Oct. 31, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 31, 2023

Q2. Internal security in India requires effective coordination and collaboration between various security forces, including the police, paramilitary forces, and intelligence agencies. Analyze the challenges in coordination among these forces, and suggest some policy measures to enhance their effectiveness.(10M, 150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer:  

The question has two main headings: 1) Challenges in coordination among various security forces 2) Suitable policy measures to enhance their effectiveness

Introduction: Mention how India’s security forces work in a dynamic environment and challenges they face in effective coordination during various incidents.


Heading 1: Challenges in coordination among security forces of India

Heading 2: Policy measures to enhance effectiveness

Conclusion: Mention why effective collaboration is necessary to deal with various security threats and mention about some government measures.


Answer: India's security apparatus operates in a dynamic environment marked by evolving threats and emerging geopolitical complexities. Recent incidents, such as terrorist attacks, communal riots, and border conflicts, have underscored the importance of efficient coordination among security forces.


Challenges in Coordination among Security Forces in India:

  • Jurisdictional Issues: Overlapping jurisdictions among security forces often lead to conflicts and turf wars.Structural and Organizational Differences: Different security forces operate under separate organizational structures, leading to siloed operations and limited interagency coordination.
  • Lack of Information Sharing: Inadequate sharing of intelligence and operational information between police, paramilitary forces, and intelligence agencies hampers effective collaboration.
  • Communication and Language Barriers: Communication gaps due to linguistic diversity across different regions in India creates challenges in effective coordination especially among the state police forces.
  • Skill and Training Disparities: Variations in training, skill levels, and operational capabilities of different security forces impact their ability to work together seamlessly.

Policy Measures to Enhance Effectiveness:

  • Clear Jurisdictional Framework: Establish well-defined roles, responsibilities, and coordination mechanisms to address jurisdictional issues and minimize conflicts among security forces.
  • Integrated Command Structures: Establish unified command structures at national and regional levels to facilitate coordinated decision-making and operational planning.
  • Joint Training and Capacity Building: Conduct regular joint training programs and exercises to enhance interoperability, teamwork, and coordination among different security forces.
  • Strengthened Information Sharing Mechanisms: Develop robust systems for real-time intelligence sharing and secure information exchange between agencies.
  • Common Communication Platforms: Adopt standardized communication systems and technologies to overcome language barriers and enable effective communication during joint operations.


The National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID is the integrated intelligence master database structure for counter-terrorism purpose connecting databases of various core security agencies under, Government of India, collecting comprehensive patterns procured from 21 different organizations that can be readily accessed by security agencies round the clock.


With the rising threat from internal as well as external sectors, the collaboration must be increased so that these threats can be addressed pro-actively. Governments steps like NATGRID are the steps in right direction to strengthen the security of the country.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 31, 2023

Q1. Effective management of India’s border with neighbouring countries is the sine qua non for the eradication of terrorism, organized crime, cross-border insurgency, and other internal security issues faced by India. Discuss.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has one main headings: 1) Why effective management of India’s borders is necessary to combat various internal security threats.


Type 1: Mention about India’s land and maritime borders Type 2: Mention about any recent security threat.


Heading 1: Various issues faced along the borders

Heading 2: Importance of effective border management.

Heading 3: Steps for effective border management

Conclusion: Write about Madhukar Gupta Committee recommendations and need for multi-pronged approach for effective border management.


Answer: India’s land borders exceed 15,000 km which is shared with seven countries like China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan, including a small segment with Afghanistan (106 km) in northern Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). It has a coastline that is 7,683 km long, and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that is over two million square km in size.


Various issues faced along the borders


  1. India-China Border: India and China have a long-standing border dispute along the Line of Actual Control (LAC). Chinese military frequently trespass into the Indian territory and this has led to multiple military standoffs and clashes along the border, including the Doklam standoff in 2017 and the Galwan Valley clash in 2020.
  2. Indo-Pakistan Border: Border dispute and difficult terrain has resulted in poor infrastructure. This has made cross border terrorism and illicit activities like arms and drugs trafficking and fake currency racket by state and non-state actors in Pakistan due to the porous border possible. Failure of intelligence has also led to terrorist attacks like Pulwama attack of 2019 in Jammu and Kashmir.
  3. Indo - Bangladesh Border: The major issues faced are illegal migration from Bangladesh due to porous borders. Trans-border crimes like smuggling of cattle and human trafficking takes place along the Indo-Bangladesh border.
  4. Indo - Nepal Border: There is border dispute especially along Kalapani and Susta region because of shifting of Himalayan rivers. The Indo-Nepal border is open and it provides easy access to terrorists and insurgents and leads to smuggling of counterfeit currency, drug trafficking, etc due to open borders.
  5. Indo-Myanmar Border: Rugged terrain makes overall development of the area difficult. Indo- Myanmar border is porous which helps insurgents in finding safe haven in Myanmar. Drug trafficking is also rampant due to the vicinity of golden triangle area.
  6. Indo-Bhutan Border: Movement of insurgents groups like NDFB, ULFA members after carrying out extortions, killings, blasts, into Bhutan due to porous border.
  7. Challenges along Coastal and Island region: Use of sea by terrorists to carry out attacks due to poor maritime security. For Eg: Mumbai blast of 1993, 26/11 attack by Pakistan’s state and non-state actors. Another problem is that of Maritime piracy and use of uninhabited islands by terrorists’ groups for smuggling arms, narcotics, etc.


Importance of Effective border management:

  1. Counterterrorism: Effective border controls prevent the infiltration of terrorists and restrict the movement of arms and explosives.
  2. Limit Organized Crime: Tight border security curtails illegal activities such as drug and human trafficking, smuggling, and illicit trade.
  3. Suppress Cross-border Insurgency: A well-managed border deters insurgents from gaining foothold, resources, or support from external sources.
  4. Preserve Sovereignty: Maintaining clear and secure borders upholds national sovereignty and ensures territorial integrity.
  5. Regulate Migration: Effective management facilitates legal migration while preventing illegal entries, thus ensuring demographic stability.


Steps for effective border management:


  1. Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS): Effective implementation of CIBMS is required along all border areas to improve situational awareness at different levels of hierarchy to facilitate prompt and quick response to emerging situations along the India-Pakistan Border (IPB) and India-Bangladesh Border (IBB).
  2. Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique (BOLD-QIT): It will monitor unfenced riverine areas of Brahmaputra and its tributaries, thus reducing problems of illegal migration and smuggling from Bangladesh.
  3. Increasing surveillance at border: Day and night surveillance cameras and intrusion detection system, giving feed to security forces control room who send Quick Reaction Teams to thwart any illegal activity.  Surveillance through unmanned aerial vehicles along difficult terrain can be an option.
  4. Creating infrastructure along the borders: For the effective management and quick response along the borders, ramping up of projects for the development of border infrastructure such as Border Fence, Border Roads, Border Floodlights, Border Out Posts (BOPs), etc is necessary. For this government is implementing Border Infrastructure and Management (BIM) Scheme which comprises of projects aimed at infrastructure development of India’s international borders,
  5. Role of artificial intelligence in border management: AI-based software processes the data collected by these devices to identify potential threats and alert border patrol agents in real-time. Cameras powered by AI can scan a large number of people and can detect any suspicious activity.


Case Study:  CIBMS nabbed several intruders with large consignments of heroin and fake currency. Some of the C.I.B.M.S. components had shown results on an individual basis like thermal imagery foiled an infiltration attempt by Pakistan’s SSG.


Madhukar Gupta Committee has given its recommendations broadly on the issues of threats and border protection, assessment of force level, deployment on the border, infrastructure and technology issues for protection of border and administrative issues. A strong collaborative initiative is required with Ministry of Home Affairs and the Defence ministry as well as involving other defence ministries from the neighbouring states.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 31, 2023

Q3. What do you mean by the term “Global South”? Exploring its significance for India, explain India's efforts to emerge as the leader of the global South? (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: You can define the term Global South in brief and also you can write the significance in brief.

Body: Heading 1. Explain its significance for India and 

Heading 2: Mention the steps taken in this regard. You can also use the world map diagram for value addition.

Conclusion: You can write a broad way forward for India or you can quote statements of prominent leader in this context.


Answer: The term “Global South” refers to countries that are economically and socially less developed in comparison to the more developed “Global North.” These nations typically experience higher levels of poverty, income inequality, and challenging living conditions compared to the Global North. Examples include India, Brazil, Nigeria, and Indonesia.


Value addition:

Significance of Global South

  • Demographic Strength and Market Potential: It holds over 80% of the world's population with over 90% of the world's youth, presenting a vast consumer market and a significant labor force.
  • Economic Power Shift: World Bank projections suggest that by 2030, three of the world's four largest economies will be in Global South nations, led by China and India.
  • Geopolitical Impact: Increasing Involvement in decision-making processes in organisations like G20, BRICS, SCO, Quad, the Indo-Pacific Economic Forum etc.
  • Resource Abundance: It has 70% of global oil reserves and a substantial proportion of vital minerals and metals potentially shaping global supply chains and energy markets.
    • For example, Lithium Triangle in Latin America constitutes 55% of global Lithium reserves.
  • Climate Change Impacts: The Global South is disproportionately affected by the impacts of climate change, bearing over 80% of the total global burden.


Significance for India


  • Showcasing Global Leadership: India's leadership offers a platform to show its ability to raise the nation's global standing.


      • Advocating for inclusive global governance, India takes a stand as a representative of the interests of Global South. 
      • PM Modi vouching for reforms to make climate governance more inclusive and launching initiatives like CDRI shows it’s commitment to a more balanced  world order.


  • Countering China: It is important to counter China’s geopolitical ambitions of leading Global South to forever maintain its developing economy status and garner support in case of confrontation with the West.
  • Diverse Diplomatic Alliances: Leading the Global South allows India to create alliances to diversify its diplomatic ties. This also helps countries to avoid being caught between Chinese dominance and Western patronage.
  • Safeguarding Multilateral Cooperation: India provides a platform for collective dialogue to be the savior of potential breakdown in multilateral cooperation in institutions like WTO, UN bodies etc.



India's efforts to emerge as the leader of the Global South


  • Health and Disaster diplomacy:


      • Vaccine Maitri Programme: To address the Covid-19 Crisis wherein India supplied vaccines to nearly 150 countries demonstrating solidarity and support.
      • Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR): Steps like Operation Maitri, undertaken to deal with the earthquake in Nepal; Food aid in Afghanistan during Taliban takeover, HADR support during Turkey Earthquake.


  • Development cooperation:


      • Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme (ITEC): providing financial and technological support for collaborative development projects in economically challenged countries.
      • International Taxation Event with South Centre: India collaborated with South Centre to host an event to discuss the implications of tax policies on developing economies.


  • Diplomatic efforts:


      • Voice of Global South Summit: India hosted a summit with representatives from 125 countries, providing a platform to address critical concerns of the developing world.
      • Promoting Historical Solidarity: PM Modi highlighted the historical struggle against colonialism and apartheid during the 15th BRICS Summit, underlining the importance of solidarity among the Global South.


  • Global Forum Engagement:


    • BRICS Expansion for Inclusivity: India supported the expansion of BRICS, welcoming developing countries and enhancing competitiveness in global forums.
    • Inclusive G7 Summit Participation: India ensured that the interests and perspectives of the Global South were prominently featured at the G7 Summit in Hiroshima.
    • African Union as G20 Member: India advocated for the inclusion of the African Union as a full member of the G20, promoting  diversity and inclusivity in global decision-making.


EAM S Jaishankar while discussing current global conflicts said, “polarisation may occur elsewhere, the people who suffer most are the Global South”. As the Global South gains prominence, it is causing a transformative shift in global geopolitics. In order to emerge as a Vishwa Guru, close cooperation with Global South based on cooperation, consultation and mutual trust will be the suitable way forward.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Oct. 30, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 30, 2023

Q3. Every person, irrespective of their sexual orientation or gender identity, has an inherent and non-negotiable right to equality. In light of the statement, discuss the recent SC judgement on same-sex marriages in India.  (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly mention the recent SC Judgement on same sex marriage.


Heading 1: Key takeaways from the verdict 

Heading 2: Arguments in favour of Same sex marriage

Heading 3: Arguments against Same sex marriage

Conclusion: Conclude on a balanced note with suggestions. 


Answer: Recently, the Supreme Court of India  issued a verdict, with a 3:2 majority, rejecting petitions seeking the legalization of same-sex marriage under the Special Marriage Act 1954 . Over the years, Article 21 of the Constitution has seen its scope broaden to encompass privacy, dignity, and the freedom to choose one's partner in marriage. However, the Supreme Court has refrained from taking the additional leap to permit same sex marriages.


Key takeaways from the verdict:

  • Regarding Legislation: The Supreme Court ruled that it cannot alter or expand the Special Marriage Act of 1954 to include same-sex couples; instead, it stated that the responsibility lies with the Parliament and State Legislatures to create appropriate laws.
  • Rights of Transgender: The majority opinion affirmed the right of transgender individuals to marry within the existing legal framework, emphasizing that gender identity is distinct from sexual orientation.
  • Adoption Rights: The SC did not endorse adoption rights for same-sex couples, explaining the necessity to explore all possible avenues for the well-being of children.
  • On Entitlements: The court acknowledged the need for equal rights for queer couples in various areas, such as ration cards, joint bank accounts, pensions, and gratuity.


Arguments in favor of same sex marriage:

  • Promoting Equality: Legalizing same-sex marriage aligns with the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Articles 14 and 15 of the Constitution forbid discrimination based on sex.
    • Further, the Supreme Court, in the Navtej Singh Johar case (2018), interpreted "sex" to include "sexual orientation".
  • Legal Protections: Legalizing same-sex marriage offers legal safeguards for homosexual couples, ensuring their rights in areas like wages, adoption, surrogacy, inheritance, property ownership, and healthcare.
    • Further, legalizing same-sex marriage is a logical step after the decriminalization of Section 377


  • Preserving Right to Privacy: Recognizing same-sex marriage upholds the right to privacy, established by the Supreme Court in the K.S. Puttaswamy case (2017). This right encompasses personal choices, including intimate relationships, and legalizing same-sex marriage safeguards the privacy of homosexual couples.
  • Human Rights Recognition: Same-sex marriage is a human rights issue recognized by the United Nations, which advocates for the protection of LGBT individuals' human rights, including the right to marry.
    • Further, legalizing same-sex marriages fosters social acceptance of LGBT individuals and relationships, helping reduce discrimination and stigma.
  • Global Precedent: Recognizing same-sex marriage aligns with the global trend, as it is legal in 34 countries, and denying this right in a democratic society contradicts international principles.
    • For ex: In 32 countries, same-sex marriage is legal.


Arguments against same sex marriage:

  • Religious and Cultural Conflict: Same-sex marriage contradicts Indian religious and cultural beliefs as marriage laws, and customs are traditionally designed for heterosexual couples.
  • Legal Complexities: Legalizing same-sex marriages may lead to complications in areas like adoption, child custody, inheritance, tax and property rights.
  • Children's Well-Being: The adoption of children by queer couples can result in social stigma, discrimination, and adverse effects on the emotional and psychological well-being of the child.
  • Judicial Intervention: Marriage is a public policy issue that should be determined by Parliament and the executive, necessitating changes in various related laws and regulations if same-sex marriage were to be legalized.
  • Potential for Social Unrest: Given the limited acceptance of same-sex marriage in Indian society, its legalization could disrupt social norms and values, potentially leading to social unrest.


Therefore, the government should promptly establish a committee, as directed by the Supreme Court, under the cabinet secretary to grant civil union rights and other entitlements, including inheritance and adoption, to homosexual couples. Additionally, legislative reforms should be prioritized to make Indian family law more inclusive, gender-just, and non-discriminatory.


Awareness campaigns should continue to promote equality and LGBTQIA+ community acceptance, while engaging in dialogues with religious leaders, communities, and politicians at various levels to bridge the gap between traditional beliefs and modern attitudes toward same-sex relationships. These collective efforts can contribute to social justice as  envisaged in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 30, 2023

Q.1) What do you understand by critical information infrastructure and why is it important to secure it? Discuss existing institutional and legislative frameworks in India to guard against cyber threats. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Define the meaning of Critical Information Infrastructure (CII). 


Heading 1: Importance of securing critical information infrastructure

Heading 2: Institutional and legislative frameworks in India to guard against cyber threats

Conclusion: Mention why it is necessary to guard the CII amid increasing cyber-attacks and write about governments initiatives in this regard.


Answer: The Information Technology Act of 2000 defines ‘Critical Information Infrastructure’ as a ‘computer resource, the incapacitation or destruction of which shall have debilitating im- pact on national security, economy, public health or safety’. The government, under the Act, has the power to declare any data, database, IT network or communications infrastructure as CII to protect that digital asset.

Need to secure critical information infrastructure(CII):

  • Multiplier effect of disruption: IT resources form the backbone of countless critical operations in a country’s infrastructure, and given their interconnectedness, disruptions can have a cascading effect across sectors.
    • For example: Failure at a major power grid can lead to prolonged outages crippling other sectors like healthcare, banking services, etc.
  • Security of nation: As an attack on CII can undermine security of a nation by disrupting critical services dependent on access to information infrastructure.
    • For example, Stuxnet computer virus disrupted the Iranian nuclear program by damaging centrifuges used to separate nuclear material
  • To prevent cyber-attack and economic loss: In recent years, cyber-attacks on the CII of banks, hospitals, nuclear power plants, IITs have increased.
    • In October 2020, due to a China linked cyber-attack, the electric grid supply to Mumbai suddenly broke down hitting the mega city’s hospitals, trains and businesses.


Institutional and legislative framework in India to guard against cyber threats:

  • National Cyber Security policy (2013): The goal of this policy is to guarantee safe and reliable cyberspace for individuals, organizations, and the government.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In): It operates as an automated cyber threat exchange platform to proactively collect, analyze and share tailored alerts with organizations across sectors for proactive threat mitigation actions by them.
  • National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC): It is the nodal agency for taking all measures to protect the nation’s critical information infrastructure.
  • National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC): It generates necessary situational awareness of existing and potential cyber security threats and enable timely information sharing for proactive, preventive and protective actions by individual entities.
  • Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C): It provides a framework and eco-system for law enforcement agencies for dealing with Cybercrime in a coordinated and comprehensive manner.


In order to deal with challenges related to cyber security a division has been established under the Ministry of Home Affairs to deal with Cyber and Information Security. But apart from these a comprehensive cyber security strategy is need of hour to deal with emerging challenges related to it.


Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 30, 2023

Q.2) What is money laundering, and how is it a lifeline to organized crime operations around the world? Analyze the new provisions introduced in the Prevention of Money Laundering (Maintenance of Records) Amendment Rules, 2023.  (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Explain about money laundering and mention the process in a flow chart form.


Heading 1: Mention how money laundering is lifeline to organized crime operations around the World

Heading 2: Measures that can be taken to counter money laundering

Heading 3: New provisions introduced in Prevention of Money Laundering (Maintenance of Records) Amendment Rules, 2023

Conclusion: Mention that countering money laundering 


Answer: Money laundering is the process of hiding the source of money obtained from illegal sources and converting it to a clean source, thereby avoiding prosecution, conviction, and confiscation of the criminal funds. It is an illegal exercise that converts black money into white money.

Money Laundering is a lifeline to organized crime operations around the world in the following ways:

  • Terror financing: Money obtained from illicit sources are laundered and used in terror financing. Mumbai blast 1993 was a classic example of money laundering as well as organized crime.
  • Drug Trafficking: The large sums of money generated by drug trafficking are often illegal and must be laundered to make them appear legitimate. E.g.: Drug profits moving through the U.S. financial system are estimated to be as high as $100 billion a year. The illicit drug trade fuels Canada's organized crime problem which is fueled by money obtained from illegal sources.
  • Insurgency in North-East: In India also money earned through drug trafficking through Golden Triangle used in fueling insurgency in NE region.
  • Affecting national security and prosperity: Large volumes of criminal money flowing through the countries threatens national security and prosperity, and undermines the integrity of the nation’s financial system.

New provisions introduced in Prevention of Money Laundering (Maintenance of Records) Amendment Rules, 2023:

The government has amended money laundering rules to incorporate more disclosures for non-governmental organizations by reporting entities like financial institutions, banking companies or intermediaries.

  • Widening scope for KYC norms: It has widened the scope of Know your Customer (KYC) norms to include Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs), non-profit organizations (NPOs) and those dealing in virtual digital assets (VDA) as reporting entities.
  • Politically Exposed Persons: It has  defined “Politically Exposed Persons” as individuals who have been “entrusted with prominent public functions by a foreign country, including the heads of States or Governments, senior politicians, senior government or judicial or military officers.
  • Provision for beneficial owner: The lowering of ownership threshold from the previous 25% to 10%, thereby treating any individual or group holding 10% ownership in a reporting entity as a “beneficial owner” for the purpose of PMLA rules.
  • Cryptocurrency and virtual digital assets (VDAs): The new rules have brought crypto currency and VDAs under the ambit of anti-money laundering law (AML).
  • Registration on Darpan portal: Reporting entities are now required to register details of the client if it’s a non-profit organization on the DARPAN portal of NITI Aayog


Positive aspects of recent changes:

  • Uniformity with RBI circular: The move to define politically exposed persons under PMLA is to bring uniformity with a 2008 circular of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for KYC norms/anti-money laundering standards for banks and financial institutions, which had defined PEPs in line with FATF norms.
  • Ensuring more indirect participation: Beneficial owners' share in shares or capital or profit of the company has been reduced from 25% to 10% to ensure more indirect participants within the reporting net.
  • Fulfillment of regulatory obligations : Registering with details of clients on DARPAN portal will ensure some repository of basic information on all NGOs in the Darpan portal of NITI Aayog.
  • Better identification of high-risk clients: By requiring more detailed information from clients during the due diligence process, financial institutions can better identify high-risk clients involved in money laundering.
  • It will ensure compliance from Crypto and other digital assets service providers.


Effective measures against money laundering require a combination of legal, regulatory, technological, and collaborative efforts to identify and deter illicit financial activities, preserve the integrity of the financial system, and prevent criminal enterprises from profiting from their actions. The Amendment Rules bring about crucial changes that reinforce anti-money laundering efforts in India by providing more clarity on definitions and documentation requirements.


Subjects : Current Affairs

Oct. 27, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 27, 2023

Q2. Under the garb of advocating human and environmental rights, foreign funding NGOs have been adding fuel to India's internal security problems. Comment.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to Answer:


Type 1: Mention about NGOs and their foreign funding.

Type 2: Give contextual introduction by mentioning recent government measures or legislation amendments regarding NGOs and foreign funding.


Heading 1:  Importance of foreign funding for NGOs

Heading 2: Ways in which foreign-funded NGOs can contribute to internal security problems


Type 1: can write about the measures taken by government to regulate foreign funding of NGOs.

Type 2: Can end with a way forward, explaining the balance needed to ensure that “just” NGOs continue to thrive.


Answer: Donor funds are the lifeline of NGOs, especially in developing countries. These NGOs play a vital role in social and economic upliftment, ensuring accountability of those in power or important positions, environmental conservation, ensuring rights of all etc. In the last few years, India has banned more than 15000 NGOs, registered under (FCRA), from receiving foreign funds.


Importance of foreign funding for NGOs

  • Financial Sustainability: Foreign funding provides NGOs with the necessary financial resources to sustain their operations, implement projects, and achieve their missions.
  • Expanded Reach: It enables NGOs to extend their reach and impact beyond local borders, addressing global issues and reaching communities that might not otherwise receive support.
  • Expertise and Knowledge Sharing: Foreign funding often comes with expertise, technical know-how, and best practices that NGOs can leverage to improve their programs and operations.
  • Advocacy and Awareness: International funding enables NGOs to raise awareness about global issues, advocate for policy changes, and influence decision-making at higher levels.
  • Emergency Response: Foreign funding can quickly mobilize resources for emergency relief efforts in response to natural disasters, conflicts, or health crises.


Foreign-funded NGOs can contribute to internal security problems in the following ways:

  • Funding Sources and Transparency: Lack of transparency about funding sources can raise suspicions about the motives behind NGO activities.
  • Diversion of Funds: There have been allegations of funds meant for developmental or charitable purposes being diverted to support other activities, including those with potential security implications.
  • Political Agendas: Some foreign-funded NGOs have been accused of promoting political agendas that are at odds with the national interest or that aim to destabilize certain regions or communities.
  • Anti-Development Stance: In some cases, foreign-funded NGOs have been seen as opposing development projects, particularly in sectors like infrastructure and industry.
  • Misuse of Protests: There have been instances where NGOs have exploited protests to create unrest or obstruct legitimate development projects.
  • Security Concerns in Conflict Zones: In conflict-affected areas, foreign-funded NGOs might inadvertently contribute to perpetuating conflicts or supporting groups with separatist or insurgent tendencies.


Measures taken by government to regulate foreign funding of NGOs

  • Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA): The FCRA is the primary legislation that governs the acceptance and utilization of foreign contributions by NGOs in India. It mandates NGOs to register under FCRA to receive foreign funds and puts restrictions on the use of these funds for specific activities.
  • Registration and Prior Approval: NGOs intending to receive foreign funding must register under FCRA or seek prior approval from the government. The registration is valid for five years and can be renewed if the NGO continues to meet the requirements.
  • Bank Accounts: NGOs are required to maintain a designated bank account for all foreign contributions and provide detailed information about the utilization of these funds.
  • Reporting and Transparency: Registered NGOs are required to submit annual reports detailing the inflow and utilization of foreign funds.
  • Usage Restrictions: The government places restrictions on the usage of foreign funds for activities like political activities, religious conversions, and activities that could affect India's sovereignty and integrity.
  • Blacklisting: NGOs that violate FCRA regulations or engage in activities contrary to the national interest can be blacklisted, leading to a ban on foreign funding.


Foreign funding plays a pivotal role in empowering NGOs to make meaningful contributions to society and address pressing challenges on a global scale. The Indian government has taken several measures to regulate foreign funding of NGOs in the country. These measures are designed to ensure that foreign funding is utilized for genuine social, developmental, and charitable purposes while preventing misuse or misappropriation of funds by NGOs.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 27, 2023

Q1. “Terror drones” from hostile neighbouring countries are posing a significant security threat to India. Explain. Also, Highlight the measures being taken to tackle this threat.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:


Type 1: Explain the meaning of terror drones Type 2: Use recent examples to show how terror drones operating from hostile neighbouring countries are a threat to India. Type 3: write about the India’s vulnerable location between 2 opium production centres, and how advanced technologies can poses the greater threat.


Heading 1: Terror drones pose a serious threat to Internal Security of India

Heading 2: Measures to deal with terror drones in India

For value addition, use examples, recommendations, etc.

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking conclusion - Mention the need for effective measures to deal with terror drones.


Answer: Terror drones are unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) which are used by hostile neighboring countries and terrorist groups for hostile reconnaissance, drug, weapon, explosive, and ammunition smuggling into India. These drones are regularly flown from Pakistan into the Indian territories of Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat and UT of Jammu and Kashmir.


Additional Information:

India’s proximity to the notorious Golden crescent and Golden triangle makes it naturally vulnerable to the amenable forces and the emergence of new technology like unmanned aerial vehicles( UAVs) or drones makes it even more challenging for the security agencies to manage borders and secure the internal security of our country. 


Terror drones pose a serious threat to Internal Security of India

  • Smuggling: There have been several instances where drones have been used by the anti-national elements to smuggle drugs, arms and ammunition, IED, etc into the bordering Indian territories.
  • Cross-border terrorism: Drones are used in perpetuating cross border terrorism. 
    • In June 2021, an Indian Air Force base in Jammu was attacked by two Drones loaded with IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices).
  • Surveillance by hostile neighboring countries: Drones have been repeatedly used by Pakistan and China for intelligence gathering along the border areas.
  • Used for Propaganda: They are frequently used to film their terror attacks on crowded or vulnerable sites. They release the footage of these events to create a sense of fear among people.
  • Target critical assets: UAVs can be weaponized to target critical assets like Parliament , Rashtrapti bhavan, Nuclear instalments, Oil rigs etc. 
    • For example, Houthi rebels used weaponized UAVs to attack the Oil rigs of Saudi arabia.


To Counter this evolving threat from the use of drones, Indian government has been proactive in devising plans at various levels:

  • Legal:  Government has formulated National Counter rogue drone guidelines, 2019 to provide a legal framework to deal with the emerging threats posed by UAVs. 
  • Institutional: MHA has established the Anti Rogue Drone Technology Committee (ARDTC) under supervision of DG BSF with the mandate to evaluate the technology available to counter rogue drones and certify its effectiveness in dealing with rogue drones.
  • Technological: DRDO has been developing Counter Drone systems which can detect, track and identify airborne drones using multiple sensors. They can transfer the information to associated systems and enable counter techniques to deny them the intended operation (soft kill) and/or destroy them (hard kill).
    • The DRDO-developed anti drone system can detect and jam micro-drones up to 3 km and use a laser to bring down a target up to 1-2.5 kilometres depending on the wattage of the laser weapon.
  • Intelligence: The security agencies along borders conduct detailed vulnerability mapping along the border to deploy additional surveillance vehicles and special equipment. They have installed integrated surveillance technology equipped with cameras, sensors, and alarms with a command-and-control system at the International Border. 
  • Operational: The Border security agencies conduct round-the-clock surveillance through patrolling, checkpoints, and observation posts. 
  • Federal Aspect: MHA is promoting Border States to develop their own Counter Drone Policies.
  • Information, Education and communication: The general public in border areas have been sensitised and made aware of such UAV/Drone activities, their likely security implications 
  • International Cooperation:  India is actively collaborating with Israel in developing its anti-Drone Technological ecosystem . 


With the emergence of complex or advanced technologies, securing our borders and ensuring internal security becomes increasingly crucial. This can only be achieved through strong institutional development and seamless coordination between Technological and Security Agencies, then India will be able to effectively counter the threat. 


Additional Information:

Can be used for conclusion:

There is a need to develop a comprehensive cross-border drone monitoring and interception capacity to safeguard India’s national security. Technological measures must be supplemented with information sharing and close coordination among intelligence agencies and security forces across nations to combat the trade of small arms and narcotics.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 27, 2023

Q3. What is the current status of genetically modified (GM) crops in India. Analyze the potential contribution of GM technology towards enhancing food security in the country.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: You can define GM crop and link with food security issue in India.


Heading 1:Explain the current status of GM Crops in India. 

Write both sides of GM technology in ensuring food security in India.So, Heading 2: GM Technology enhancing Food Security in the country 

Heading3: Limitations of GM technology In providing Food Security

Conclusion: Write a conclusion with way forward tone and significance of GM technology in addressing food insecurity in India


Answer: Genetically modified (GM) crops are plants whose DNA has been modified using genetic engineering methods for agricultural purposes. With India’s 107th rank in Global Hunger Index 2022, GM technology holds the potential to provide a viable pathway to address food security issue in the country.


Current Status of GM Crops in India

  • In India, the regulation of all activities related to Genetically Modified Organism (GMOs) is done by the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) under MoEFCC under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • Multiple crops like brinjal, tomato, maize, chickpea are in various stages of trials that employ GM technology.
  • However, cotton remains the only GM crop that is being commercially cultivated in India.
  • In October 2022, the GEAC approved the environmental release of GM mustard hybrid DMH-11, bringing it closer to full commercial cultivation.
  • However, there is an ongoing legal case in the Supreme Court questioning the permission for GM food crops including GM Mustard.


GM Technology enhancing Food Security in the country

  • Increased Agricultural Productivity: GM technology helps in development of high-yielding crop varieties with enhanced resistance to pests, diseases, and adverse environmental conditions.
    • For example: Bt cotton is resistant to pests, such as lepidopteran or dipterans.
  • Localized crop varieties for specific conditions: GM technology allows for the customization of crop varieties for specific local environmental conditions, such as drought-prone or saline soils.
    • GM Soybean (Glycine max) for drought tolerance has been developed and India allows GM soymeal import from the US for animal feedstock.
  • Enhanced Nutritional Value: GM crops can be engineered to contain higher levels of essential nutrients, addressing malnutrition and dietary deficiencies.
    • GM crops like Golden Rice can address the prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency in over 60% of pre-school children in India.
  • Improved Livelihoods for Farmers: GM crops requiring fewer inputs, can lead to increased profitability for farmers enhancing their economic well-being.
    • An estimated 50% of all undernourished people worldwide are small-scale farmers in developing countries like India.


Limitations of GM technology

    • Affect the food chain and human health: Critics argue that without adequate research, GM crops can adversely affect the food chain and human health through genetic contamination.


  • Genetic Contamination Concerns:


        • GM crops may cross-pollinate with traditional varieties.
        • Altered genes can affect non-GM crops' characteristics.


  • Reduced Diversity and Pest Resilience:


        • Crossbreeding can lead to uniform crop varieties.
        • Uniformity increases vulnerability to pests and diseases.


  • Biodiversity Impact:


      • Contamination extends to wild varieties.
      • Altered gene pools may lead to reduced pollination.
  • Emergence of resistant pests: Crops like Bt cotton and corn have seen reduced crop yield due to rising resistance in pests because of mutation in response to bacteria Bt.
  • Seed Monopoly and Dependency: The dominance of a few multinational corporations like Monsanto in GM seed production can lead to high seed prices.
    • Thus, limited financial resources will reduce opportunities for farmers to invest in diversified and resilient agri practices.
  • Complex Regulatory Framework: Stringent regulatory framework for GM crops leads to delays in approvals and commercialization.
    • For example: Bt Brinjal faced regulatory hurdles, delaying its introduction.
  • High Initial Investment: Developing GM crops involves high upfront costs which is a deterrent for smaller farmers. 
    • This is a limitation of GM technology in ensuring food security in India as over 80% farmers are small and marginal.

It's essential to recognize that GM technology, while promising, is not a panacea for all agricultural challenges. It should be integrated into a broader strategy that includes sustainable farming practices, improved access to credit and markets, and investments in rural infrastructure. This holistic approach is crucial for addressing food insecurity comprehensively in India.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Oct. 26, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 26, 2023

Q.1) Development, although an essential pre-requisite but it alone may not be sufficient to deal with the problem of Left-Wing Extremism in India. Analyse. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly talk about LWE and its origin in India.


Heading 1: Development: An essential Precondition 

Heading 2: Tackling LWE holistically

Conclusion: Can either end with a way forward listing the steps that India needs to take or why its is important for India to tackle this decades old menace



Left-wing Extremism or Naxalism is a form of armed insurgency against the state motivated by leftist ideologies. It remains the biggest internal security threat for India even after decades. The developmental deficit was considered as the root of all factors fueling the Insurgency, thus India embarked on a journey to bridge this gap.


Factors contributing to LWE: (Can add mind map of this)

●      Socio-economic Factors: Socioeconomic inequality along with the perceived neglect of marginalized and tribal communities living in LWE areas by the government fuels a sense of discontent among the population.        

●      Land and Resource Disputes: Disputes over land and natural resources, such as forests and minerals, are prevalent in many areas affected by left-wing extremism. These conflicts often arise due to perceived exploitation, displacement of local communities, and inadequate compensation for land acquisition.       

●      Historical Injustices: Historical injustices, such as caste discrimination, marginalization of indigenous communities, and socio-political exclusion, have fueled resentment among the people inhabiting LWE areas.    

●      Governance and Development Deficits: Inadequate governance, corruption, and a lack of effective service delivery exacerbate grievances and create a sense of alienation among communities.


Development: An essential Precondition:

Development is considered as an essential pre-requisite to counter extremism. For this, government has taken various initiatives with special thrust on expansion of road network, improving telecom connectivity, financial inclusion of local population, skill development and education facilities in the LWE areas.

  • Road Connectivity: More than 16,200 km of roads have been approved in LWE-affected areas under specific schemes, namely Road Requirement Plan-I (RRP-1) and Road Connectivity Project for LWE-affected areas (RCPLWEA).
  • Network Connectivity: Thousands of mobile towers are being established under the Mobile Connectivity Project for LWE Affected Areas
  • Financial Inclusion: For financial inclusion of the populace in LWE-affected areas, thousands of new Post Offices, bank branches, ATMs and Banking Correspondents have been established in 30 most LWE LWE-affected districts in the last 07 years.
  • Skill Development Scheme: Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and Skill Development Centres (SDCs) been approved with an estimated cost of Rs. 407 crores under “Skill Development Scheme in 47 Districts affected by LWE”.
  • Focus on Education: The government has sanctioned 245 Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs) in the LWE affected districts.



Tackling LWE holistically:


Along with the implementation of development measures in the LWE areas, dealing with the problem of left-wing extremism in India requires a comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach which includes the following measures:

  • Good governance: The government should work to ensure the effective delivery of public services in the LWE areas. This will also boost up the confidence of people regarding the government machinery.
  • Poverty Alleviation: It is important to take measures for the eradication of poverty, high economic and income disparity and exploitation of the impoverished.
  • Counter-terrorism operations: Enhance the capabilities and coordination among security forces to effectively combat left-wing extremist groups.


Apart from these measures, the government should engage with the local community, and seek international cooperation for intelligence gathering and capacity building to effectively deal with the problem of LWE in India. It is only through a holistic approach focusing on development and security-related interventions that the LWE problem can be successfully tackled.


Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 26, 2023

Q3. India's Gaganyaan mission soars to new heights as it brings dreams of space exploration closer to reality. In light of the recent test of the crew escape system, highlight the significance and challenges involved in the Gaganyan Mission.  (10M, 150W)

Model Answer




Introduction: Briefly write about the Gaganyaan Mission and the recent testing


Heading 1: Mention significance of the Gaganyaan Mission

Heading 2: Mention challenges Involved in Gagnyaan Mission

Heading 3: Way Forward

Conclusion: Conclude with timeline of Gagnyaan Mission.



The Gaganyaan mission, led by ISRO comprises three flights including two unmanned missions and one human spaceflight. The human spaceflight, involving three Indian astronauts, including a female astronaut, will orbit Earth at a low altitude of 300-400 km for a duration of 5-7 days.


In this regard, recently, ISRO initiated a crucial phase of testing, known as the Flight Test Vehicle Abort Mission-1 (TV-D1) with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of the Crew Escape System for the Gaganyaan project. The primary purpose of this test is to assess the operational readiness of the systems responsible for disengaging the crew module from the rocket in the event of a mid-flight emergency (abort mission) and ensuring the safe escape of the astronauts.


Significance of the Gaganyaan Mission

  • Scientific Advancement: Gaganyaan demonstrates India's capability to undertake complex space missions, showcasing advancements in space technology.
    • For ex: ISRO's successful Mars Orbiter Mission in 2013 demonstrated its prowess in interplanetary exploration.
  • National Prestige: India will be the 4th country to launch a human space mission. Successfully sending humans into space elevates India's global standing and pride. It aligns with India's aspirations to become a major player in space exploration.
  • Employment Opportunities: The program is anticipated to stimulate economic growth within the nation by fostering the development of a skilled workforce and strengthening industrial capacities.
    • For ex: The Gaganyaan mission is anticipated to yield around 15,000 new job openings.
  • Technological Spin-offs: The technology developed for Gaganyaan can have applications beyond space, such as in healthcare, defense, and telecommunications.
    • Further, the mission will drive substantial research in various domains, including materials processing, Astro-biology, resource extraction etc.
  • Global Competitiveness: Competing in the global space race, India is in a position to collaborate with other space agencies, sharing knowledge and resources. Successful space missions foster diplomatic relationships with countries interested in space collaboration
    • For ex: Chandrayaan-3 involved collaboration with different space agencies including the European, Australian and US counterparts of ISRO.


Challenges Involved in Gagnyaan Mission

  • Astronaut’s Health: Ensuring the well-being of astronauts during extended space travel is a significant challenge. When astronauts find themselves confined within tight quarters and dependent on scarce resources, it is probable that behavioral issues will arise.
    • For example, prolonged exposure to microgravity can lead to muscle atrophy and bone loss.
  • Life Support Systems: The development of life support systems, which provide astronauts with oxygen, water, and waste management, is crucial.
    • Failure in such systems can have dire consequences, as experienced in the Apollo 13 mission when a critical oxygen tank failed.
  • Escape and Rescue: Developing effective escape and rescue mechanisms in case of emergencies is vital. Achieving a human spaceflight demands a launcher with a reliability of 98% or higher, which means only two failures in every 100 launches.
    • For ex: The Soyuz MS-10 mission in 2018 experienced a rocket failure, and the successful emergency abort system saved the crew.
  • Technical Complexity: Developing and integrating the technology required for a successful human spaceflight is a multifaceted challenge, from launch vehicle design to the spacecraft's reentry and landing systems.
  • Safety and Redundancy: Ensuring the safety of astronauts is paramount. Effective safety protocols and redundant systems are essential to minimize the risk.
    • For ex: The growing concern of space debris in low Earth orbits poses an escalating risk, where a collision with even small fragments could lead to the depressurization of the crew module, jeopardizing astronaut safety.

Way Forward:

  • Development of a robust Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) to maintain a habitable environment and manage waste products.
  • Ground and space testing under simulated zero gravity and deep vacuum conditions are crucial, along with the incorporation of launch escape system safety features.
  • Extensive training for the crew and mission control team, focusing on man-machine interfaces and safety drills.
  • Encouraging private sector involvement in supporting ISRO


Therefore, a successful Gaganyaan mission will propel India into the league of space superpowers and facilitate the development of its own space station. The Gaganyaan mission is scheduled for 2024 or later, with a strong emphasis on safety rather than rushing the project. As India embarks on its journey to send astronauts into space through the Gaganyaan mission, it not only seeks to achieve a historic milestone but also sets its sights on a promising future in space exploration.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 26, 2023

Q2.Explain the linkage between development and spread of extremism using examples from India. Outline the corrective strategies which the government should take to reduce extremism in scheduled areas.  (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Mention how underdevelopment creates extremism.


Heading 1: Mention different development factors which are responsible for growth of extremism in India

Heading 2: Measures that can be taken to reduce extremism in Scheduled areas

Conclusion: Mention that a multi-pronged strategy is required to handle the problem of Naxalism and mention about the Andhra Model of dealing with Naxalism.



Answer: Underdevelopment often creates the conditions for insurgency and spread of extremist ideologies among the people, who perceive that their needs are not being taken care of by the government. Lack of development like in North-Eastern states of India manifests in the form of violence where people feel alienated and such perceptions when coupled with inefficient and corrupt government  creates an ideal condition for extremism and even militancy.


Factors related to development which is responsible for growth of extremism in India:


  • Social factor: Social backwardness and sense of feeling of discrimination among some social groups of India like Scheduled castes and tribes, prevalence of forced labour as a social institution, limited access to social resources like education and health care and exploitation (crimes against Scheduled Castes (SCs) have increased by 1.2% in 2021: NCRB 2022) like sexual exploitation creates a condition where at some point of time oppressed community chooses path of violence.
  • Economic Factor: High rural indebtedness (more than half of India’s agricultural households were in debt according to ‘Situation Assessment of Agricultural Households and Land Holdings of Households in Rural India, 2019’), landlessness and higher unemployment level among SCs/STs communities makes people feel alienated from the growth process and they become vulnerable to influence of groups like Naxals.
  • Administrative factors: High level of displacement of tribal communities because of developmental projects (40% of all the people displaced by dams in the last sixty years are forest-dwelling Adivasis); dilution of provisions of PESA Act 1996 and Forest Rights Act 2006 (like states have diluted roles of Tribal Advisory Council); distorted relationship between tribal communities and forests and perception of forced land acquisition has increased the distrust between some communities and government. This sense of helplessness at times translates into extremist tendencies.
  • Governance related factors: Lack of physical infrastructure like road and electricity creates both conditions for growth of extremism by creating discontent and also helps in perpetuating it by making police and administrative action difficult. Same is the case with prevalent high levels of corruption in government departments in tribal and rural areas.


Measures that can be taken to reduce extremism in scheduled areas:

  • Effective implementation of protective legislations: Like PESA act 1996, NREGA 2005, Forest rights act 2006, etc.
  • Peace dialogue in the affected States with naxal groups to motivate them to give up arms.
  • The revival and restructuring of the large Area Multi-purpose Cooperative Societies and Primary Agricultural Cooperative Societies (PACS), with the specific targets of meeting all credit needs of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
  • Land Related Measures: Like need to implement the land ceiling laws and setting up of Land Tribunals or Fast Track Courts under Article 323-B of the Constitution be for expeditious disposal of the ceiling cases.
  • Need to devise a programme for restoration of Common Property Resources (CPRs) for the purpose of sustenance of the poverty groups.
  • Participatory Watershed Development Projects for conservation of soil and water and development of natural resources with suitable changes in cropping pattern.
  • Need to strengthen subsidiary and supportive activities in animal husbandry, fisheries, horticulture, sericulture and poultry through establishment of quality infrastructure.
  • Need of improvement in basic social services: Like reforming education by focusing on mother tongue-based education, teachers training, vocational education. Implementation of Universal Health care and Aayushman Bharat scheme (very low level of utilization reported in eastern India) will also help in helping people meet their bare minimums. Training of the healthcare workers at the grass-root level, like accredited social health activists (ASHA) and Anganwadi workers (AWW) will help
  • Security Measures: Increasing number of Police stations, real time communication devices and intelligence, attractive surrender and rehabilitation policy will help in countering the threat from extremist groups.


A multi-pronged approach at political, economic, administrative and security level (as adopted successfully by Andhra Pradesh Model of dealing with Naxalims) is required to deal with extremism and do justice-social, political as well as economic as envisaged in Preamble and ensure inclusive participation of those who feel alienated.

Subjects : Polity

Oct. 25, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 25, 2023

Q1. Explain the reasons behind the increasing intensity of cloudbursts and how it raises the disaster vulnerability of a region. Discuss the measures that can be taken to mitigate the impact of cloudbursts in the context of disaster management in India. (10M, 150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Introduction: Definition of cloudburst. Can also give recent example.


1) Reasons behind the increasing intensity of cloudbursts.

2) Cloudburts raises the disaster vulnerability

3) Mitigation measures

Conclusion: Summarize the key points discussed in the answer.

Emphasize that a multi-faceted approach, including climate action, land-use planning, and disaster preparedness, is essential to mitigate the impact of cloudbursts in India


Answer: Cloudbursts are short-duration, intense rainfall events over a small area resulting in flood-like situations in the region. Cloudburst occurs when moisture-rich air travels up a mountainous region, forming a vertical column of clouds known as Cumulonimbus clouds.


Reasons behind the increasing intensity of cloudbursts:

  • Impact of Climate Change: With rise in temperature, the atmosphere becomes capable of holding more and more water resulting in a short but very intense rainfall in a region. 
  • More cloudbursts are happening in Himalayan region as the decadal temperature rise in the Himalayan region is higher than the global rate of rising temperatures.
  • Impact of southwest monsoon: In India, cloudbursts often occur during the monsoon season, when the south-westerly monsoon winds bring in copious amounts of moisture inland. The moist air that converges over land gets lifted as they encounter the hills. The moist air reaches an altitude and gets saturated, and the water starts condensing out of the air forming clouds. 
    • For example: Strong monsoon wind surges along the coast can also result in cloudbursts, as in the case of Mumbai (2005) and Chennai (2015). 
  • Increasing concentration of greenhouse gases: Due to rampant use of fossil fuels,etc. 
  • Deforestation in mountainous areas: Which often leads to increasing carbon dioxide concentration which causes global warming.
  • Increasing construction activity in mountainous areas.: This contributes in increasing the damage caused by the cloudburst. 


Disaster Vulnerability due to Cloudbursts

Cloudbursts occur mostly over the rugged terrains of the Himalayas, Western Ghats, and northeastern hill states of India. It affects areas in following ways: 

  • Flash floods: This occurs because of sudden and heavy downpour in mountainous regions.
    • For example, flash flood due to cloudburst in Uttarakhand’s Kedarnath in 2013. 
  • Landslides: Due to oversaturation of soils, sudden movement of mass of rock downslope. 
  • Debris and mudflows due to sudden and short span downpour. The nature of lands such as precipitous slope and fragile and undulating terrain further accentuate the velocity of debris flows. 
  • Cloudburst causes roadblocks, land degradation, forest and cropland loss, and losses of life. 
    • For example: cloudburst in the famous Hindu pilgrimage ‘Kedarnath’, which killed more than 10,000 people and devastated the entire Mandakini and Alaknanda river valleys. 
  • The economic impact of cloudburst: Debris flow due to the flash flood in cloudburst are tremendous in the forms of a household affected, loss of human and animal life, building loss, forest loss, existing crop loss, loss of fruits, loss of arable land, and loss of bridge. 


Measures that can be taken to mitigate the impact of cloudbursts: 


  • Real-time early warning of cloudbursts need to be developed. 
  • Doppler radars that can predict sudden changes in the weather about three to six hours in advance can assist in early warning for cloudbursts.  
  • The capacity and capability of the human resources of panchayati raj bodies, disaster management authorities, NGOs and communities involved in flash flood and cloudburst management need to be continuously improved and strengthened. 
  • Ensuring preparatory measures before the rainy season assists in minimising loss of human and animal lives. 
  • Initiating mitigation measures such as shifting people from the valleys to hills, raising infrastructure, houses and businesses above the floodplains quite away from rivers and streams. 
  • Better management of rainwater and floodwater to prevent and minimise disaster-induced losses.  
  • Watershed management that stabilizes the hill landscape and ensures better tackling of resultant landslides, flash floods, mudflows and land-caving needs to be adopted. 
  • Ensuring smooth flow and drainage of rainwater in the plains would prevent human, animal and infrastructural losses after cloudbursts and heavy rain. 
  • The rehabilitation operation should be executed with the purpose of bringing back sustainable livelihoods. 


Mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction of cloudbursts involves incorporating risk reduction and mitigation measures into the developmental policy, planning and practices. Bracketing cloudbursts with floods, landslides and cyclones, their management projects should be planned and implemented in a time-bound manner. 

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 25, 2023

Q3. Delay in judicial appointments not only increases pendency of cases but also hampers the overall judicial functioning.Discuss. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Intro: You can start with constitutional information about judges’ appointment or some current affairs based intro.

Body: Explain how Delays in appointment leads has multifaceted implications. Then brief upon its solutions in body part with the suitable use of data and reports.

Conclusion: You can quote the importance of resolution of delays in appointments in a democracy and suggest a broad way forward alongside.

Answer: Supreme Court recently expressed dismay over the delay in the appointment of judges. As per the data from the Integrated Case Management System (ICMIS), there are 69,766 cases pending in the Supreme Court in July 2023.

Additional Information:

Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President following consultation with the Chief Justice of India and other senior judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, as per Article 124 of the Indian Constitution. 


Implications of delay in Judicial Appointments

    • Increased Workload: Existing judges have to handle more cases than they can manage effectively, leading to slower proceedings and delayed judgments. 
      • Each judge handles between 2,000-4,000 cases a year.
    • Postponed Hearings: With fewer judges, court dates get postponed. This causes postponement of cases adding to the pendency of cases.
    • Impact on Access to Justice: Delayed appointments hinder people's access to justice, as cases take longer to resolve, causing frustration and discouraging faith in the legal system.
      • According to a Niti Aayog strategy paper, at the then-prevailing rate, it would take more than 300 years to clear the backlog of Indian judiciary.


  • Lack of capable candidates: Lack of judges along with the risk of capable candidates withdrawing their names due to delays in judicial appointments can hamper timely and fair case management.


    •  Recently, SC expressed distress over the situation, emphasizing the urgency in clearing 70 judicial appointments recommended by various High Courts and the Supreme Court.
  • Inefficient Use of Resources: Courtrooms and resources remain underutilized due to the shortage of judges, contributing to inefficiencies in the overall functioning of the judicial system.
    • There is a requirement of 50 judges for every 10 lakh population in the country, but India has only 21 judges per million people.


Recommendations wrt Judicial Appointments

  • Supreme Court in 1992, in All India Judges’ Association v. The Union of India, directed the Centre to set up an All India Judicial Service to address the issue of delayed appointments and improve the overall functioning of the judiciary by establishing a standardized selection process for judges. This idea was also backed by the Parliamentary Standing Committee in 2006 to help create a pool of talented people.
  • Fifteenth Finance Commission and the India Justice Report 2020 suggested ways to earmark and deploy funds with adequate budgeting for appointments and improvements.
  • Law Commission emphasized the importance of including more women judges to address social imbalances in the judiciary. It also recommended increasing the number of judges to 50 per million people. 
  • Economic Survey 2018-19 recommends to increase number of working days, and establishment of Indian Courts and Tribunal Services to focus on the administrative aspects of the legal system.
  • Malimath Committee suggested reducing Supreme Court vacations due to high pending cases. It also advocated for alternative dispute resolution mechanisms as an effective substitute for traditional court proceedings.

Delay in judicial appointments casts an array of distrust over the efficacy of the Indian judiciary. This calls for holistic and realistic view of the present situation of the Indian Judiciary to maintain the rule of law and delivering good governance.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 25, 2023

Q2. Explain the geological and anthropogenic factors that render certain regions in India susceptible to earthquakes. Also, highlight the key components of earthquake management strategy as outlined in the NDMA guidelines that can help enhance the seismic resilience of India.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main headings: 1) Geological and anthropogenic factors that render certain regions in India susceptible to earthquakes. 2) key components of earthquake management strategy as outlined in the NDMA guidelines

Introduction: Mention about earthquake events


Heading 1: Geological factors responsible for earthquake in certain regions of India

Heading 2: Anthropogenic factors responsible for earthquakes

Heading 3: Key components of earthquake management strategy as outlined in the NDMA guidelines

Conclusion: Write about the need to create awareness and follow Earthquake management strategies as outlined by the NDMA to decrease the disaster caused by the earthquakes in India.


Answer: Earthquakes result from a series of earth movements brought about by a sudden release of energy during the tectonic activities in the earth’s crust. As compared to these, the earthquakes associated with volcanic eruption, rock fall, landslides, subsidence, particularly in the mining areas, impounding of dams and reservoirs, etc. have limited area of influence and the scale of damage.


Natural causes of earthquakes

  • Accumulation of energy: Due to movement of Indian plate towards Eurasian plate, which results in building up of stress, which ultimately leads to the breaking up of the rock and the sudden release of energy causes earthquakes along the Himalayan arch.
    • For example: Associated vulnerable regions are: Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, north eastern states,etc.
  • Amplification of energy in alluvial plains: Regions like areas of Delhi, that it is in the Gangetic plain and is built on alluvium. As energy passes through soft alluvium, it gets amplified. With more amplification it can cause more damage.
  • Emergence of faultline: Theory of emergence of a fault line and energy build-up along the fault line represented by the river Bhima (Krishna) near Latur and Osmanabad (Maharashtra) and the possible breaking down of the Indian plate
    • For example, earthquakes in Latur region of Maharashtra.
  • Volcanoes are also a reason for earthquakes.

Anthropogenic causes:

  • Mining Projects: Mining companies are digging deeper in the earth’s crust than ever before. So many rocks and other materials are being removed from the Earth that instability in the ground is occurring, which is triggering earthquakes.
  • Hydropower projects in mountainous areas: Triggering earthquakes due to digging of tunnels, breaking large mountains,etc.
  • Dam Building: The construction of dams has caused some of the largest and deadliest human-triggered earthquakes in history.
    • For example: reservoir induced seismicity due to Koyna dam. China’s 2008 earthquake in Sichuan province due to a dam project.
  • Fracking: Fracking involves injecting liquid at high pressures into subterranean rock in the hopes of forcing open existing fissures for the purpose of extracting oil or gas. This also causes earthquakes.
  • Disposal Of Wastewater in fracking: The disposal of waste water produced in the fracking process also causes quakes. This wastewater is the by-product of the sand, water, and chemicals used to fracture hydrocarbons from rock. The high-pressure it causes can lubricate existing faults and crack rocks, triggering earthquakes.
  • Nuclear Explosions: earthquakes are also sometimes caused by nuclear explosions.
    • For example:  North Korea’s 2017 nuclear bomb test set off aftershocks that lasted for about eight months after the explosion. 


Key components of Earthquake management strategy as outlined in the NDMA guidelines:

  • Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction of New Structures: There are building codes and other regulations which make it mandatory that all structures in earthquake-prone areas in the country must be built in accordance with earthquake-resistant construction techniques.
  • Seismic Strengthening and Retrofitting of Lifeline and Priority Structures: It recommends for the structural safety audit and retrofitting of select critical lifeline structures and high priority buildings. Such selection will be based on considerations such as the degree of risk, the potential loss of life and the estimated financial implications for each structure.
  • Regulation and Enforcement: By enacting laws, building codes and ensuring their compliance: This is to ensure that all stakeholders like builders, architects, engineers and government departments, responsible for regulation and enforcement adopt earthquake-safe construction practices and provide for seismic safety in all design and construction activities.
  • Creation of Public Awareness on Seismic Safety and Risk Reduction: A comprehensive awareness campaign will be developed and implemented on the safe practices to be followed before, during and after an earthquake.
  • Capacity Development: The target groups for capacity development will include elected representatives and government officials, urban planners, engineers, architects and builders. The focus will be on institutionalizing appropriate capacity building mechanisms to ensure seismic safety.
  • Earthquake Response: The management and control of the adverse consequences of future earthquakes will require coordinated, prompt and effective response systems at the central and state government levels, especially at the district and the community levels.


It is always the buildings, not earthquakes, that kill people. While we cannot as of now predict and stop Earthquakes, we can certainly make people more aware and follow Earthquake management strategies outlined by the NDMA.

Subjects : Environment

Oct. 24, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 24, 2023

Q2. What do you understand by disaster resilient infrastructure? Mention the role of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) in promoting disaster resilient infrastructure in developing countries.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Define the Disaster Resilient Infrastructure and objectives.


Elaborate on the role of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) and what support does CDRI provides to developing countries.

Conclusion: We can also conclude the answer with the efficacy of the CDRI and what initiatives that government can take to make the disaster resilient infrastructure.


Answer: Disaster-resilient infrastructure refers to infrastructure systems and facilities that are designed, constructed, and maintained to withstand and recover from the impacts of various natural and man-made disasters. This concept emphasizes the importance of ensuring that infrastructure is not only functional but also capable of withstanding the adverse effects of disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, and other hazards.


Such infrastructure is built to minimize damage, ensure the safety of occupants, and facilitate swift recovery post-disaster. The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) is an international organization that aims to promote disaster-resilient infrastructure in developing countries.


Role of Coalition for CDRI in promoting disaster resilient infrastructure in developing countries:

  • Developing resilient infrastructure: CDRI focuses on developing resilience in ecological and social infrastructure in developing countries.
    • For example, it places emphasis on health and education, and economic infrastructure with special attention to transportation, telecommunications, energy, and water.
  • Capacity Building: CDRI works towards building the capacity of member countries to develop and implement strategies for disaster-resilient infrastructure.
    • For instance, they provide technical assistance, knowledge-sharing, and training programs.
  • Policy Advocacy: The coalition advocates for policy changes and frameworks that prioritize disaster resilience in infrastructure development.
    • For example, they encourages governments to integrate disaster risk reduction considerations into their infrastructure planning and investment decisions.
  • Financing: CDRI assists member countries in accessing financing mechanisms and resources to invest in disaster-resilient infrastructure.
    • For instance, it collaborates with international financial institutions and organizations to mobilize funds for such projects.
  • Technical Assistance and Innovation: The CDRI supports developing countries in accessing technical assistance and expertise for infrastructure resilience with collaborations between countries with advanced disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation practices.
    • For example: The CDRI promotes the use of innovative technologies such as remote sensing, early warning systems, and nature-based approaches.
  • Research and Development: The CDRI promotes research and development activities related to disaster-resilient infrastructure in developing countries.
    • For example: It encourages the generation of knowledge and innovation in areas such as climate change adaptation, risk assessment and modeling, sustainable infrastructure design, and post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.
  • Knowledge Sharing: CDRI facilitates the exchange of knowledge, best practices, and lessons learned among member countries. This sharing of experiences helps countries learn from each other's successes and challenges in building disaster-resilient infrastructure.
  • Technical Standards: The coalition works towards developing and promoting technical standards and guidelines for designing, constructing, and maintaining disaster-resilient infrastructure.
  • Regional and Global Initiatives: CDRI collaborates with regional and global initiatives related to disaster risk reduction and sustainable development. It aligns its efforts with frameworks like the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sustainable Development Goals.


By fulfilling these roles, the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure plays a vital part in assisting developing countries to enhance their resilience against natural disasters and climate change impacts, safeguarding their infrastructure systems, and promoting sustainable development.

Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 24, 2023

Q3. Nuclear energy, harnessed from the core of matter, holds the power to light up our world for generations to come. In light of the statement, highlight the need of Nuclear Energy and challenges associated with it. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly define Nuclear energy


Heading 1: Mention need of the Nuclear Energy

Heading 2: Highlight the challenges associated with the Nuclear Energy

Conclusion: Conclude with way forward to develop Nuclear Energy



Nuclear energy is the energy harnessed from the nucleus of atoms, typically through nuclear fission or fusion processes, which release a significant amount of heat that can be converted into electricity. As far India is concerned, Nuclear power accounts for approximately 2% of India's overall electricity production, making it the fifth-largest electricity source in the country. India presently operates a network of seven power plants hosting more than 22 nuclear reactors, collectively generating 6,780 MW of nuclear energy.


India's Need for Nuclear Energy

  • Growing Energy Demand: India's energy demand has been steadily increasing, and it is expected to rise further due to urbanization and industrialization.
    • For ex: As per a report released by the Fitch Group, India's power demand is anticipated to expand by more than 70% over the next decade.
  • Reducing Dependence on Fossil Fuels: Nuclear energy diversifies the energy mix, reducing reliance on fossil fuels like coal and oil, which are susceptible to price fluctuations and supply disruptions.
    • For ex: India recorded a power supply shortage of 1,200 million units in October 2021 due to a crunch in coal stocks available with thermal plants.
  • Climate Change Mitigation: Nuclear power is a low-carbon energy source, contributing to India's efforts to combat climate change. India has pledged to reduce its carbon intensity and increase the share of non-fossil fuel capacity in its energy mix.
    • Critical in achieving target of reducing Emissions Intensity of its GDP by 45 percent by 2030 from 2005 level
  • Reliable Baseload Power: Nuclear power provides a consistent and reliable source of electricity, vital for sustaining a modern economy.
    • Further, it complements intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar by providing a stable baseload power supply.
  • Economic Development: The nuclear sector generates employment opportunities in research, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear facilities.
  • Long-term Sustainability: India has substantial reserves of uranium and thorium, making nuclear power a sustainable energy option for the future.
    • India is a leading country in Thorium resources and is in the process of developing a pioneering thorium-based nuclear facility called "Bhavni”.


Challenges associated with the Nuclear Energy

  • Safety Concerns: Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and facilities is paramount, especially in densely populated areas. 
    • For ex: India has faced safety incidents like the 2016 Kakrapar nuclear plant incident, highlighting the need for robust safety measures.
  • Public Opposition: Nuclear projects often face opposition from local communities and environmental groups, leading to delays and public distrust. 
    • For ex: Protests have occurred against proposed nuclear plants, such as the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant.
  • Cost and Financing: Nuclear power plants are capital-intensive, and their construction can be financially burdensome. Securing financing for these projects and managing cost overruns can be challenging.
  • Long Gestation Period: Nuclear projects have long gestation periods from planning to commissioning, which can impede meeting India's growing energy demands in a timely manner.
    • For ex: Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant construction commenced in 2002, but it took more than a decade for the first unit to start commercial operation in 2013.
  • Nuclear Liability:  It has been a subject of debate, particularly concerning foreign suppliers who are concerned about potential liability for accidents beyond their jurisdiction under the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010.


India's energy strategy should encompass a diverse portfolio of technologies, including supply-side and demand-side solutions, both within and beyond the nuclear sector, such as solar and hydro energy. Rather than setting fixed targets for nuclear energy expansion, the government should focus on creating a supportive policy framework for low-carbon, reliable energy sources, while simultaneously investing in research and development, particularly in advanced nuclear technologies like small modular reactors and thorium utilization. 


Thus, India should adopt a balanced approach that addresses sector challenges and opportunities while fostering the growth of a diverse range of low-carbon, dependable energy sources to achieve Sustainable Development Goals 2030.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 24, 2023

Q1. What are Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs)? How do they pose a threat to life and property in the Himalayan Regions? Mention the measures to mitigate the effects of such extreme weather events. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Explain why the Himalayan zone is prone to hazards.


Heading 1: What are Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs)?

Heading 2: How do they pose a threat to life and property in the Himalayan Regions?

Heading 3: Measures to mitigate the effects of such extreme weather events:

Conclusion: Mention government schemes and programs.



A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a release of meltwater from a moraine or ice-dammed glacial lake due to dam failure. GLOFs often result in major hazard like catastrophic flooding downstream which can result in significant loss of life. GLOFs have three main features:

  • Sudden releases of water.
  • Rapid events, lasting hours to days.
  • Large downstream river discharges.


GLOFs: Threat to life and property in the Himalayan Regions:

  • Climate Change: Melting glaciers, accelerated by climate change, lead to the formation or expansion of glacial lakes, making them potential threats.
  • Unstable Moraines and Dams: These lakes form behind unstable moraines or natural dams, which can be easily breached.
    • For example, Kedarnath floods, 2013
  • Sudden Floods: The abrupt release of water causes massive floods, washing away homes and infrastructure.
  • Landslides: The force of the water triggers landslides and rockfalls.
  • Sedimentation: Flooding leads to erosion, sedimentation, and clogging up of rivers and streams.
    • For example, 2014 GLOF in Sikkim caused extensive damage to hydropower projects.


Measures to Mitigate GLOFs:

  • Risk Zonation: Identify high-risk areas and develop necessary risk mitigation measures, including surveys, maps, and models.
    • For example, Government has developed the ‘Guidelines for Preparation of Disaster Management Plans for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF)’.
  • Early Warning System: Establish a network of sensors to monitor glacial lakes and provide early warnings to affected communities.
  • Use of Technology: Develop remote sensing and GIS-based tools to monitor changes in glacial lakes and surroundings.
  • Codes for Construction Activities: Regulate construction activities in high-risk areas.
    • For example, NDMA developed the ‘Guidelines for the Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings’.
  • Capacity Building: Develop skills and resources, partner with the private sector and NGOs, and create innovative solutions.
    • For example, National Centre for Disaster Management provide training and capacity building programs.
  • Channeling Potential Floods: Develop infrastructure to divert floodwaters away from communities and infrastructure.


Management of GLOFs is essential due to their potential for devastation and the multi-faceted challenges they present. By adopting comprehensive management approaches, we can reduce the risks associated with GLOFs, protect lives and infrastructure, and enhance the resilience of vulnerable communities in the face of these natural hazards.

Subjects : Geography

Oct. 23, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 23, 2023

Q1. What are the factors responsible for the occurrence of Forest-Fires in various parts of India? What measures have been suggested by the National Action Plan on Forest Fire, 2018 to deal with it? (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main headings: 1) Factors responsible for the occurrence of Forest-Fires in various parts of India 2) Measures suggested by the National Action Plan on Forest Fire, 2018 to deal with forest fires

Introduction: Mention about the forest fires in India and which states are most vulnerable.


Heading 1: Factors responsible for the occurrence of Forest-Fires

Heading 2: National Action Plan on Forest Fire, 2018

Conclusion: Write that appropriate measures should be taken to deal with increasing instances of forest fires in India and that  forest fires should be recognised as a disaster under the National Disaster Management Act.


Answer: According to a report by Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW), more than 30 percent of Indian districts are vulnerable to extreme forest fires. It also found that Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra are the most prone to high-intensity forest fire events caused by rapid change in the climate.


Factors responsible for the occurrence of Forest-Fires:

  • Natural Causes: Global temperature rise because of climate change, Accumulation of large quantities of pine needles on forest floor, Lightning, friction due to rolling stones.
  • Human activities: Anthropogenic activities like slash and burn cultivation, land-use change and poor land and forest management mean wildfires are more often encountering the fuel and weather conditions conducive to becoming destructive.
  • Lack of Fire Management: Inadequate fire management practices, including the lack of firebreaks, controlled burns, and early detection systems, exacerbate the size and severity of forest fires in India.
  • Poor Forest Health: Forests that are stressed due to pests, diseases, or mismanagement are more prone to fires as they accumulate dead vegetation, creating a significant fuel load.
  • Challenging Terrain: The presence of hilly and rugged terrains in certain regions of India makes it difficult for firefighting crews to access and control fires, allowing them to grow larger and more intense.


Vulnerable regions: The mountain ranges of Himalayas are the most vulnerable stretches of the world which are susceptible to the forest fires. The forests of Western Himalayas are more vulnerable to forest fires as compared to those in Eastern Himalayas. This is because forests of Eastern Himalayas grow in high rain density.


National Action Plan on Forest Fire, 2018

  • Fire Risk Zonation and mapping: It provides a scientific basis for identifying areas of priority for management interventions, allocating resources to priority areas, and monitoring the effectiveness of measures to reduce or control fire risk.
  • Use of fire risk zones in forest planning: The Working Plan Officers shall identify activities to mitigate fire risk or reduce impact of the fire hazards in high-risk areas.
  • Effective communication strategy for awareness generation: It should be specifically targeted at students, farmers, women groups,etc. Information on forest fire and its adverse effects should also be included in the school curriculum at several levels.
  • Capacity building of communities: The capacity of community organizations in prevention and control of forest fires should be enhanced by periodical training and capacity building programmes.
  • Increasing the resilience of forests to fires: By moisture and water conservation, forest floor biomass management, weed management, etc.
  • Improving the efficacy of the fire alert system: By digitization of forest boundaries, by promoting greater adoption of the Forest Fire Alert System, etc.
  • Fire Suppression: By Training for field staff, firewatchers, and community firefighters, by development of adequate infrastructure for fire suppression, etc.


Apart from these, the government should recognise forest fires as a natural hazard and earmark more funds for mitigation-related activities. Also, forest fires should be recognised as a disaster under the National Disaster Management Act (NDMA).

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 23, 2023

Q2. With the frequency of cyclones on the rise in the Indian Ocean, what measures can be taken to enhance disaster preparedness and reduce its impact? Also, mention the National Disaster Management Authority's (NDMA) guidelines in this regard.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has two main headings: 1) Measures to enhance disaster preparedness and reduce the impact of cyclones and 2) National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines.


Type 1: Write about the increasing frequency of cyclones in the Indian Ocean. Type 2: Mention about the cyclones


Heading 1: Measures to enhance the disaster preparedness and reduce the impact of cyclones

Heading 2: NDMA guidelines  

Conclusion: Mention about the need for multifaceted approach and government measures to effectively mitigate the effects of cyclones.


Answer: The Indian Ocean region has experienced an alarming increase in the frequency and intensity of cyclones in recent years. This has resulted in devastating impacts on coastal communities and infrastructure. On average, India experiences around 5 to 6 cyclonic storms in a year.


Measures to enhance disaster preparedness: 

  • Early Warning Systems: Utilize meteorological satellites, weather radars, and other advanced technologies to provide timely and accurate forecasts. Strengthen communication channels to disseminate warnings effectively to vulnerable communities.
    • For Example, early warning systems during cyclone Fani helped in tracking the cyclone's path by IMD and reduced the severity of destruction.
  • Community Preparedness: Conduct regular awareness campaigns and training programs to educate communities about cyclone preparedness and response strategies involving local authorities, NGOs, and community leaders.
    • For example, conducting regular awareness campaigns by NDMA
  • Evacuation and Shelter: Identify vulnerable coastal areas prone to cyclones and develop evacuation plans.
  • Coastal Zone Management: Preserve natural coastal barriers like mangroves, coral reefs, and sand dunes to absorb the impact of storm surges and reduce erosion.
    • For example, government is implementing Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for this.
  • Strict Regulation: Implement strict regulations on construction and development activities along the coastline to maintain buffer zones and protect vulnerable areas.
    • For example, government is implementing Coastal Zone Management Rules for this purpose.
  • Developing Resilient Infrastructure: Improve the resilience of critical infrastructure in coastal areas, including power grids, hospitals, schools, and transportation systems, to withstand cyclone impacts.
    • For example, government is implementing Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) project to strengthen the resilience of India’s coastline.
  • International Cooperation: Strengthen regional and international collaborations on capacity building measures like sharing knowledge, expertise, and resources in cyclone preparedness and response.
    • For example, India can learn best practices from countries like Japan, etc


National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines in this regard:

  • Establishing a state-of-the-art cyclone Early Warning System (EWS) involving observations, predictions, warnings and customized local-scale advice.
  • Expanding the warning dissemination outreach by using the services of Direct-To-Home (DTH) transmission in remote and rural areas (Panchayats).
  • Establishing a robust system of locating multi-purpose cyclone shelters and cattle mounds.
  • Maintaining the full designed carrying capacity of main drains and canals along with feeder primary/secondary/ tertiary channels, creating additional flood flow canals in frequently inundated areas.
  • Construction of saline embankments to prevent ingress of saline water associated with cyclonic storm surge.
  • Mapping and delineation of coastal wetlands, patches of mangroves and shelterbelts, identification of potential zones for expanding bio-shield spread based on remote sensing tools.
  • Developing Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) frameworks for addressing the sustainability and optimal utilization of coastal resources as also cyclone impact minimization plans.
  • Developing integrated hazard mitigation framework taking into account cyclone and associated storm surge, wind hazard, rainfall-runoff, river flood and Geographical Information System (GIS) models.


To effectively mitigate the impact of cyclones in the Indian Ocean region, a multi-faceted approach is necessary. Government has launched the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) with the World Bank, aimed at enhancing India's preparedness and resilience to cyclones and other natural disasters.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 23, 2023

Q3. What is  social entrepreneurship? How can social entrepreneurship contribute to mitigating the livelihood crisis in India?(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Intro: Define and elaborate about social entrepreneurship

Body: Write some points about livelihood crisis and elaborate on how livelihood crisis is mitigated with examples and solutions from India.

Conclusion: Write its significance vis a vis Indian scenario


Answer: Social entrepreneurship is when people use business skills and principles to solve social or environmental problems. Instead of just focusing on making profits, social entrepreneurs aim to create positive changes in their communities or the world. 

Examples include educational programs, providing banking services in underserved areas and helping children orphaned by epidemic disease.

Livelihood crisis in India

  • Of 90 crores working-age adults in India, only 41% are employed or seeking work.
  • As per the latest Annual PLFS Reports, the estimated Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) for women of age 15 years and above in the country was only 32.8% during 2021-22.
  • Informal job sector employs 90% of India’s workforce.
  • India's lifetime rural-urban migration was around 80 million as per 2011 Census. However, in India, with over 200 million people still living in multidimensional poverty, it is insufficient to address the livelihood crisis.

Social Entrepreneurship contribution to mitigating the livelihood crisis

  • Upskilling Vulnerable Communities: Social benefit organizations and entrepreneurs are providing technology-led training and imparting soft skills, helping under-served communities gain confidence and technical know-how necessary for formal job sectors. 
    • For instance, Lighthouse Communities Foundation is equipping youth with the necessary skills to access formal job opportunities and make them job-ready.
  • Addressing Information Asymmetry: These entities are bridging information gaps by equipping individuals with market knowledge and facilitating access to employment opportunities, making negotiations and benefits more accessible. 
    • For instance, Gramhal Foundation uses an AI chatbot to offer farmers crucial information on crop prices, weather, and government schemes.
  • Empowering Self-Reliance: By equipping communities with knowledge, skills, and a sense of shared community, social benefit organizations are fostering self-reliance and generating profitable revenue streams, leading to sustainable livelihoods. 
    • For instance, Kaarigar Clinic is equipping artisanal communities with market-ready business skills to generate sustainable revenue streams.
    • Sulabh International, founded by Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak  addresses a critical public health issue and also creates employment opportunities for marginalized communities.
  • Strengthening the Informal Sector: Social entrepreneurs are working to make the informal job sector less vulnerable, providing financial agency to workers in this sector, making self-employment a viable option. 
    • For instance, Ujjivan's microfinance and financial inclusion efforts empower individuals in the informal sector to establish or grow their businesses, leading to immediate income generation. 
  • Leveraging Technological Advancements: Emerging technologies and government initiatives like India Stack and ONDC are creating an ecosystem that enables paperless, cashless, and presence-less delivery systems, providing a foundation for social entrepreneurs to scale their impact and address livelihood challenges effectively. 
    • For instance, Karya, born out of a Microsoft Research project, provides AI-enabled digital work to people from marginalised communities with inclusive smartphone-based solutions to earn, learn, and grow.


By harnessing the power of entrepreneurship for social good, it offers a promising pathway to alleviate India's livelihood crisis. Through targeted interventions, skill development, and inclusive financial initiatives, social entrepreneurship holds the potential to empower individuals, foster self-reliance, and create lasting impact in vulnerable communities across the nation.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Oct. 20, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 20, 2023

Q3. Balancing reproductive rights with the rights of the unborn child raises fundamental ethical questions. In the light of recent SC Judgement, discuss the statement . (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly mention about the recent case 


Heading 1: Prioritizing Reproductive Rights of Women

Heading 2: Rights of the Unborn Child

Conclusion: Conclude on a positive note that both reproductive rights and rights of unborn child should be balanced.


Recently, the Supreme Court (SC) refused to permit the termination of a 26-week pregnancy under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971.The court denied to authorize an abortion when the pregnancy was viable and not an immediate threat to the woman's life. This ruling is based on the interpretation of Section 5 of the MTP Act, 1971, which permits abortion only when the woman's life and health are immediately at risk.

The case has sparked a discourse on the ethical considerations when balancing the rights of the unborn child and a woman's right to choose abortion


Prioritizing Reproductive Rights of Women


  • Maternal Well-being: The right to abortion recognizes a woman's autonomy over her body, allowing her to prioritize her physical and mental health. It ensures that pregnancies don't endanger a woman's life or health.
  • Informed Choice: The MTP Act acknowledges a woman's ability to make informed decisions about her reproductive choices. It respects her judgment, especially when she has consciously decided not to continue a pregnancy.
    • Recognizing the right to abortion respects a woman's ethical autonomy and her capacity to make moral decisions about her reproductive choices.
  • Privacy and Dignity: Allowing abortion safeguards a woman's privacy and dignity, preventing unwanted intrusions into her personal life and medical decisions.
    • In the 2017 case of Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs. Union Of India, the court affirmed women's constitutional right to reproductive choices under Article 21
  • Preventing Unwanted Childbirth: Enabling access to safe and legal abortion services helps prevent unwanted pregnancies and childbirths, which can have negative consequences for both the woman and the child.
  • Gender Equality: Upholding reproductive rights contributes to gender equality by ensuring that women have the same control over their reproductive health as men have over their bodies.
    • Justice B.V. Nagarathna emphasized that the woman’s decision should be respected and consideration of the woman’s socio-economic situation is must


Rights of the Unborn Child

  • Legal Protections: The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act also recognizes the importance of protecting the unborn child, especially after a certain gestational age. This legal recognition underscores the significance of the unborn child's rights.
  • Article 21 of the Indian Constitution: It guarantees the right to life and personal liberty. It is argued that the unborn child also falls within the purview of this right, especially as the pregnancy progresses and the fetus becomes more viable. 
  • Potential for Life: As pregnancy advances, the unborn child's potential for life and independent existence outside the mother's womb increases. Acknowledging this potential, proponents argue that the state has a duty to protect this nascent life, in consonance with the principles enshrined in the MTP Act and the Indian Constitution.
    • Justice Hima Kohli concurs that terminating the pregnancy shouldn't be granted unconditionally. Her stance aligns with the notion that both the rights of the unborn child and the State's responsibility should be taken into account.
  • Ethical Considerations: Ethical frameworks, often informed by religious, cultural, and philosophical beliefs, emphasize the sanctity of life and the moral duty to protect it. These ethical arguments advocate for recognizing and respecting the rights of the unborn child, particularly as the pregnancy progresses.


Therefore, the case underscores the importance of striking a sensitive equilibrium between women's reproductive rights and the safeguarding of the unborn, necessitating the active involvement of all concerned parties. Access to legal and safe abortion is an integral dimension of sexual and reproductive equality and must be a crucial element of conventional society. The government must enforce consistent clinical standards for abortion procedures in healthcare facilities nationwide. Additionally, the decision-making regarding abortion should be grounded in human rights, sound scientific principles, and alignment with technological advancements.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 20, 2023

Q1. “Ban on single-use plastic is a significant step but not a complete solution to curb plastic pollution”. Comment. (10M/150W)

Model Answer



We can introduce the answer either by explaining plastic pollution or when India decided to ban SUPs. We can also start by highlighting the contribution of SUPs to overall plastic pollution.


Since the directive is to comment, we first have to explain the statement, i.e., why is the step of banning SUPs is effective and what are its limitations. Then, we will start additional measures needed to combat plastic pollution.


Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of body section



Plastic pollution refers to the accumulation of plastic waste in the environment, leading to negative impacts on ecosystems, wildlife, human health, and overall ecological balance. In lieu of combating plastic pollution, India launched in 2018 the "Plastic Waste-Free India" campaign to eliminate single-use plastics.


Rationale behind the banning of SUPs

  • Limiting SUPs Consumption: The move would help to limit the widespread consumption of plastic, of which Single-Use Plastics (SUPs) are an important segment.
    • For example, the city of Bengaluru, India, implemented a ban on single-use plastics in 2016, which led to a significant reduction in plastic waste generation.
  • Mitigating Microplastic Generation: Many single-use plastics degrade into microplastics, tiny particles that can infiltrate various ecosystems.
  • To Mitigate Climate Change and Control GHG emissions: The production of SUP (using fossil fuels) releases significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs), like carbon dioxide. Banning SUPs can indirectly reduce the demand for fossil fuels and mitigate GHG emissions, which are a major driver of climate change.
    • For example, the production of plastic bags from fossil fuels releases approximately 6 kg of carbon dioxide per kg of plastic.
  • India’s Climate Target: India's INDC aims to reduce the carbon intensity of its GDP by 33-35% by 2030. A ban on SUPs, thus, helps transition to environmentally friendly alternatives.
  • Preserving Marine Ecosystems: Single-use plastics often end up in oceans and water bodies, posing a grave threat to marine life.
    • For example, the "Beat Plastic Pollution" campaign in Mumbai, India, organized beach clean-ups to raise awareness about the harmful impact of single-use plastics on marine ecosystems.
  • Enhancing Aesthetic Appeal: Banning single-use plastics contributes to cleaner landscapes, cities, and natural areas.
    • For example, McLeod Ganj in Himachal Pradesh banned single-use plastics in 2018 which resulted in cleaner streets, improved tourism experiences, and a positive visual impact on the town's natural beauty.


Banning of SUPs - not a complete solution (Students can use mind map to show this)

  • Lack of Cheap Alternatives: The availability of cheap alternatives to cater to the demand for SUPs’ banned products is a critical challenge as India generates 26000 tons of plastic waste every day, and it would be difficult to replace it.
  • Lack of Specific Advisory: India has not yet issued any advisory to stop the use of Single plastics (SUPs), and no penalties have been imposed following the ban.
  • Lack of Ability: The ban on SUPs impacts the most vulnerable segments, especially the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of the plastic industry.


Additional Measures Needed

  • Promote Recycling and the Circular Economy: Implement and strengthen recycling programs, ensuring efficient collection, segregation, and recycling of plastic waste.
    • For example, the city of Pune, Maharashtra, has implemented a successful door-to-door plastic waste collection system.
  • Eco-Friendly Packaging: Encourage industries to adopt sustainable packaging practices, such as using minimal packaging, reusable containers, and biodegradable materials.
    • For example, the brand "Paper Boat" in India packages its beverages in Tetra Paks, which are made from renewable materials and are recyclable.
  • Innovative Solutions: Invest in research and development of innovative technologies and materials that can replace plastics or make them more biodegradable.
    • For example, the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras has developed edible cutlery made from millets and rice, providing an innovative and eco-friendly alternative to single- use plastic cutlery.
  • Waste Management Infrastructure: Invest in efficient waste management systems, including proper collection, segregation, and recycling facilities.
    • For example, the "Clean Kerala Company" in Kerala has implemented a decentralized waste management system, including organic waste composting units and plastic shredding machines.


In essence, while banning single-use plastic items is an important step towards tackling plastic pollution, it's just one piece of the puzzle. A comprehensive solution involves a combination of regulatory measures, public awareness campaigns, sustainable practices, waste management improvements, innovation, and international cooperation to address the full spectrum of challenges posed by plastic pollution.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 20, 2023

Q2. Discuss the extent of biodiversity loss and its multifaceted impacts. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Explain what biodiversity is.

Main Body:

Heading 1: Extent of Biodiversity Loss:

Heading 2: Impact of Loss of Biodiversity:

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking, solution-centric conclusion.


Biodiversity includes the various forms of life on Earth, encompassing animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms, such as bacteria. These diverse species work together in complex ecosystems, like an intricate web, to maintain balance and support life. Biodiversity sustains vital aspects of human existence, including food, clean water, medicine, and shelter.


Extent of Biodiversity Loss:

  • At least 1.2 million plant and animal species are at risk of extinction, with many facing this threat before 2100. These species include amphibians, cycads, and corals.
  • Since the 16th century, we've witnessed the extinction of at least 680 vertebrates and nearly 600 plants. Currently, species are disappearing at a rate 10 to 1,000 times faster than the natural 'background' rate of extinction.
  • According to the Living Planet Report 2022, we've experienced an average 69% loss in the abundance of mammal, bird, reptile, fish, and amphibian species since 1970.
    • Populations of vertebrates in freshwater ecosystems have declined even more, by an average of 83% over the same period.
  • Trends in plants, fungi, and invertebrates, such as insects, are not as well documented but severe declines have been observed in some regions. 
    • For instance, in Germany, about 70% of plant species have declined since the 1960s.


Impact of loss of biodiversity:

  • Reduced Food Security: Biodiversity loss can decrease agricultural productivity and make food systems more susceptible to pests, diseases, and climate change.
  • Decline in Human Health: Biodiversity plays a critical role in the development of new medicines, as many drugs are derived from plants or animals.
  • Economic Losses: Biodiversity supports numerous industries, including agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and tourism. Its loss can reduce the productivity and sustainability of these industries, leading to economic losses and reduced employment opportunities.
  • Loss of Cultural Values: Biodiversity holds cultural and spiritual significance, particularly for indigenous communities. The loss of species and ecosystems can result in the erosion of cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and spiritual connections to nature.
  • Increased Vulnerability to Natural Disasters: Biodiversity loss can reduce the ability of ecosystems to buffer natural disasters like floods and storms, increasing the vulnerability of human settlements to these events.
  • Reduced Resilience to Climate Change: Biodiversity loss can diminish the capacity of ecosystems to adapt to changing climate conditions, potentially exacerbating the impacts of climate change on human societies.


The indiscriminate use of natural resources makes it humanity's primary responsibility to preserve and protect biodiversity. While national and international conventions, policies, and measures are essential, individuals have a vital role to play in biodiversity conservation.

Subjects : Environment

Oct. 19, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 19, 2023

Q1. The Aravalli Green Wall project has been proposed as a nature-based solution to mitigate climate change and protect biodiversity in the region. Highlight the potential ecological, economic, and social benefits of this project, as well as the challenges that need to be addressed to ensure its success.(10M, 150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main headings: 1) Potential ecological, economic and social benefits of the project and 2) Challenges that need to be addressed. Additionally, provide a way forward for a comprehensive answer.


Type 1: State the aim of the project. Also mention the challenges ahead. Type 2: Write the objective of the project and provide data to show the utility of the project.


Heading 1: Potential ecological, economic and social benefits of the project: Enlist various benefits that will arise out of this project.

Heading 2: Challenges that need to be addressed: Enlist potential issues that can hurt the objectives of the project. For value addition, use institutional data and a way forward.

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking conclusion – Type 1: State the significance of the project in combating desertification and land degradation and ensuring a greener future. Type 2: Suggestive steps in the way forward could be written as a conclusion.


Answer: According to ISRO’s Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas, around 30% of the country’s land underwent land degradation in 2018-19. Aravalli Green Wall project aims to “green” a 5 km buffer region around the Aravalli hill range in Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Delhi through afforestation and by restoring water bodies.


Potential ecological, economic and social benefits of the project

Ecological benefits:

  • Carbon Sequestration by restoring vegetation cover, helping India achieve its INDCs to create 2.5-3 Gt of CO2 sink.
  • Water conservation as enhanced vegetation cover would improve water retention and groundwater recharge
  • Biodiversity conservation by connecting fragmented ecosystems and serving as habitat corridor for wildlife


Economic benefits:

  • Ecosystem services via afforestation, agro-forestry and water conservation to promote sustainable livelihood options.
  • Tourism and related employment opportunities for the local communities would be promoted by enhanced greenery in the region.


Social benefits:

  • Improved health and well-being of the local communities through enhanced green spaces, giving way for recreation and stress reduction.
  • Cultural and spiritual values of the local communities like traditional knowledge, cultural practices, etc., would be preserved.


Challenges that need to be addressed

  • Problem of illegal mining is the biggest concern that has led to the destruction of the Aravalli Mountain system.
  • Land use conflicts would arise because of increasing population pressure and demand for agricultural land, urbanisation and development projects.
  • Financing this long-term project would be an issue as it requires effective budgetary support and private participation.
  • Vulnerability to climate change would affect the survival of trees and shrubs planted under the project.


Way forward

  • Curbing the illegal mining through strict regulations and inter-state cooperation
  • Empowering local communities in decision-making processes, ensuring equitable benefit-sharing.
  • Establishing robust monitoring for adaptive management.
  • Bringing in innovative solutions for project implementation.
  • Fostering multi-stakeholder partnerships to minimize conflicts


Implementing nature-based solutions like the Aravalli Green Wall project is crucial for a sustainable future, as it addresses climate change, protects biodiversity and fosters community resilience, paving the way for a harmonious coexistence between humans and nature.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 19, 2023

Q2. Solid waste management (SWM) has emerged as one of the most massive development challenges in urban India. Discuss.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Answer: Solid waste management (SWM) is a critical issue in India, especially in urban areas. According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India generates approximately 62 million tons of solid waste annually, of which about 45 million tons is collected and only 12 million tons is treated. With the rapid urbanization and industrialization, this amount is expected to increase to 165 million tons by 2030.


Challenges associated with the Solid waste management (SWM) in urban areas: 


Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main headings: 1) how Solid waste management (SWM) has emerged as one of the most massive development challenges in urban India and 2) measures taken by government to address the challenge of urban solid waste


Type 1: Write observations of some report about problem of urban solid waste in India

Type 2: Explain about solid waste, its types and sources


Heading 1: Challenges associated with the Solid waste management (SWM) in urban areas

Heading 2: Government of India has taken various measures to address the challenges of urban solid waste management

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking conclusion Type 1: Mention about government schemes and programmes. Type 2: Explain what suitable measures are required to effectively deal with the problem of urban solid waste.

  • Lack of infrastructure and resources: According to CPCB, Indian cities produce around 62 million tonnes of solid waste every year, of which only 58% is collected, 11% is treated and only 31% is disposed off in a safe and scientific manner.
    • For example, in states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, only around 25% of the collected waste is disposed off properly.
  • Inadequate waste disposal methods: A large portion of the waste generated is dumped in open landfills, which is harmful to the environment and human health.
    • For example, in India, 77% of waste is disposed of in open dumps, 18% is composted and just 5% is recycled.
  • Lack of public awareness and citizen participation: There is a lack of understanding of the importance of proper waste disposal, waste reduction, reuse, and recycling.
    • For example, there is poor implementation of laws like Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and ban on plastic bags.
  • Informal sector involvement: The informal sector plays a significant role in SWM in India, with waste pickers and recyclers collecting and processing a significant portion of the waste generated. However, they operate outside the formal waste management system and face various challenges, including lack of recognition, job insecurity, and low wages.
    • For example, informal waste economy employs about 0.5% - 2% of the urban population worldwide. Waste-pickers alone account for 0.1% of India’s urban workforce.
  • Institutional Factors: Urban local bodies (ULBs) are responsible for keeping cities and towns clean. However, most ULBs lack adequate infrastructure and face various strategic and institutional weaknesses, such as poor institutional capacity, financial constraints, and a lack of political will.
  • Technology and innovation challenges: The adoption of technology and innovation in SWM faces various challenges, including a lack of awareness and knowledge among stakeholders, inadequate research and development, and high implementation costs.


Government of India has taken various measures to address the challenges of urban solid waste management 

  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission): The campaign aims to achieve an open-defecation-free India and improve solid waste management through various initiatives.
  • Waste-to-Energy (WtE) projects: The Government of India has promoted the development of WtE projects to manage solid waste and generate energy.
    • The Union budget 2023-24 aims to establish 500 new ‘waste to wealth’ plants under GOBARdhan (Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources Dhan) scheme for promoting circular economy.
  • Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, and the e-Waste Management Rules, 2016: Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) concept aims to promote waste reduction, reuse, and recycling and reduce the burden on municipal solid waste management.
  • Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 and 2016: The rules provide guidelines for waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal, and promote source segregation, decentralized waste management, and the involvement of the informal sector.
  • Public-private partnerships: The government has promoted public-private partnerships (PPPs) in solid waste management to bring in private sector expertise, technology, and investment.
    • For example, Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) launched a PPP project to improve solid waste management in the city.


Most of the legislations for waste disposal have failed to achieve their objectives due to a lack of clarity and awareness amongst the stakeholders and poor enforcement by the regulators. There is a need to streamline waste management practices using technology and make the SWM system techno-economically viable and sustainable.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 19, 2023

Q3. What is Mission LiFE introduced at the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Glasgow? Discuss how Mission LiFE introduced by India, will contribute towards the achievement of the SDG 2030 agenda. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main headings: 1) Features of Mission LiFE and 2) Role of Mission LiFE in achieving SDGs 2030.


Type 1: Explain the purpose of LiFE mission and provide some relevant data in this regard. Type 2: Establish a correlation between the LiFE mission and SDG 2030 agenda.


Heading 1: Features of Mission LiFE: Enlist the features that define the concept of LiFE.

Heading 2: Role of Mission LiFE in achieving SDGs 2030: Explain the vital role LiFE mission could play in achieving different SDGs. For value addition, use institutional data.     

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking conclusion – Type 1: Mention the significance of adopting LiFE mission tools for sustainable development. Type 2: Additional suggestive steps could be written as a conclusion.

Answer: LiFE is an India-led global mass movement that aims to nudge individuals and communities to practice an environmentally conscious lifestyle that is synchronous with nature. In India, at least 80% of all villages and urban local bodies are aimed to become environment-friendly by 2028.

Features of Mission LiFE

  • Objective of mobilizing at least one billion Indians and other global citizens to take action for protecting and conserving the environment in the period 2022–28.

Envisaged in 3 phases:

  • Change in Demand: Nudging people demand for environment-friendly goods and services.
  • Change in Supply from the industries due to changing patterns of individual demands.
  • Change in Policy as changing demand and supply dynamics would trigger shifts in large-scale industrial and government policies.
  • A comprehensive list of 75 individual LiFE actions across 7 categories including Water saved, Single use plastic reduced, Sustainable food systems adopted, Waste reduced, etc.


Role of Mission LiFE in achieving SDGs 2030

According to NITI Aayog, following SDGs are in direct correlation with LiFE actions:

  • Affordable and clean energy (SDG 7) as ‘Energy saved’ is one of seven categories including actions like promoting LED bulbs, using smart switches, rooftop solar setups, etc.
  • Decent Work and Economic Growth (SDG 8) would be achieved by creating as many as 65 million jobs by 2030 via bold environmental actions.
  • Sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) by promoting green spaces and by reducing air pollution.
  • Responsible production and consumption (SDG 12) by promoting energy efficiency, recycle & reuse of plastic items and reducing wastage of resources.
  • Climate change (SDG 13) by promoting EVs, public transport, water conservation, renewable energy sources along with waste reduction.
  • Life under water (SDG 14) by inhibiting water pollution and by implementing the Amrit Sarovar Scheme and clean-up drives for water bodies.
  • Life on land (SDG 15) by promoting sustainable cities, using cloth bags, planting trees & medicinal plants and reducing E-waste.

Note- Almost all SDGs are indirectly interlinked with the LiFE Mission actions, including SDG 1, SDG 2 through multiple jobs creation and reduction in food wastages, SDG 3 through reduced pollution, etc.

Mission LiFE is a bold and ambitious initiative that has the potential to make a significant contribution to the achievement of the SDGs on a global scale. It is a call to action for individuals, communities, businesses and governments to come together and work towards a more sustainable future.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Oct. 18, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 18, 2023

Q3. Terrorism is a global challenge that can only be defeated through unity, resilience, and a commitment to peace. In light of the statement, mention the reasons for spread of terrorism in India  and methods through which it can be curbed. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly define terrorism and substantiate with recent example of Hamas attack in Israel


Heading 1: Reason for spread of terrorism in India

Heading 2: Methods to curb terrorism

Conclusion: Mention the way forward to address the menace of terrorism on a balanced note. 



Terrorism is the use of violence or the threat of violence, typically targeting civilians or non-combatants, for political, religious, or ideological purposes. As per Global Terrorism Index (GTI) 2023, attacks are more deadly with 26% more people dying in each incident – the first rise in lethality in five years. The recent Hamas attack in Israel serves as a notable example of this trend.


As far as India is concerned, India ranks 13th on GTI 2023 and was among the 25 worst terror-hit countries.


Reasons for spread of terrorism in India 

  • Religious and Communal Tensions: India's diverse religious and communal landscape has at times led to conflicts and acts of terrorism, with tensions between different religious and ethnic groups contributing to the issue.
    • For ex: 2002 Gujarat riots and the 1993 Bombay bombings.
  • Ethnic and Separatist Movements: Several regions in India have witnessed ethnic or separatist movements seeking autonomy or independence, often resorting to terrorism to advance their objectives
    • For ex: The conflict in Jammu and Kashmir, driven by demands for autonomy and independence, has given rise to various militant groups, including Hizbul Mujahideen and Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).
  • Radicalization and Recruitment: The radicalization of individuals, often via the internet and social media, has played a role in the spread of terrorism in India. Some individuals have been influenced to join international terrorist organizations.
    • For ex: Cases of radicalization and recruitment through social media and online platforms have been reported, with individuals from India joining international terrorist organizations like ISIS.
  • Geopolitical Factors: India's geopolitical relations with neighboring countries, such as Pakistan and China, have had security implications and have been exploited by terrorist organizations for their agendas
  • Proximity to Conflict Zones: India shares borders with countries that have experienced conflict, such as Pakistan and Afghanistan. This geographical proximity can lead to the infiltration of militant groups and the spread of terrorist activities.


Methods to Curb Terrorism

  • Strengthening Intelligence Agencies: Enhance the capabilities of intelligence agencies like the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) and the Intelligence Bureau (IB) to gather actionable intelligence on terrorist activities. Continuously train and equip law enforcement agencies and security personnel to deal with evolving terrorist threats and technologies.
    • For ex: The Multi-Agency Centre (MAC) and the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) play key roles.
  • Legislative Measures: Enforce and strengthen existing anti-terrorism laws, such as the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA). Also review and update these laws as needed.


  • Cybersecurity: Establish specialized cybercrime units to monitor online activities and track potential threats. Monitor social media and online platforms for signs of radicalization and recruitment.
    • For ex: Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) prevents misuse of cyberspace for furthering the cause of extremist and terrorist groups
  • Financial Measures: Strengthen financial intelligence units to track and disrupt the financing of terrorist organizations.Freeze the assets of individuals and entities linked to terrorism.
    • For ex: Financial Intelligence Unit-India (FIU-IND) plays a crucial role in identifying and preventing the flow of funds to terrorist organizations.
  • Border Security and Coastal Defense: Enhance coastal security to prevent infiltration and smuggling of arms and explosives. Improve technology and infrastructure along borders to prevent unauthorized entry.


Therefore, curbing the menace of terrorism is an urgent and complex challenge that demands a multi-faceted approach. While security measures are crucial, addressing the root causes of terrorism, fostering international cooperation, and promoting social and economic development in regions prone to extremism are equally essential. It is through a combination of proactive strategies, intelligence-sharing, diplomacy, and global solidarity that we can hope to create a safer world where the scourge of terrorism is diminished, allowing peace, tolerance, and prosperity to prevail.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 18, 2023

Q.1 Discuss the problem of marine pollution, emphasizing its effects. Also, explain mitigation measures as prescribed under the London Convention of 1972. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Define marine pollution and state the objective of the London Convention 1972. Use a diagram to show the causes of marine pollution.


Heading 1: Effects of Marine Pollution:

Heading 2: London Convention 1972 and Marine Pollution Mitigation:

Conclusion: Suggestive steps in the way forward could be written as a conclusion



Marine pollution is the spreading of various harmful substances such as oil, plastic, industrial & agricultural waste, chemical particles, etc., in the ocean. The objective of the London Convention 1972 is to prevent marine pollution by controlling all the sources of pollution and preventing the dumping of wastes into the sea.

Effects of Marine Pollution:

  • Harm to marine life through direct toxicity, physical entanglement, and disruption of marine habitats.
    • For example, coral bleaching, Heavy metals/oil toxicity, fishing gear/plastic debris entanglement (Great Pacific Garbage Patch), etc.
  • Damage to ecosystems by disrupting food chains and habitats.
    • For example, oil spills kill algae disrupting the food chain, sewage discharge leading to algal blooms, etc.
  • Depletion of oxygen in seawater: Excess debris in the ocean slowly degrades over many years, resulting in less oxygen in the ocean.
    • For example, low levels of oxygen in the ocean lead to the death of ocean animals such as penguins, dolphins, whales, and sharks.
  • Threat to human health: Pollutants in the ocean make their way back to humans. Small organisms ingest toxins and are eaten by larger predators, many of which are seafood that we eventually eat.
    • For example, the toxins in contaminated animals when deposited in human tissue can lead to long-term health conditions, cancer, and birth defects.
  • Economic impacts include damage to fishing and aquaculture industries, the loss of livelihood of coastal communities, damage to tourism, etc.
    • For example, according to an Australian government study, Great Barrier Reef tourism areas are at risk of losing 1 million visitors per year and 10,000 tourism jobs.


London Convention 1972 and Marine Pollution Mitigation:

Measures to mitigate marine pollution under the London Convention 1972 are:

  • Prohibition of dumping of certain substances including oil, radioactive waste, and heavy metals.
  • Regulation of dumping of other substances by setting limits, making dumping zones, and other such strict criteria and guidelines.
  • Coordination between parties to the convention through prior notification and consultation before engaging in dumping activities, allowing for an assessment of potential impacts.
  • Monitoring is done by contracting parties and international organizations in terms of type and quantity of material dumped, along with location and method used for dumping.
  • International cooperation and Research & Development are implicit features of marine pollution mitigation under the London Convention 1972.


Marine pollution poses a significant threat to marine ecosystems and human well-being. To mitigate its harmful effects, it is crucial to implement measures such as pollution prevention, proper waste management, stricter regulations, and public awareness to preserve the health and integrity of our oceans.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Oct. 18, 2023

Q2. Do you think that even after years of implementation, the result of the environmental impact assessment has not been encouraging? Critically examine.  (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by defining environmental impact assessment. Give a brief description of the evolution of EIA in India.


Heading 1: Success of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):

Heading 2: Shortcomings in its Implementation:

Conclusion: Suggest a way forward.


Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural, and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. In 1994, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF), under the Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, made Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for the expansion or modernization of any activity or for setting up new projects listed in Schedule 1 of the notification.


Success of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):

  • Highlighting concerns: Several EIA reports have brought out environmental concerns arising out of large developmental projects.
    • For example, environmentalists have exposed inadequacies in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the ambitious Ken-Betwa River link project.
  • Detailed assessment: It has helped carry out detailed assessments in ecologically sensitive areas.
    • For example, a detailed EIA was submitted by the authorities regarding a high-level Bridge Construction across the Pulicat Lake.
  • People participation: EIA ensures decision making at the grassroots level and involvement of local authorities.
    • For example, the District-level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (DEIAA) headed by the District Collector is assigned the responsibility of granting environmental clearance up to a 5-hectare mine lease area for minor minerals, mainly sand.
  • Mitigation measures: The EIA process helps ensure that the projects are more environmentally responsible.
    • For example, the construction of the Konkan Railway, which passes through ecologically sensitive areas along the western coast of India, adopted various mitigation measures after potential impacts on wildlife, forests, and local communities were highlighted.


Shortcomings in its Implementation:

  • Weak Enforcement and Monitoring: One of the major challenges is the lack of robust enforcement and monitoring mechanisms. Even if EIA reports identify potential negative impacts, their recommendations might not always be implemented effectively.
  • Inadequate Expertise: There have been concerns about the quality and objectivity of EIA reports. Insufficient expertise in assessing complex environmental and social impacts can lead to inaccurate evaluations.
  • Post-Approval Impact: The effectiveness of EIAs is sometimes limited because once projects are approved, their actual impact might differ from what was assessed due to changes in project design, construction methods, or unforeseen circumstances.
  • Exemptions: There are several projects with significant environmental impacts that are exempted from the notification either because they are not listed in Schedule I, or their investments are less than what is provided for in the notification.
  • Lack of Credibility
    • There is a lack of credibility in EIA due to several cases of fraudulent EIA studies.
    • The Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) of strategic industries, such as nuclear energy projects, are kept confidential for political and administrative reasons.
  • Public Participation at a Later Stage: Public comments are taken into account only at the later stage of project clearance, which leads to conflict in project clearance.
  • Length and Technical Process: EIA process is long and time-consuming. The EIA document in itself is bulky and technical in nature, making it difficult to decipher and to help in the decision-making process.


EIA being a useful tool, there is a need to overcome its shortcomings through appropriate amendments and the addition of concepts such as global warming and climate change to deal with the upcoming environmental challenges. Strengthening the EIA process is essential in ensuring sustainable development while minimizing environmental and social harm.

Subjects : Environment
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