Dec. 30, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 30, 2022

Geospatial technology has applications in almost every domain of the economy. Comment. Also highlight how the National Geospatial Policy, 2022 will ensure an Atmanirbhar economy. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction- Describe geospatial technology.

Body- Explain its multidimensional applications. Establish how recent policy supports domestic companies for self reliance (Atma Nirbhar)

Conclusion- Connect with future vision and global scenario.


The location and its coordinates define planet earth. The Geospatial information describes the physical location of geographic features and their relationship to other features and associated statistical information. Geospatial technologies is a term used to describe the range of modern tools enabling us to acquire data for contributing to geographic mapping and geospatial information.


Multidimensional applications of geospatial technology:

Logistics and Transportation. Tracking goods and ensuring their quality improves logistics efficiency. Identifying location and time of arrival, route making, and navigation contributing to better coordination for supply of goods.

Metrology. Referring weather forecasts to particular territories such as in monsoon forecasting which is crucial for the economy.

Forestry. Detecting forest fires and deforestation such as satellite monitoring of forest fires and deforestation in Amazon rainforests of Brazil.

Agriculture. Assessing the state of vegetation on a selected terrain, can be used to understand overall net sown area, extent of desertification etc.

Healthcare. Monitoring areas of epidemic outbreaks in context of rising man animal conflict and scope of pandemics such as Covid.

Ecology. Tracing species populations in certain areas, example of elephants in different regions of India, preventing and addressing intensifying calamities due to climate change.

Financial sector. Marketing and advertising ads in regions through knowing their priorities by geospatial information, in the insurance sector by managing risks in areas by historical georeferenced data analysis.


National Geospatial Policy 2022 recognising the importance of local data will help create an enabling ecosystem providing a conducive environment for companies to make India self-reliant in producing and using their own Geospatial data /information as also compete with foreign companies in the global space. 

It will help contribute to Atmanirbhar economy by 2022:

 In National development:-

Development of 14 National Fundamental Sectoral Geospatial Data Themes, to address sectors that support development of commercial geospatial applications in sectors including disaster management, mining, forestry etc.

 High resolution topographical survey and mapping, as well as a high accuracy Digital Elevation Model for the entire country to be developed .Example -Mapping of accurate data such as bathymetric data can help support India’s ‘Blue Economy’.


In Economic prosperity-

Enable data availability and access- Provides 13 year outline by 2025 to “support liberalisation of the geospatial sector, and democratisation of data for enhanced commercialization with Value Added Services.” Thus also enabling access to location data for companies by 2025.

Promoting use of National Digital Twin ( a virtual replica of a physical asset, process or service ), will promote an ecosystem to promote connected digital twins among businesses “with secure and interoperable data sharing.”

In Promoting Information economy:-

Formation of Integrated Data and Information Framework, under which a Geospatial Knowledge Infrastructure (GKI) will be developed by 2030.

Creation of apex body, Geospatial Data Promotion and Development Committee (GDPDC) to offer details regarding geospatial data use in governance across specific ministries, and enable development of private startups and companies to work on projects. 


India also has a well developed satellite ecosystem to be utilised in such technology. With multi-stakeholder holistic development, India can ensure Atma Nirbharta and become capable of framing global rules rather than accepting dictates from other advanced segments.






Subjects : Current Affairs

Dec. 29, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 29, 2022

A report by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH) highlighted that the largest number of human lives are claimed due to road accidents in India. In this regard, briefly explain the reasons for the high number of road accidents and fatalities in India. Also, enumerate the steps taken to tackle this issue. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction: Mention the context of the recent report.

Body: Mention reasons, and describe government steps.

Conclusion: Suggest further measures to fulfil the right to life.

Recently a report from the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways found that 83% of car occupants who died in accidents in 2021 weren’t wearing seatbelts. This highlights the lack of education among people for the prevention of accidents such as the Cyrus Mistry case in which not wearing seatbelts (which are mandatory as per law) led to curtain airbags not opening at rear seats.

Reasons for Road Accidents:

  • Poor enforcement of regulations related to licensing of vehicles, traffic rules etc. Corruption in regional transport offices leads to licences by bribery thus poor driving skills. Most victims are two-wheeler passengers and pedestrians who lack adequate safety on roads as per a 2021 MORTH report.
  • Careless human behaviour such as overspeeding, drunk driving etc.
  • Faulty road engineering designs creating accident hotspots alongside a lack of a dedicated database leads to ignoring this issue. Lack of proper markings on dividers causing vehicles to crash during foggy nighttime.
  • Second largest road network in India with high population and population density plus rising incomes and demand for vehicles leading to more probability of accidents on roads.

Reasons for high fatalities out of accidents:

  • Lack of adequate safety provisions such as lack of rear airbags in all the passenger vehicles, which are limited to luxury cars only. Recently the government declared regulations to implement 6 airbag rules mandatory for all 8-seater passenger vehicles.
  • Punishment of good samaritans post-accident by police such as burdensome paperwork, and doubts about samaritans themselves. This leads to people not helping accident victims with the wastage of the golden hour.
  • Lack of proper emergency care such as timely ambulances, and medical care to victims in the golden hour.


Recent government steps in this regard-

  • National road safety policy 2013 provides for aspects like a dedicated database, measures for awareness, encouraging safe road infrastructure including the application of intelligent transportation, enforcement of safety laws etc.
  • Formation of National, State and district road safety councils.
  • Multi-pronged 4E strategy ( Education, Engineering, Enforcement and Emergency care ) by MORTH.
    1. For better emergency care, parking of quick response ambulances on national highways with a pilot project for cashless treatment of victims has been tried.
  • Improved vehicular safety standards such as an Anti-locking brake system to be mandatory on heavy vehicles.
  • Good Samaritan guidelines by the judiciary in 2016 (Save life foundation vs UoI 2016) and consequent government notification in 2020 to treat Samaritans with dignity by police.
  • The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act, 2019 inserted a new section 134A, viz., "Protection of Good Samaritans" which provides for the definition of a Good Samaritan and safeguards for them.
  • Provisions for the safety of people such as mandatory third-party insurance norms increased penalties for deterrence on those violating norms, and increased use of technology as per the amendment of the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act, 2019.
  • Increased awareness measures through social, electronic, print media etc. Example- Delhi government’s launch of a 6-month road safety campaign on social media - Sadak Surakshit Dilli Surakshit in 2021.


Effective implementation of aspects of road safety policy alongside ensuring multistakeholder cooperation such as of non-government organisations, automotive firms etc. can ensure fulfilment of the right to life of everyone in India.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Dec. 28, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 28, 2022

Green hydrogen is being termed the fuel of the future. Critically analyse. Also, list the steps taken by India with regard to the promotion of green hydrogen. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction: Describe what is green hydrogen and how it is different from grey hydrogen.

Body: Show how it is a fuel of the future and what are the limitations in making it the fuel of the future. Mention government steps. 

Conclusion: Mention significance and a future vision.


Green hydrogen is hydrogen obtained from using green ( renewable ) energy sources to electrolyse water, unlike grey hydrogen which is obtained by using fossil fuel(natural gas) as an energy source. 

The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation ( UNIDO ) launched a global Programme to foster the application of green hydrogen in the industry in July 2021.

Green hydrogen is the fuel of the future:

1)    Need to switch towards renewable energy sources and limit fossil fuel use as held recently in the Sharm El Sheikh Declaration of CoP27 declaring intent to phase down the use of coal.

2)    Dependency on oil will reduce thus helping move towards energy security for many nations like India

3)    Help in the decarbonisation of major hard-to-abate sectors such as the transport sector, green steel production etc. Can prove to be a better alternative in transport by its use in fuel cells regarding fuel efficiency and storage space compared to electric vehicles reducing dependence on rare minerals.

4)    Green hydrogen can be stored for long periods unlike intermittent renewables( example solar energy output declines when weather is cloudy) ensuring grid stability. Intermittent renewables can be efficiently used to produce green hydrogen thus giving an advantage to the global south with abundant sunshine.

5)    Help fulfil net zero commitments of countries such as India’s commitment to obtaining net zero emissions by 2070. Major stakeholders are supporting green hydrogen such as efforts by Reliance, the Indian government’s efforts etc. 

Challenges that are limiting green hydrogen to become the fuel of the future:

1)    Huge costs in obtaining energy and building infrastructure such as fuelling stations for fuel cell cars require investments to manage hydrogen. The cost of producing green hydrogen is currently high-priced, between USD 6–12/kg, and may remain so if there is no funding and no course of action from the government.

2)    Huge requirements for land for solar energy to obtain green hydrogen. To make 5 million tonnes of hydrogen as per the Indian government’s target, a large amount of land, large infrastructure and money would be required.

3)    Technological limitations as of now such as storage and safety concerns as hydrogen needs to be pressurised and stored in cryogenic tanks. Low production of electrolysers in countries for example in India leads to imports and increased costs of production.

4)    Lack of research and development (R&D) has led to investors deliberating on the viability of investing in the sector. For example, lack of clarity on the industrial categorisation of green hydrogen under the Central Pollution Control Board’s directions.

Major provisions of green hydrogen policy:

1)    Incentive for setting up of manufacturing plants such as allotment of land in renewable energy parks, and setting up of manufacturing zones.

2)    Waiver of interstate transmission charges for 25 years to producers.

3)    Co-location with other renewable energy producers allowed in production.

4)    Banking of renewable energy generated is permitted to producers for making green hydrogen.

5)    Renewable energy consumed for green hydrogen production is to be counted towards renewable purchase obligations.

In the context of alarming challenges to climate, there is a need to utilise multiple energy sources with a multistakeholder approach to produce green hydrogen in a scalable manner and move towards the fulfilment of Paris climate goals to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Dec. 27, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 27, 2022

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) has been a crucial step towards employment generation and thus rural poverty alleviation. In this context state the achievements and limitations of the MGNREGA Scheme in India. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction: Tell what MGNREGA is and state its significance.

Body: State some achievements and then limitations.

Conclusion: Mention recent government initiatives and suggest further measures.


Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005 provided a framework for the world’s biggest employment guarantee scheme with recognition of a legalised right to work for 100 days, based on the demand of any rural adult failing which an unemployment allowance is to be provided. This ensures employment to the rural youth and thus helps in poverty eradication through adequate economic activity in rural India.

To further ensure its effective implementation, the Central government has recently decided to make digital technology universal for capturing workers’ attendance.

Achievements of MGNREGA and MGNREGS:

  • Helps people in distress times such as during a pandemic to tackle work demands due to huge migration.
  • Legalised the right to work as part of the right to life changing the paradigm around employment.
  • Helped reduce poverty among the poor as well as socially weaker actions. According to the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) and the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) 2021 report, MGNREGS reduced poverty by up to 32 per cent from 2004-05 to 2011-12.
  • Decentralised planning by Panchayati Raj Institutions to help plan at a local level as per people’s priorities along with the provision of social audits empowering people.
  • Main driver for water conservation at a local level as 143 lakh hectares of land benefitted through these interventions between 2014 to 2018 as per the NREGA portal.


Limitations in MGNREGA and its implementation:

  • Low wage rates result in a lack of interest among workers. In 2018, wages in 17 states were less than their corresponding minimum wages.
  • Insufficient budget allocation-As per PAEG( People’s Action for Employment Guarantee), budget allocation for MGNREGA in 2022 was 34% less than the revised budget for 2020-21.
  • Regular payment delays such as in the processing of Fund Transfer Orders, which are not considered delays in Management Information Systems ( MIS). Caste-based payments in 2021 due to a central government circular further created a furore. Such delays affect people’s trust.
  • Technology and accountability-Allegations of faulty MIS data, fake job cards and fictitious names, thus accountability not being ensured with a centralised use of technology.
  • Centre-state collaboration issues-Workers get penalised due to administrative lapses such as centre withholding payments when states do not meet requirements like timely filing of utilisation certificates etc.
  • Allegedly, the creation of non-productive assets temporary assets with little focus on meaningful infrastructure creation.

 These limitations create roadblocks in uplifting rural areas from poverty by ensuring employment. Thus, recent steps taken by the government to tackle these limitations are:

  • Formation of a 9-member panel by the centre to study governance issues, and performance of states alongside examining factors affecting demand for wage employment in MGNREGA.
  • Geotagging of assets created in real-time to check over corruption.


Further steps need to be taken such as better coordination among the centre and state and further streamlining MIS to deal with delays. Moreover, local people should be empowered to regularly conduct social audits. Convergence with the green India initiative, skill development initiatives can be deliberated upon to further improve workforce quality as well as integrate social justice and sustainable development.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Dec. 26, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 26, 2022

India and Nepal despite having a multifaceted partnership along with unique ties of friendship are witnessing numerous challenges in their relationship. Comment. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction: Describe in brief about mutual unique ties.

Body: Mentioning multiple facets of the India-Nepal relationship, describe challenges. Briefly mention the steps of the Indian government recently to tackle challenges and strengthen ties.

Conclusion: Further measures to boost ties.


India enjoys a unique Roti Beti ka Rishta with Nepal supported by an open border whose foundation was laid with the Treaty of Peace and Friendship 1950 which accorded national treatment to each other’s citizens in economic matters.

Multifaceted aspects of ties:

1) Political Ties-Strong ties with earlier monarchy (Rana rulers). India mediated a “12-point understanding” in 2005 between Maoists and other political leaders who joined to overthrow the monarchy and usher in a democracy there.

2) Defence ties- Traditional ties through Gurkha soldiers serving our Army.  Indian support in the modernisation of the Nepalese Army with training.  Joint exercise called Surya Kiran is also held.

3) Economic relations- India is the largest trading partner as it provides land transit to landlocked Nepalese territory.

  • Largest investment accounting for 30 per cent of total foreign investments in Nepal and multiple Indian ventures in sectors like financial services, power, tourism etc.
  • New partnership in agriculture in 2018 to focus on research, education and development for the majority of populations.

4) Educational Scholarships to students, Nepalese students prefer to study in India.

5) River water cooperation in the Ganges basin such as the Kosi water treaty, 1954 to manage

flooding by constructing a barrage.

  • Bilateral mechanism,2008 to discuss issues of water cooperation, hydropower along with Power Trade Agreement for electricity trade, 2014.

6) Cultural- multiple efforts like MoUs between Doordarshan-Nepal TV, the twinning of sister cities like Kathmandu and Varanasi etc.

Challenges in bilateral ties:

1) Rising Chinese influence:

  • Closeness of Communist parties with K P Sharma Oli having an anti-India (Nationalist) stance for electoral benefits sweeping 2018 polls.
  • Deeper infrastructure and economic partnerships such as mutual rail agreement, military exercise pact called Sagarmatha friendship etc.

2) Small Nation syndrome of Nepal with insecurities due to their traditional dependence on India. Concerns of Nepal with India-

  • Interference in domestic matters and pressure tactics such as the alleged blockade of 2015 in protest of the constitution limiting seats for the Madhesi people.
  • Indian investors and businessmen in Nepal limit opportunities for the domestic population.

3) Economic concerns- Trade imbalance with India enjoying surplus, incomplete hydropower projects from the Indian side like the Pancheshwar project.

4) Kalapani territorial dispute- Unilateral action of Constitutional amendment 2020 depicted Kalapani Limpyadhura Lipulekh triangle in their territory disrespecting historical evidence.

To tackle such concerns India recently has extended assistance to focus on the infrastructure creation-cross border rail links like the Jayanagar Bardibas link, the establishment of Integrated Check Posts such as Bhairahawa Nepalganj, energy cooperation through Motihari Amlekhganj Pipeline, focus on mutual religious tourism are some examples.

The Indian PM has emphasised on 5Ts such as the “Tradition, Trade, Tourism, Technology and Transport “formula for Nepal. India needs to further invest in key growth areas of Nepal and timely completion of pending hydropower projects. Proud Nepali people need to be treated with respect to placate insecurities and strengthen relationships.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Dec. 24, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 24, 2022

Climate Change and War have sparked renewed interest in nuclear energy.  In this context analyse to what extent is this renewed interest leading to the revival of energy generation through nuclear power. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction: Mention some stats and recent context.

Body:  Mention how power generation is on the path of revival and also concerns still existing to limit nuclear power adoption.

Conclusion: Provide solutions around war forward in the energy sector.



Nuclear power plants produce more than one-quarter of all low-carbon electricity while avoiding 70 Gigatonnes of CO2 emissions in the last five years. Thus nuclear power is preferred over fossil fuels.

Recently, nuclear power is showing signs of revival as Europe, facing threats to the supply of Russian gas and crude oil, is realising its importance. Even Germany, earlier on the phase-out of nuclear energy, is extending the lifespan of its last three plants.

Even Japan recovering from the Fukushima Disaster is reversing its stance by extending the lifespan of its reactors.


Power generation through nuclear energy is on the path of revival:

  • Declining interest in coal - Developed countries call for the coal phase-out in climate conferences with no carbon emissions from nuclear plants leading to their promotion.
  • Issues in fossil fuel supply: Ukraine war led to disruption of the supply of natural gas and high crude oil prices thus moving Europe towards nuclear energy.

Example: France boosting nuclear share from 15 to 30 per cent. China and India are also building new reactors.

  • Investments in small modular reactors are rising to decrease initial huge costs as well as accident risks. Example- floating Akademik Lomonosov in Russian Far East.
  • Stable base power to the economy unlike high variability of renewables. Need to balance nuclear and renewables. Example- UAE utilising large solar panels as well as energy from Barakah nuclear plant.
  • Subsidisation of plants at risk of closing down. Example- USA making 6 billion dollars available towards plants failing financially.


However, there are still concerns about energy generation through the Nuclear route:

  • Accidents can turn too risky. Example- Fukushima, risks of radiation affecting generations.
  • Environmental risks of disposing of radioactive nuclear waste.
  • Large cost overruns in new projects in Europe and the USA as construction of large plants require decades with no utility to limit emissions by 2030.
  • Alternatives: Cleaner and safer renewables like solar can be backed by batteries to be a better alternative, Example- international efforts like International Solar Alliance, India’s focus on One Sun One World One Grid.
  • Focus on newer fuels which are cleaner as well as more efficient like green hydrogen, biofuels etc.


To tackle the risk of accidents and dispose of waste more safely, countries should collaborate to come up with common safer standards and ensure implementation for the safe use of nuclear energy.


There should be a multi-stakeholder approach to tackle global warming by promoting multiple alternatives such as solar, wind, hydel, green hydrogen etc. Together these can help the world move towards net zero emission targets.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Dec. 23, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 23, 2022

The recent developments in the NSE (National Stock Exchange) bring forth the state of corporate governance in India. In light of this statement discuss the issues related to the working culture in Corporates in India. Also, suggest some steps to strengthen corporate governance in India. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction: Mention the recent context of NSE.

Body: Discuss some issues related to working culture and then suggest some steps.

Conclusion: Discuss the significance of ensuring better corporate governance.


The National Stock Exchange (NSE) scam of 2022(arrest of Former CEO of NSE) revealed the managerial misconduct on their board. It put a red pen on the corporate governance of stock exchanges.


  • Performance-driven culture in corporate leads to ignoring considerations of equity or fairness. In the last decade, the stock market developed a lot so other aspects related to favouritism were considered forgivable infirmity.
  • Nepotism and loyalty-based culture with less focus on integrity. Selection of board members is by top management (In India mostly by promoters). Difficult to raise red flags against those who selected a member.
  • Culture of complicity as Incentive among board members to nod heads and ignore wrongdoings in face of lucrative perks. Members raising issues are side-lined as problematic members.


  • Allow top management to choose not more than 50 percent of independent directors. Rest should be chosen from other stakeholders, such directors should be accountable to these stakeholders, not management.
  • Provisions for the penalisation of errant directors through instruments like financial penalties, removal provisions etc.
  • Accountability of regulators themselves through periodic audits and evaluation.
  • Ensure more public scrutiny of internal governance of such regulators as NSE.
  • Interaction of industry stakeholders and creating awareness that focus on fairness and equity is crucial to ensure good performance in the long run.

With better corporate governance norms, we can ensure less volatility in markets and better financial stability to help ensure a good image of the Indian corporate sector, and more investments and thus move towards a five trillion-dollar economy.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Dec. 22, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 22, 2022

Explaining the concept, state the significance of and challenges to the carbon markets. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction-Explain the concept of carbon markets.

Body: State their significance and mention challenges.

Conclusion: Steps taken by the Government of India.


To keep global warming within 2 degrees Celsius, multiple steps are being promoted to limit carbon emissions like NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions). To meet NDCs, Carbon Markets are used as a tool for putting a price on carbon emissions by establishing a trading system where carbon credits (a tradable permit, equal to one tonne of CO2 removed, reduced or sequestered from the atmosphere) can be bought and sold.


They broadly are of two types:

  1. a) Compliance Markets: officially regulated - set up by policies at the national, regional and International Levels. For example, the EU's emissions trading system (ETS) – operates under a principle of cap-and-trade.
  2. b) Voluntary Markets: corporations and private individuals buy and sell carbon credits. For instance, airlines may purchase carbon credits from an entity in projects that reduce, remove, capture, or avoid emissions to offset their carbon footprints.


  • Limit industrial emissions and reduce carbon intensity in the economy.
  • Will promote energy efficiency to sell credits by trading.
  • Will help encourage a shift to cleaner fuels like achieving 500 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2030.
  • Less fiscal burden on the government to implement reduction Goals.
  • Will lead to better environmental accounting while calculating economic growth.
  • Move towards the achievement of net zero emissions by 2070.


  • The problem of double counting of reductions.
  • Lack of transparency in markets as alleged under the Clean Development Mechanism of Kyoto leads to trust issues.
  • Questions on the quality and authenticity of climate projects that generate carbon credits lead to concerns of greenwashing (false labelling just for marketing purposes).


Government of India has come up with a stabilisation fund to decrease volatility in prices and bolster the carbon trading market. Aligning the market with our Nationally Determined Contributions along with ensuring transparency in institutional and financial infrastructure for transactions can help us move towards Net zero targets to stand as an example( Vishwaguru) for the world to follow

Subjects : Environment

Dec. 21, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 21, 2022

Mentioning the constitutional provisions related to cooperatives, explain the basic provisions of the recent multi-state cooperative societies bill 2022. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction- Mention articles of the constitution.

Body- state basic provisions and a few issues.

Conclusion- Suggest measures further to promote cooperatives.


Cooperative societies resonate with the idea of development through Sarvodaya given by Gandhiji by upliftment of everyone together. The 97th Constitutional Amendment Act added the term ‘cooperatives ‘ in Article 19 (1)(C) under part III enabling everyone the right to form cooperatives along with article 43(B) for the promotion of such societies.


Provisions of the Multi-State Co-operative Societies (Amendment) Bill:

  • Formation of Cooperative election Authority to conduct, supervise and perform such functions.
  • Formation of a Co-operative Ombudsman by the Union to redress complaints.
  • Allows even state co-operative societies to merge into existing multi-state cooperative societies provided resolution is passed by majority voting at the general assembly of the cooperative.
  • Formation of Co-operative Rehabilitation, Reconstruction and Development Fund to revive sick multi-cooperative societies.
  • Power to centre to direct and supersede boards of societies where the government has any shareholding or has provided financial assistance.
  • Penalties have been increased in cases like false returns, furnishing false information etc.


Issues with this amendment:

  • Provision of merging state cooperatives with multi-state cooperative societies (coming under the purview of the Centre) will affect the federal structure, as state cooperatives come under the state list.
  • Earlier the Centre could supersede a board in case of more than 50 per cent shareholding, now can supersede in case of any shareholding or giving any financial aid thus affecting the autonomy of cooperatives.


Comprehensive public consultation along with cooperation between the Centre and the State needs to be ensured. There should be the utilisation of new technology, and professional expertise along with a people-centric mindset to ensure multiple success stories like that of Amul in India. All this will move towards the realisation of the vision of Gandhiji.

Subjects : Polity

Dec. 20, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 20, 2022

Organ donation numbers in 2021 were close to the highest in the last five years. But deceased donations, the key to addressing needs, are still not common. In light of this statement discuss the steps to be taken to improve the rate of deceased donations in India. (10 Marks)

Model Answer


Introduction- Mention the general scenario in India and the reasons for fewer deceased donations.

Body- Explain steps to be taken to improve the scenario.

Conclusion- Provide overarching measures connecting the right to life.


India conducts the third-highest number of transplants in the world. Yet, of the estimated 1.5-2 lakh persons who need a kidney transplant every year, only around 8,000 get one. This is due to fewer deceased donations because of low awareness, long-held traditional beliefs, coordination issues as a short window available for donations post cardiac deaths, geographical variations in networks etc.

Steps to be taken to improve deceased donations:

  • Setting up a committee to deliberate on having an opt-out system where a person is presumed to be a donor unless specified like Spain with the highest organ donation rates.
  • Strengthening institutions such as The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization.
  • Supporting awareness drives and efforts like ORGAN India by the Parashar foundation since 2013.
  • Ensuring qualified transplant coordinators in all hospitals who help to explain and guide families through the process.
  • Tackling practical problems in case of cardiac deaths, more coordination among family members and hospitals is needed.
  • Dividing states into zones and having more transplant centres etc. can ensure an increase as is the case in Maharashtra.
  • Good transport networks between cities and states can help as the Government is also working to improve coordination among Road, Railway and Aviation Ministries to facilitate the creation of green corridors.


Challenges in present organ transplantation sectors:

  • Prevalence of Human Trafficking for Organ Removal (HTOR) in various transplant centres in India. According to global financial integrity, 10% of all organ transplants including lungs, heart and the liver are facilitated with trafficked organs.
  • Coercion of poor people living below poverty by means of food/cash in India.

There is a need to ensure trust among people that their organs are actually helping others to ensure the realisation of the right to life for everyone.

Subjects : Current Affairs
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