence of WTO is under threat with rise of trade disputes/ trade war between China and USA.

  • WTO has also failed to change as per the global requirement. For Ex.- WTO lacks any agreement to deal with e-commerce.

  • WTO is facing process challenges/ loopholes such as the negotiation process prime facie seems democratic but Ministerial Conferences are opaque and overly technical.

  • The dispute resolution mechanism is costly and lengthy. It is majorly resorted to by developed countries and developing countries are victims to the mechanism.

But, the WTO remains relevant considering the following points in its favour:

  • It amicably settles disputes among its members through its Dispute Settlement Mechanism.

  • World trade body serves as a platform on new global trade agreements. Like- Doha Round.

  • It ensures that global trade follows rules-based multilateral trading system.

  • WTO by removing trade barriers stimulates global growth.

  • WTO ensure predictability and transparency in trade-related regulations through its binding provisions.

  • It also preserves member’s autonomy as members are free to enter into preferential trade agreements and free trade agreements.

In light of the above challenges following reforms are required in functioning of WTO:

  • Plurilateral negotiations should be promoted as they offer prospect of building coalition among like-minded members.

  • The appointment process to dispute settlement body should be made independent of political control.

  • The issue of abuse of national-security exemption to justify trade restrictions should be solved at the political level, rather than at WTO.

  • WTO should be conferred with penalizing powers to curb wilful non-compliance.

There is also a need for using other platforms for reform talks such as G20, which have the advantage of limited and effective global membership.

Subjects : Economy

Nov. 13, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 13, 2019

Q. Regionalism in India is a result of various interconnected factors. In this light discuss the various types regionalism in India and also suggest suitable measures to curtail negative impact pf regionalism. 

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction (regionalism)

  • Factors responsible for regionalism

  • Types of regionalism

  • Conclusion/ way forward

Model Answer

Regionalism is a strong attachment to one’s own region. Thus, it is an ideology that seek to advance cause of a region. The rise of regionalism in India is a result of various factors:

  • Historically, formation of various regional kingdoms and frequent regional wars led to rise of regional ideology.

  • Due to specific geography of a region there developed different food, clothing

  • The mother tongue (linguism) also created a profound attachment to one’s own language and hence regional identity developed.

  • Formation of regional parties to protect regional interest also led to rise of regionalism. For Ex- Shiv Sena.

  • Lop sided economic development led to inequality between different state and consequently leading to regionalism. For ex- problem of Naxalism.

In this background, the different types of regionalism are categorised as follows:

  • Parochialism: When people of a region consider regional interest superior and shun nationalist outlook. For ex- Violence by ULFA (Assam) against Bihari.

  • Regionalism: Reflected when people of a region raise voice for their autonomy, rights, fair share in development process and demand separate statehood or autonomy within state. For ex- Bodoland demand.

  • Secessionism: When a region tries to end its association from the nation to see itself as separate entity on the world map. For ex- Z. Phizo demand for Nagaland.

  • Inter-state rivalry: State and its people see other states as its competitors resulting into conflict over sharing of common resources, land boundary issues For ex- Cauvery water dispute between Tamil Nadu-Kerala.

Way forward:

  • The role of National Integration Council must be revamped to resolve conflicting regional aspirations.

  • Reviving national games such as Hockey, which can become symbol of unity.

  • Cultural sensitisation must be taken up in colleges to avoid hatred based on regions. For ex- setting up food stalls from other states.

  • The focus must also be on development of underdeveloped, backward and naxal hit regions.

Such steps will help achieving the aim of Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat.

Subjects : Social Issues

Nov. 11, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 11, 2019

Q. Hate speech in India is a result of various facilitating factors. In this light discuss the impact of hate speech and suggestion to effectively deal with the same.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction (Meaning)

  • Factors supporting hate speeches

  • Impact of hate speech

  • Way for ward/ suggestion

Model Answer

Hate speech is incitement of hatred primarily against a group of people defined in terms of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation etc. The issue of hate speech has become a recurrent phenomenon especially before the elections.

There are various factors facilitating hate speeches that are as follows:

  • Social media platforms are susceptible to misuse due to their reach and anonymity. Thus, it is very difficult to trace who is posting such content.

  • Media’s deliberate and unintentional negative portrayals of speeches impact people’s view.

  • There is lack of legal clarity as to what constitute hate speech and what does not. This has led to the culprit not being prosecuted.

  • Moreover, there is also legal loopholes as hate speech has been indirectly under 6-7 provisions of Indian Penal Code.

Impact of such a hate speech has been seen in following terms:

  • Propagation of hate speech by the terror outfit leads to radicalisation of youth and poses a threat to internal security of a nation.

  • Hate speech leads to hate crimes as seen during exodus of North Eastern students from Bangalore (2013).

  • The hate speech has also led to rise of refugee crisis not only within Indian but also around the world. For ex.- Rohingya crisis in Myanmar.

  • Hate speech causes fear and lead people to withdraw from public debate and thus impact freedom of speech and expression.

Thus, to effectively deal with issue of hate speech, there is a need to adopt multiprong approach:

  • As recommended by Law Commission of India and TK Vishwanath Committee there is a need for insertion of new Section in IPC in from of Section 153C to effectively deal with hate speech.

  • There is also a need for training among police officers and legal bodies for encouraging reporting of such content.

  • There is a need for awareness generation and contra-narrative on social media network.

There is also a need for involvement of religious heads to build empathy across religious lines.

Subjects : Polity

Nov. 8, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 8, 2019

Q. India’s quest to land its first spacecraft on the moon got off to a smooth start with the successful launch of Chandrayaan-2 mission aboard the country’s most powerful rocket - GSLV Mk-III. In light of this statement, discuss the significance of this mission.

 

Model Answer

Chandrayaan-2 is India’s most challenging, totally indigenous, and India’s second mission to Moon. It is advanced version of previous Chandrayaan-1 mission (launched in 2008) which only involved orbiting around moon, Chandrayaan-2 is much complicated mission as it involves an orbiter, lander and rover. After reaching the 100 km lunar orbit, the Lander housing the Rover was to separate from the Orbiter. After a controlled descent, the Lander was supposed to soft land on the lunar surface at a specified site and deploy a Rover.

Significance of the Mission

  • Technical: The mission will help India and the world gain a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon by conducting detailed topographical studies, comprehensive mineralogical analyses, and a host of other experiments on the lunar surface.

  • Understanding of the Solar System: Unlike the earth, the moon does not have a tilt around its axis. It is almost erect, because of which some areas in the polar region never receive sunlight. Anything here remains frozen, almost for eternity. Scientists believe that rocks found in these craters could have fossil records that can reveal information about the early solar system.

  • Quest for Water: Two instruments on board Chandrayaan-1 provided irrefutable evidence of water on the Moon, something that had been elusive for more than four decades. Chandrayaan-2 will take the search further, trying to assess the abundance and distribution of water on the surface.

  • Colonisation: It is very difficult for humans to survive on Moon’s surface due to hazardous radiation, micro-meteoritic impacts, extreme temperature and dust storms. It will try to find possibilities of sustaining human life on Earth’s natural satellite with an aim to colonising it.

  • Geopolitical
    • Indigenous development: The mighty launch vehicle GSLV Mk -III has been completely designed and made within the country, making it a fully home-grown technology, hence Chandrayaan 2 is a fully indigenous mission.

    • Frugal Engineering: Chandrayaan 2 also stands out for its frugal cost of engineering as its total cost is way lower than several other lunar missions. ISRO has carved a niche for itself across the globe, in the sphere of astronomy and space research for running cost-effective as well as less expensive projects.



  • Led by India’s ‘Rocket Women’: Apart from having many first-time milestones, the Chandrayaan 2 project is being spearheaded by two senior women scientists of ISRO. The mission will inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers including women who will not only endeavour to break the doors of patriarchy but rise high above in the space. 

Conclusion

The soft-landing on the lunar surface of the moon was the most complex part of Chandrayaan 2 mission. Only US, Russia and China have been able to soft land spacecraft on lunar surface. Unfortunately, in the last leg of soft landing, India lost its communication with Vikram Lander. But yet the milestone was a 95% success, as told by the ISRO chief.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Nov. 6, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 6, 2019

Q. What are the different types of ecological succession? In this light also discuss the significance of ecological succession?

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction

  • Types of ecological succession

  • Significance of ecological succession

  • Way forward

Model Answer

Ecological succession is the steady and gradual change in a species of a given area with respect to the changing environment. The ultimate aim of this process is to reach equilibrium in the ecosystem. The community that achieves this aim is called a climax community. Further, in an area, the sequence of communities that undergo changes is called sere.

In this background there are following types of Ecological Succession:

  • Primary Succession: It is the succession that starts in lifeless areas such as the regions devoid of soil.

  • Secondary succession: It occurs when the primary ecosystem gets destroyed. For Ex- a climax community gets destroyed by fire. It gets recolonized after the destruction (secondary ecological succession).

  • Cyclic Succession: This is only the change in the structure of an ecosystem on a cyclic basis.

  • Autotrophic Succession: It is characterised by early and continued dominance of autotrophic organisms like green plants.

  • Allogenic Succession: In this the replacement of the existing community is caused largely by external condition and not by the existing organisms.

  • Autogenic Succession: In this the community itself, as a result of its reactions with the environment, modifies its own environment and thus causing its own replacement by new communities.

Ecological succession is a very important form of grown and development of an ecosystem as a whole. Some of the points signifying the same are as follows:

  • The sole purpose of ecological succession is for an ecosystem to reach a state of balance.

  • It is the process by which communities of an ecosystem changes in a defined and its directional way over time.

  • Through this process, a relatively unliveable land is slowly converted into a thriving and vibrant ecosystem.

  • It allows new areas to be colonized and damaged ecosystems to be recolonized, so organisms can adapt to the changes in the environment and continue to survive.

Thus, the ecological succession is important for the survival of the existing species as well as emergence of new species.

Subjects : Environment

Nov. 4, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 4, 2019

Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?

Model Answer

The American Revolution of 1776 had transformed not only the America but also the Europe and other parts of the world. Its direct and indirect influences were felt worldwide in the time to come.

The impact of the American Revolution was as follows:

Ideological impact:

  1. The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity were popularized all over the world as a result of the American Revolution. These ideas of Enlightenment were absorbed by the common masses everywhere.

  2. The American Revolution provided for the first modern democracy in the world. As a result, democratic ideas gained popularity everywhere and democratic transformation was witnessed in the time to come.

  3. The concept of natural rights of men were also popularized by the American Revolution. The Bills of Rights of 1789 guaranteed a number of Fundamental Rights to American citizens. Through this bill, the idea of natural rights of men put forward by John Locke was given Constitutional guarantee. This act inspired similar guarantees in other parts of the world. The declaration of rights adopted by France in August 1791 was a reflection of the same.

  4. American Revolution paved the way for the first modern written Constitution in the world. The American Constitution was adopted and enacted by the American Congress in September 1787.

Inspired other Revolutions:

  1. The American Revolution played an important role in the outbreak of the revolution in France. Many French soldiers had fought in the support of the liberty and equality of the Americans during the American War of Independence. After the war, on returning to France, they found it difficult to tolerate the denial of those very rights to them in their own mother country.

  2. The flame of Revolution reached Ireland in 1798. A number of nationalist revolutions (led by Simon Bolivar etc) were witnessed in Latin America during the first half of 19th century. Spanish Revolution and the European Revolutions of the 19th century were the continuation of the tradition of revolution triggered by the American Revolution. That is why American Revolution of 1776 is known as the mother of all revolutions.

Effect on India:

  1. The bitter experiences of the American War of Independence made Britain smarter in India. A number of regulations were enacted by Britain particularly after 1783 to strengthen the foundation of its Indian empire.

  2. Having burnt his finger in America, Cornwallis did not take any risk in India. He followed a pro-active approach to wipe out the challenges standing in front of the British East India Company. The Third Anglo-Mysore war fought during 1790-92 was a reflection of the same.

As a result of the success of the American Revolution, America emerged as the most progressive of liberal nations. The liberal and progressive ideas gave an exalted status to the Americans. This process of American ascendancy reached its peak in 1991 when the United States of America remained the only superpower.

Subjects : World History

Nov. 1, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 1, 2019

Q. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a like double edged sword. In this light discuss the positive and negative impact of FDI in India. Also suggest suitable measures to improve FDI in India.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction (using data)

  • Positive impact of FDI

  • Negative impact of FDI

  • Measures to increase FDI in India

Model Answer

FDI is an investment made by a firm or an individual into business interest located in other countries. Unlike, portfolio investment the investor in FDI acquire foreign business asset, ownership or controlling interest in foreign company.

FDI equity inflow in India in 2018-19 stood at $44 billion. Further, according to UNCTAD’s World investment report, India is 10th largest recipient of FDI in world.

  • FDI has multiple benefits such as generate technology spill overs, helps human capital formation, contributes to international trade integration, create a more competitive business environment and enhances enterprise development.

  • FDI contribute to higher economic growth, which is the strongest tool to alleviate poverty in developing countries.

  • Moreover, foreign direct investment may help improve environmental and social conditions in the host country.

  • FDI brings in foreign technical expertise that is an important factor in improving the existing technical processes and advances in technology.

  • FDI has both backward and forward linkages as create demand for local goods and create jobs and increase employment in the target country.

However, some economists have also criticized FDI on various grounds due to its negative impact, such as:

  • FDI occasionally hamper domestic investment, as it focuses resources elsewhere.

  • FDI impacts exchange rates to the advantage of one country and the disadvantage of the other nation.

  • FDI creates culture of dependency on the foreign capital and may impact sovereignty of the nation.

  • The FDI has sometimes led to large outflow of capital in form of repatriation, dividend payment and royalties

Overall FDI has a positive impact on the economy therefore there is a need to adopt following steps:

  • Adopting favorable policy regime and robust business environment.

  • There is also a need for improving regulatory regime and promoting further FDI relaxation.

The best practice in form of establishing Investment Facilitation Cell like- Japan cell and Korea cell need to be further strengthened.

Subjects : Economy
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