Nov. 30, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 30, 2023

Q2. A woman was sexually harassed by a top-level senior executive in a large IT company. She decided to sue the company in response, and during settlement discussions the company offered her an extremely large monetary settlement. The agreement included a condition that the woman had to confirm that the executive had done nothing wrong and prohibited her from discussing anything about the incident in public.

However, before the date of signing the settlement agreement, the woman's lawyer heard that the executive had done this before, and that the settlement amount was high because the company probably had a legal obligation to dismiss the executive but wanted to keep him for his money-making capabilities. Also, the woman is in need of the money as she is the only bread earner in her family and the condition of the family is very poor and by signing the agreement, she can save her job as she has been threatened by the company officials.

1. Who are the stakeholders involved in the case study?
2. What are the ethical issues posed in the case study?
3. What options does the woman have?
4. What should she do and why?                 (250 words, 20 marks) 

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer: 

The case study highlights the issue of sexual harassment of women at workplace and other related issues.


Introduce the scenario where a woman who was sexually harassed by a senior executive and discuss the woman's need for the money, the potential motives behind the company's offer, and the impact on her job security.


As per the demand of the question, we can divide the answer into the following sections: 

Section 1: Identify the stakeholders involved in the case study and discuss the interests, rights, and responsibilities of each stakeholder in relation to the case. 

Section 2: Identify the ethical issues posed in the case study. 

Section 3: Present the options available to the woman in this situation. 

Section 4: Analyze the options available to the woman and make a recommendation based on ethical considerations and her best interests. Emphasize the importance of her well-being, her need for justice, and the potential impact on future victims if she remains silent.


Emphasize the importance of seeking legal advice and support to navigate the complexities of the situation.

Answer: This case study highlights some of the issues that women face in the workplace and in the legal system. It shows how a company can use its power to silence victims of sexual harassment by offering a large monetary settlement. The above case study also shows how such practices exist despite The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 coming in force. 


  1. Stakeholders involved in the case study:
  1. The woman employee: She is the victim of sexual harassment and is the one being offered a monetary settlement.  
  1. The executive employee: He is the perpetrator of the sexual harassment and the one who stands to benefit from the monetary settlement.  
  1. The company: They are the employer of the executive and are responsible for ensuring that the workplace is free from harassment.  
  1. The woman's lawyer: They are representing the woman and are advocating for her rights. 
  1. The family: They are dependent on the woman for financial support and will be affected by the outcome of the settlement.  


  1. Ethical issues posed in the case study:
  1. Inaction against the executive: There is lack of fairness as executive has committed sexual harassment against the woman and other women in the past but is being allowed to remain in his position due to the company's financial interests.  
  1. Freedom of speech: The woman’s voice can be suppressed as she is being offered a large monetary settlement in exchange for her silence about the incident, which could be seen as an attempt to cover up the executive's actions.  
  1. Benefitting from her vulnerabilities: The woman is in a difficult financial situation and needs the money, which may lead her to accept the settlement despite the restrictive terms.  This can highlight the potential conflict of profit over values. 
  1. Lack of corporate governance: The company may be using the woman's financial need to pressurize her into accepting the settlement and its conditions.  
  1. Threats to the women safety: The woman may be facing threats from the company officials, which could make her feel that she has no other option than to accept the settlement.  
  1. Inadequate justice: The woman may not have access to legal advice to help her make an informed decision about the settlement offer. This can lead to lack of fairness in the process.  

  1. Possible Options available to the women:
  1. The woman can accept the settlement and sign the agreement that includes the condition that the executive has done no wrong and that she cannot discuss the incident publicly.  



  • Receives a large amount of money, which can improve her family's financial situation. 
  • Can save her job and avoid strained relations with company officials. 
  • Agree that the executive did nothing wrong, which is against the truth. 
  • The employees may never come to know the real truth. 
  • The executive can continue such behavior in future as well. 
  • A culture of covering-up of such issues can develop.  


  1. The woman can reject the settlement and pursue legal action against the company and the executive.   



  • Will ensure justice by holding the company and executive accountable for their actions. 
  • Maintains the truth and integrity. 
  • This may lead to an expensive legal process. There can be financial burden on the woman and her family. 
  • There is uncertainty of the outcome
  • It can impact her career and professional reputation. 
  • The women can be further harassed from the company. 


  1. The woman can accept the settlement but negotiate with the company to alter the agreement to allow her to discuss the incident publicly or to remove the condition that the executive has done no wrong.  



  • Get a financial settlement and retain the ability to discuss the incident publicly. 
  • Can renegotiate the condition regarding the executive's wrongdoing. 
  • The company may resist altering the agreement. 
  • Agreeing to conditions that contradict the truth or compromise integrity. 
  • Need to work with a company which covers up unethical issues.  


  1. The woman can consult with her lawyer and other stakeholders to come up with an alternative agreement that meets her needs and those of her family. 



  • Allows for solutions by considering the woman's needs and her family interests. 
  • Considers the legal and financial implications.  
  • May prolong the resolution process. 
  • Difficulty in reaching consensus among stakeholders.  
  • May lead to compromise on certain aspects to reach an agreement. 


  1. The women should:
  • Not sign the settlement agreement. The agreement would require her to confirm that the executive had done nothing wrong, which is clearly not true.  
  • It would also require her to remain silent about the incident, which would not only prevent her from speaking publicly about the incident but would also remove her ability to make any kind of complaint against the executive in the future.  
  • Furthermore, the company's offer of a large monetary settlement indicates that they are aware of the executive's past behavior and may be attempting to cover it up.  
  • In the current situation, the woman's best course of action is to first discuss the issue with other victims and then after their suggestions pursue legal action against the company.  
  • She can take the help of free legal aid provided by the government and file a case against the company citing sexual harassment. This would give her the opportunity to seek justice and potentially receive compensation for any damages she may have incurred.  
  • This will ensure that she is following the ethical course of action while upholding the integrity and fight for justice not just for herself but for other women who have faced a similar problem.  
  • Furthermore, it would also allow her to speak publicly about the incident, which could potentially draw attention to the executive's past behavior and lead to his dismissal.  
  • Ultimately, the woman should weigh the pros and cons of signing the settlement agreement before making a decision. Although the offer may seem tempting, the long-term implications of signing the agreement could be detrimental.  


The case study suggests that anyone should be held accountable for any sexual misconduct and should be aware of the consequences of their actions. It also implies that they should not be allowed to gain any benefits from their positions of power and influence. Finally, it stresses the importance of legal obligations in cases of sexual misconduct. 


Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 30, 2023

Q1. The Roads and Highways Minister is appointed newly in a state. He happens to be a close relative of a big contractor who has been awarded several road projects in the state in the past. To gain favoritism and kickbacks, the minister has awarded a contract for a new highway project to the same contractor without any competitive bidding process, violating all norms of probity and transparency.
The contractor, with the help of the minister, is using inferior quality materials and cutting corners to keep the costs down and maximize profits. This is resulting in a poorly built road with weak bridges and substandard construction work. The road is not only a danger to the commuters but is also affecting the environment with debris and dust pollution.
The local communities are also affected due to the corrupt practices of the minister and contractor. Apart from environmental pollution, they are also facing the brunt of increased traffic and noise pollution on the highway. The local businesses have been affected as the local roads are blocked due to the construction of the highway and the traffic congestion is also affecting their daily operations.

However, a bureaucrat from the Ministry of Roads and Highways has been opposing the project due to the corrupt practices and the nexus between the minister and contractor. But he has been pressurized by the minister and the contractor to neglect the quality of the project. He has also been threatened to be transferred to punishment posting. 

1. Identify the stakeholders involved in the case study.
2. What are the ethical implications of the minister's decision to award the project without any competitive bidding process?
3. What are the options are available with the bureaucrat and what option should he choose and why? 

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer: 

The case study highlights the nexus between politician and the contractor and the conflict of interest involved in awarding the contract.  


Introduce the above scenario and highlight the unethical practices. 


As per the demand of the question, we can divide the answer into the following sections: 

Section 1: Identify the stakeholders involved in the case study. Discuss the interests, concerns, and potential impacts on each stakeholder  

Section 2: Discuss the ethical implications of the minister's decision to award the project without any competitive bidding process. 

Section 3: Explore the options available to the bureaucrat and discuss the potential risks and consequences the bureaucrat faces.


Emphasize the importance of transparency, fair competition, and adherence to ethical norms in awarding public projects.  


Answer: This case study looks at the problem of corruption and nepotism in government contracts, particularly in infrastructure projects. It highlights the lack of probity and transparency in awarding such contracts, the poor quality of work and environmental damage that result from such practices. Additionally, it demonstrates the challenges faced by bureaucrats who oppose such practices. 


  1. Stakeholders involved in the case study:
  1. Roads and Highways Minister: The newly appointed minister who is engaged in corrupt practices by awarding contracts to a close relative. 
  1. Contractor: The relative of the minister who has been awarded multiple road projects without following due procedure.  
  1. Bureaucrat from the Ministry of Roads and Highways: The individual who opposes the project and is concerned about the corrupt practices and the poor quality of construction.  
  1. Commuters: People who will use the poorly constructed road and bridges. 
  1. Local Communities: Residents living near the highway who are affected by increased traffic, noise pollution and environmental pollution. 
  1. Local Businesses: Businesses located near the highway whose operations are affected by road blockages, traffic congestion, and decreased accessibility due to the construction project. 


 2.The minister's decision to award the project without any competitive bidding process raises several ethical implications: 

  1. Fairness and Equity: By bypassing the competitive bidding process, the minister denies other potential contractors a fair chance to compete for the project. This undermines principles of fairness, equal opportunity, and meritocracy. It also promotes nepotism within the system.  
  1. Transparency and Accountability: By disregarding competitive bidding processes, the minister undermines the transparency and accountability that should exist in public procurement. 
  1. Conflict of Interest: The minister's close family relationship with the contractor raises concerns about conflicts of interest. The decision to award the project to the same contractor without competition suggests a misuse of power for personal gain, which is ethically questionable. 
  1. Misuse of Public Funds: By awarding the contract without competitive bidding, there is a risk of overpaying for the project or not obtaining the best value for public funds.  
  1. Compromised Quality and Safety: The use of inferior materials and cutting corners to maximize profits not only compromises the quality of the infrastructure but also poses risk to the safety of the commuters. 
  1. Environmental Impact: The poor construction practices and resulting pollution from debris and dust have negative environmental implications.  


  1. Options available with the Bureaucrat:
  2. The bureaucrat can gather evidence of the corrupt practices and report them to the appropriate authorities, such as an anti-corruption agency or an ombudsman.



  • He upholds integrity, transparency, and accountability. 
  • Exposes corruption and may lead to an investigation. 
  • Promotes a culture of ethical conduct and fairness in government contracts. 
  • Understands the available legal options, protections, and potential legal remedies. 
  • Empowers the bureaucrat to make informed decisions based on legal expertise. 
  • Provides a stronger foundation for potential legal actions against corrupt practices. 

  • Risk of backlash, threats, or retaliation from the minister and contractor. 
  • Lack of institutional support for whistleblowers, which may undermine the effectiveness of the report. 
  • Potential personal and professional consequences for the bureaucrat, such as transfer to a less desirable posting. 
  • Legal proceedings can be time-consuming, costly, and require substantial evidence. 
  • Exposure to further risks, pressures, and potential retaliation during the legal process. 
  • Outcomes may be uncertain, and legal actions may not guarantee immediate resolution or change. 


  1. The bureaucrat can reach out to trusted colleagues or whistleblower networks within or outside the organization to seek advice, support, and potential collective action.



  • Offers emotional support, guidance, and potential solidarity from trusted colleagues or whistleblower networks. 
  • Increases the chances of gaining wider attention and support for addressing corrupt practices. 
  • Strengthens the collective voice against corruption and provides a support system for the bureaucrats. 

  • The level of support from colleagues may vary, and some individuals may be hesitant to get involved due to fears of reprisals. 
  • Dependence on external networks or colleagues may introduce additional risks and potential leaks of sensitive information
  • Reliance on collective action may require careful selection of trustworthy and reliable allies to minimize risks. 


  1. The bureaucrat can choose to resign from their position and publicly disclose the corrupt practices, potentially through the media or other channels.



  • Exposes corruption to the public, media, and civil society, raising awareness and increasing pressure for action and reforms. 
  • Maintains personal integrity and ethical standards. 
  • Sends a strong message about the bureaucrat's commitment to transparency and accountability. 

  • Personal and financial consequences of resignation, especially if alternative employment is not readily available. 
  • Potential legal risks, such as defamation suits or character assassination. 
  • Lack of immediate impact on addressing the corrupt practices unless accompanied by additional actions or public pressure. 


  1. The bureaucrat can gather evidence of the corrupt practices and report them to the appropriate authorities, such as an anti-corruption agency or an ombudsman because:  
  • By gathering evidence, the bureaucrat can provide concrete proof of the corrupt practices in which the minister and contractor are involved. 
  • Reporting corrupt practices will help to uphold the principles of transparency and probity. It helps maintain accountability and transparency in awarding the contracts and avoid the misuse of public funds for personal gain. 
  • Public interest can be upheld as the poorly built road and substandard construction not only endanger the safety of commuters but also negatively impact the environment and local communities. 
  • Reporting the corruption practices can deter the bureaucrat's and ensure the commitment to maintaining professional integrity and upholding ethical standards. 
  • Reporting the corrupt practices to anti-corruption agencies or ombudsmen helps in investigating the matter in legal and professional way. These bodies have the experience to handle such cases and can take necessary actions to address the issue. 
  • Taking a stand against corruption sets an example and serves as a deterrent for future misconduct. It sends a strong message that corrupt practices will not be tolerated and encourages a culture of transparency and accountability. 


Bureaucrats play a crucial role in upholding ethical conduct and promoting transparent governance. They must prioritize personal integrity, resist corrupt influences, and be familiar with whistleblower protections to expose wrongdoing and contribute to a culture of accountability and transparency in public administration. By doing so, they can actively combat corruption and ensure the public's best interests are served.


Subjects : Ethics

Nov. 29, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 29, 2023

Q2. What are the factors responsible for the corruption in India? What strategies can be implemented to reduce the prevalence of corruption in India given its complex socio-political reality? (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach for the answer:  


The question talks about the factors which are responsible for the corruption in India. And the second section is about the strategies to control the prevalence of corruption. Here, we must highlight the complex socio-political reality of India as well.  



1: Definition-based Introduction: Begin by providing a brief definition of corruption and its impact on society, emphasizing its detrimental effects on governance, economy, and social development.

2: Context-based Introduction: Introduce the question by highlighting the prevalence of corruption in India and the need to identify the factors responsible for its existence.



As the directive is what, we need to first mention the factors and divide the answer into two sections.

Section 1: Discuss the factors responsible for corruption in India.

Section 2: Discuss the strategies to Reduce Corruption in India



Type 1: Emphasize the collective responsibility of citizens, government, and institutions in working together to create a corruption-free India.

Type 2: Reiterate the negative consequences of corruption and its hindrance to India's progress and development and call for a collective commitment to implement the suggested strategies.

Answer: India has been ranked 85th out of 180 countries in Transparency International’s 2020 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Corruption is defined by the World Bank as the misuse of public power for private benefit. It can take many forms, such as bribery, nepotism, fraud, extortion, and embezzlement.


Factors responsible for corruption in India:

  • Lack of Transparency and Accountability: The lack of transparency and accountability in the governance system in India is a major factor responsible for corruption. This allows the corrupt to misuse their power and authority without any fear of being held accountable.
  • Weak Law Enforcement: Weak enforcement of laws and regulations is another major factor that contributes to corruption in India. There is a lack of political will to enforce the laws, which allows those in power to act with impunity.
  • Political Influence: Political influence allows the corrupt to misuse their power and authority without any fear of being held accountable. Political patronage of criminals and corrupt people also contribute to the growth of corruption in India.
  • Low Salaries: Low salaries and wages of government employees often lead to them indulging in corrupt practices such as bribery and embezzlement to make extra money. 


Strategies that can be implemented to reduce the prevalence of corruption in India given its complex socio-political reality:

  • Enact and enforce stronger anti-corruption laws and regulations: India should implement stronger anti-corruption laws and regulations that provide clear guidelines and punishments for engaging in corrupt activities. These laws should be strictly enforced with no exceptions.
    • Example: Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988
  • Increase transparency and accountability: India should increase transparency and accountability in government functions and processes. This can be done by making public records more accessible and allowing citizens to hold their government representatives accountable.
    • Example: Right to Information Act, 2005
  • Improve governance systems: India should improve governance systems by streamlining processes and making them more efficient. This will reduce opportunities for corruption and make it more difficult for corrupt individuals to take advantage of loopholes.
    • Example: E-governance 
  • Strengthen the institutional capacity of government agencies: India should focus on strengthening government agencies to better enforce anti-corruption laws by providing training, capacity building, and independent anti-corruption agencies.


Reducing corruption in India requires a collective effort from both the government and the citizens to ensure that the country can benefit from its potential and move towards a more equitable and prosperous future.

Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 29, 2023

Q1. Discuss the significance of a code of conduct for the elected members in realizing the true ideals of democracy. Also, develop an ethical framework for such a code of conduct. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:  

The question talks about the code of conduct for the elected members needed so as to maintain the ideals of democracy. And in the second part, it talks about what should be the ethical framework for code of conduct that can be developed so that elected members can follow them which is required in the present context. 


1. Definition-based Introduction: Begin by providing a brief definition of a code of conduct for elected members, emphasizing its role in guiding their behavior and actions.

2. Context-based Introduction: Start with a real-world example or scenario that showcases the consequences of unethical behavior by elected members and its impact on democracy.


As the directive is discuss, we need to make two sections and explain following:

Section 1: Discuss the significance of a code of conduct for elected members in realizing the true ideals of democracy

Section 2: Develop an ethical framework for a code of conduct for elected members



Type 1: Summarize the key components of the ethical framework for a code of conduct, emphasizing the importance of integrity, accountability, transparency, conflict of interest management, and respectful leadership.

Type 2:  Emphasize the crucial role of a code of conduct in maintaining the integrity of democratic processes and fostering public trust.

Answer: A code of conduct for elected members is essential for a true democracy. It sets out the expectations for the behavior of elected members and provides guidance for their actions. This helps to ensure that elected officials are held to the highest standard of ethical behaviour and that they are accountable for their actions.

Significance of Code of Conduct for the elected members for realizing the true ideals of democracy:

  • Establishes Transparency: If elected members are transparent in their actions, decisions and dealings the public will be aware of the decisions made by the elected members and that they have access to information on the activities of the elected members.
  • Encourages Accountability: A code of conduct ensures accountability of the elected members for their actions. This encourages them to act responsibly and can help to prevent corruption and misuse of power.
  • Promotes Ethics: Elected members adhere to ethical standards in their decision-making and dealings. This helps to promote fairness and justice and ensures that the elected members are not taking advantage of their positions for personal gain. 
  • Improves Governance: Elected members are acting responsibly and are properly governing the country. This can help to ensure that the public’s needs and concerns are being addressed, that the government is working efficiently and effectively, and that the country is being run in the best interest of its citizens. 

 Ethical framework for such a code of conduct:

  • Abide by the law: Elected members should always abide by the law, whether that is local, state, or federal laws.
    • For example, elected members should not break campaign finance laws or violate any other laws when running for office or once in office.
  • Maintain integrity: Elected members should always act with integrity and be honest in all their actions.
    • For example, elected members should not accept any gifts from lobbyists or special interests that could create a conflict of interest.
  • Follow ethical standards: Strive to follow ethical standards in their public and private lives.
    • For example, elected members should not use their office for personal gain or to benefit themselves or their family members.
  • Be transparent: Elected members should always be transparent in their actions and be willing to share information with their constituents.
    • For example, elected members should make all their financial records and decisions publicly available to ensure full transparency. 

The code of conduct serves to ensure that elected members honour their oath of office by exercising their authority responsibly and without bias. It also helps to ensure that elected members act in the best interest of the public, rather than in their own personal interest. They should act in a manner that is consistent with the principles of democracy and uphold the ideals of justice, equality and fairness.

Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 29, 2023

Q3. The growing tensions within cooperative federalism have significant economic consequences. Comment. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach for the answer:  

Introduction: You can define cooperative federalism in the intro or you can also give the constitutional reference of relations between the centre and states.


Heading 1: Explain the areas of conflicts/disagreement that are the challenges of cooperative federalism.
Heading 2: Explain a few dimensions of the economic consequences of such conflicts. Try to substantiate it with suitable examples of policies and schemes.

Conclusion: Give a way forward showing futuristic approach for achieving true cooperative federalism.


Answer: Cooperative federalism is a concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments increasingly interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems. The Indian model of federalism is predominantly ‘cooperative’ as laid down by the Supreme Court in State of Rajasthan v. Union of India,1977.


Areas of Conflict

  • Issues around resource sharing: Shrinkage of divisible pools adversely affects Centre-State relations.

  For instance, as per the 16th FC recommendations, many southern states are on the losing side of their share of tax resources.

  • Homogenisation of social sector schemes: Owing to their unique socio-economic conditions and varying levels of development, the needs and priorities of States in the social sector differ significantly.

  For instance, coastal states like Tamil Nadu might prioritize port development schemes i.e., Sagarmala but States like Rajasthan might concentrate on water management schemes i.e., Jal Jeevan Mission.

  • Functioning of regulatory institutions: Regulatory institutions operate under the purview of the central government but their functioning can influence the power dynamics between the centre and the states.

  For instance, CERC regulates the power sector at the central level. Decisions related to tariff regulations influence the availability and pricing of electricity within states.

  • Powers of central agencies: The extent of powers held by central agencies can sometimes be seen as encroaching on the autonomy of states.

  For instance, CBI's intervention in state-level issues has sparked concerns about federalism and the autonomy of state law enforcement agencies.

Economic consequences of these incursions

  • Crowding out of investment: The spread of the Centre’s span of activities leads to centralization of planning and implementation. This limits States’ flexibility in infrastructure development resulting in reduced State investments.

  For instance, in PM Gati Shakti, the lack of flexibility of States in formulating their State master plan has become a reason for underinvestment by States, which can hamper regional economies.

  • Unusual fiscal competition: The Centre has enhanced fiscal space and engages in direct provisioning of many utilities and services through schemes and state-owned companies. This leads to a situation where states face limitations in revenue collection as raising non-taxes is confined to a smaller sphere.

  Thus, states engage in fiscal competition not only amongst themselves but also with the Centre due to welfare provisioning.

  • Inefficiencies from Parallel Policies: Federal conflicts lead to the Centre or States duplicating others’ policies. This is mainly due to the trust deficit prevailing in the federal system, whose fiscal costs will have long-run consequences on the economy.

  For instance, many States joined the National Pension Scheme initially but some States started to roll back to the old pension scheme as the fiscal cost would be visible only after 2034 when most of the newly joined employees retire.


A harmonious relationship between the Centre and states within a federal system is crucial for a conducive economic environment. Promoting open communication, empowering states with more decision-making autonomy, and fostering cooperative policy initiatives are essential steps in achieving a harmonious Centre-state relationship.


Subjects : Polity

Nov. 28, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 28, 2023

Q1. "Recognised Probity is the Surest of all Oaths", What do you understand by the term Probity? Explaining its significance in governance, bring out steps that can be taken to instill the virtue of probity in young public servants. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Definition based introduction-Explain the essence of probity in ethical conduct and integrity. 


As the directive is what and explain, we need to elaborate the term probity and write its importance in governance by making following sections. 

Section 1: Discuss how probity ensures transparency, fairness, and ethical decision-making in the delivery of public services. Explain how probity contributes to the effective functioning of institutions and the overall welfare of society.

Section 2: Highlight the importance of inculcating probity in young public servants. Discuss the various steps that can be taken to foster this virtue.

Conclusion: Highlight that by nurturing a culture of probity, the government can strengthen its commitment to transparency, accountability, and public trust.



Probity is a quality of being honest, and morally upright. It is a characteristic that reflects a person's strict adherence to ethical principles and integrity in their actions and decisions across time and space.

The term probity is often associated with individuals in positions of power or authority and is regarded as a cornerstone of good governance, business ethics, and personal integrity. For example, Vinod Rai, the former Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India, showed probity by bringing out the scams in India.


Significance of the Probity in Governance: 

  • Corruption prevention: Probity is essential for preventing corruption in public institutions. Corruption is a major hindrance to development and progress, and it can only be prevented when public officials are committed to ethical conduct and accountable to the public.
    • For example, Ashok Khemka: Transferred multiple times, but still exposed land scams fearlessly.
  • Improved service delivery: Probity helps in improving service delivery to the public. When public officials are committed to ethical conduct, they are more likely to ensure that government services are delivered in a timely, transparent, and efficient manner.
    • For example, Dr. Kalam: From DRDO to President, revolutionized defence, and education sectors.
  • Strengthening Rule of law: When government officials are committed to ethical conduct, they are more likely to respect and uphold the law, which can help ensure that the rule of law is maintained.
    • For example, U. Sagayam: Upright officer; audited illegal granite mining, ensured justice.
  • Ensuring Social justice: When public officials are committed to ethical conduct, they are more likely to ensure that government policies and programs are designed to benefit all sections of society, rather than just a few.
    • For example, Armstrong Pame: 'Miracle Man'; built road without government aid, aiding tribal areas.

Steps that can be taken to instill  the virtue of probity in young public servants: 

  • Educate on the importance of probity: This education should cover the consequences of unethical behaviour, the benefits of ethical behaviour, and the role of probity in ensuring good governance.
    • Example: Vigilance Awareness Week conducted by Central Vigilance Commission.
  • Establish codes of conduct: It should outline the standards of behaviour expected of public servants. The code should be clear, concise, and easy to understand. It should also be regularly reviewed and updated to reflect changes in legislation and best practice.
    • Example: The Government of India has established a code of conduct for public servants. 
  • Encourage accountability: Create a culture of accountability where public servants are held responsible for their actions. This should involve establishing mechanisms for reporting unethical behaviour, protecting whistleblowers, and imposing sanctions for violations of the code of conduct.
    • Example: Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. 
  • Lead by example: Senior public servants and political leaders should lead by example and demonstrate ethical behaviour. This can help to promote a culture of probity and encourage young public servants to follow suit.


The quote "Recognized Probity is the Surest of all Oaths" emphasizes the importance of probity in governance and highlights its role in promoting ethical behaviour in public service. By promoting probity, we can ensure that our public institutions are transparent, accountable, and committed to serving the public interest.

Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 28, 2023

Q2. What do the mentioned quotations convey to you in the present context ?

“Corruption comes from the never-ending greed. The fight for corruption-free ethical society will have to be fought against this greed and replace it with 'what can I give' spirit.” – Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. (10M/150W)

Model Answer



We can introduce the answer by stating the meaning of this quote or we can also highlight incidents/facts vis-à-vis the problem of corruption in society.   


You can start by stating how greed leads to corruption, followed by how we can replace greed with ‘what I can give?’ attitude. In this section, write the values one needs to adopt for actualizing what I can give?’ attitude.


Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of the body section or stating the impact of not addressing greed or corruption.  



The above quote by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam emphasizes corruption and considers never-ending greed as the reason behind corruption. He, thereby, suggests replacing this greed with an ‘What I can give?’ attitude.


How Greed Leads to Corruption? – “What will I get?” Attitude:

  • Desire for More: The desire to have more of materialistic belongings or even pseudo-materialistic things like fame, power etc. directly or indirectly leads to moral malice.


  • For instance, the desire to buy a new car, big house or even to get more power leads to corruption.


  • Abuse of Office: In greed, a public servant or private sector employee abuses his or her office for personal gains. 
  • For instance, a public official taking bribe to offer special treatment/bypass law
  • False Perception: A false perception of success (in monetary terms) leads to people becoming greedy and vulnerable to corruption.
  • For instance, in India, people tend to equate material success to moral uprightness of a person whereas in Japan, a person found corrupt faces societal ostracization.
  • Selfishness: A greedy person would always crave personal interest in any activity. This results not only in monetary corruption but moral and spiritual corruption.
  • For instance, instead of seeing public interest, a corrupt bureaucrat might always look for some personal gains (in terms of monetary/non-monetary rewards) to perform his duty.   

The possible solution to never-ending greed is selfless service or asking ourselves ‘what we can give?’ instead ‘what we will get?’

Replacing Greed with “What Can I Give?” Spirit

  • Selfless: It is characterized by low levels of self-centeredness. A person who doesn't keep the thought (“what is there in it for me”) in mind while carrying out his/her duties is considered as selfless service.
  • For instance, following the virtue of Nishkama Karma in public service is recommended.
  • Morality: In society, humanity, respect, fraternity etc. have moral connotations and require a strong commitment from citizens. An individual abiding by these moral values would be immune from never-ending greed. 
  • For instance, a morally upright person would look towards collective wellbeing instead of only personal wellbeing.
  • Integrity: Integrity in an individual aligns his thoughts and action. It results in keeping up with one’s commitment and not compromising with one’s duties/service.
  • For instance, a person with integrity would honour values of honesty, transparency and accountability, all of which are antidotes of corruption.
  • Self-Sufficiency: Greed can be countered by knowing your needs and avoiding unnecessary desire for materialistic things. 
  • For instance, a self-sufficient/morally satisfied individual would not fall into the trap of greed.


  • Upbringing: A value-based upbringing detests greed. Children of today are citizens of tomorrow and thus to instill ‘what I can give attitude?’, value-based upbringing is necessary.
  • For instance, Dr APJ Abdul Kalam rightly stressed upon the role of parents and teachers in shaping the character, caliber and future of an individual.



However, assuming that corruption is only due to greed would be wrong. There are other factors which could lead to corruption such as institutional flaws (corrupt institution penalizes honesty), weak social accountability (low awareness on how to keep officials to check), political inefficiencies (monopolization, low transparency) etc.


Corruption impacts a nation’s growth, results in societal degradation and makes people morally compromised. To counter corruption, the menace of greed needs to stop, and it can only be stopped by inculcating the above principles of ‘what I can give?’ attitude.


Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 28, 2023

Q3. Treatment of sickle cell disease underscores the importance of advancing medical research for ultimately finding a cure. In light of the recent advancement made in treatment of sickle cell disease, explain the gene editing therapy along with the challenges involved. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly mention about the Sickle Cell Disease and recent advancement in treatment of the disease

Heading 1: Explanation of gene editing therapy

Heading 2: Challenges Involved

Conclusion: Conclude with way forward on how to improve treatment of the disease




Sickle cell anemia is a genetic blood disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S (HbS), in red blood cells. This leads to the formation of rigid, sickle-shaped cells that can cause various complications, including pain, anemia, and organ damage. Recently, the United Kingdom became the first country to approve the use of the world’s first gene therapy  for treating sickle cell disease and a specific type of sickle cell disease called beta-thalassemia.It may be noted that India ranks as the second most severely impacted nation in terms of anticipated births affected by sickle cell anemia (SCA).


Status of Sickle Cell Anemia in India


Gene editing therapy, particularly using technologies like CRISPR-Cas9, holds promise in treating sickle cell disease by directly addressing the genetic mutation responsible for the condition. 

Gene Editing Therapy 


  • Identifying the Mutation: The specific mutation in the HBB gene that causes sickle cell disease needs to be identified.


  • CRISPR-Cas9 Technology: CRISPR-Cas9 is a revolutionary gene-editing tool that allows scientists to precisely modify DNA. In the case of sickle cell disease, researchers can use CRISPR-Cas9 to target the mutated HBB gene.


  • Editing the Gene: CRISPR-Cas9 is designed to cut the DNA at the precise location of the mutation. Once the DNA is cut, the cell's natural repair machinery comes into play.


  • Natural Repair Process: The cell's repair machinery can introduce the correct genetic sequence to replace the mutated sequence. In the context of sickle cell disease, the goal is to replace the mutated HBB gene with the correct sequence, restoring the normal production of hemoglobin.


  • Healthy Hemoglobin Production: With the corrected genetic sequence, the patient's cells can produce normal hemoglobin instead of the abnormal hemoglobin S. This results in the production of normal, flexible red blood cells.

It's important to note that while gene editing therapies, including CRISPR-Cas9, hold immense potential, there are still challenges and ethical considerations that need to be addressed before they can become widely available as a cure for sickle cell disease.

Challenges Involved 


  • Ethical Considerations: Gene editing therapy presents significant ethical challenges, as altering the genetic code raises questions about the potential misuse of this technology, the creation of designer babies, and the long-term implications of making permanent changes to the human genome.


  • Off-Target Effects: One of the major challenges in gene editing therapy is the possibility of unintended genetic modifications, known as off-target effects. Ensuring precision and minimizing these off-target effects is crucial to prevent unintended consequences and potential harm to the patient.


  • Long-Term Safety Concerns: The long-term safety of gene editing therapies is a critical concern. Limited understanding of the potential side effects and unforeseen consequences over an individual's lifespan poses a challenge in ensuring the sustained safety and efficacy of gene editing interventions.


  •  Delivery Mechanisms: Efficient and targeted delivery of gene-editing tools to specific cells or tissues within the body is a technical challenge. Developing reliable and safe delivery mechanisms that can effectively transport gene-editing components to the intended site without causing harm or triggering an immune response is a key hurdle.

Way Forward


Advancing in gene editing technologies, particularly CRISPR-Cas9, requires a comprehensive and collaborative approach. Scientific research and technological refinement should continue to improve the precision and safety of gene editing tools. Ethical considerations demand open dialogue, establishment of clear guidelines, and active engagement with the public to address concerns and promote responsible use. Rigorous testing through clinical trials, coupled with post-market surveillance, is crucial for assessing the safety and efficacy of gene editing therapies. Thus, these measures will significantly contribute to achieving the goal of eliminating sickle cell anemia through a focused mission initiated by India by the year 2047.




Subjects : Current Affairs

Nov. 27, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 27, 2023

Q2. You hold a responsible position in a ministry in the government. One day in the morning you received a call from the school of your 11-year-old son that you are required to come and meet the Principal. You proceed to the school and find your son in the Principal’s office. The Principal informs you that your son had been found wandering aimlessly in the grounds during the time classes were in progress. The class teacher further informs you that your son has lately become a loner and did not respond to questions in the class, he had also been unable to perform well in the football trials held recently. 

You bring your son back from the school and in the evening, you along with your wife try to find out the reasons for your son’s changed behaviour. After repeated cajoling, your son shares that some children had been making fun of him in the class as well as in the WhatsApp group of the students by calling him stunted, duh and a frog. He tells you the names of a few children who are the main culprits but pleads with you to let the matter rest. 

After a few days, during a sporting event, where you and your wife have gone to watch your son play, one of your colleague’s sons shows you a video in which students have caricatured your son. Further, he also points out to the perpetrators who were sitting in the stands. You purposefully walk past them with your son and go home.

Next day, you find on social media, a video denigrating you, your son and even your wife, stating that you engaged in physical bullying of children on the sports field. The video became viral on social media. Your friends and colleagues began calling you to find out the details. One of your juniors advised you to make a counter video giving the background and explaining that nothing had happened on the field. You, in turn posted a video which you have captured during the sporting event, identifying the likely perpetrators who were responsible for your son’s predicament. You have also narrated what has actually happened in the field and made attempts to bring out the adverse effects of the misuse of social media. 


(a) Based on the above case study, discuss the ethical issues involved in the use of social media.

(b)Discuss the pros and cons of using social media by you to put across the facts to counter the fake propaganda against your family.                      (20M, 250W)

Model Answer

Answer: The Government official is faced with an ethical dilemma involving his 11-year-old child who has become a victim of bullying and online harassment. Balancing personal responsibilities with professional conduct and ethical standards becomes imperative. The situation brings a number of critical ethical concerns that require a judicious approach.

(a) Ethical Issues Involved in the Use of Social Media

  • Cyberbullying and Harassment: The initial act of mocking and ridiculing the official's child through social media platforms constitutes a clear instance of cyberbullying, a grave ethical concern that can lead to severe emotional distress and harm.
  • Privacy Violation: Sharing personal information, images, and videos without consent is a breach of privacy, highlighting the importance of respecting an individual's right to confidentiality, even in the digital realm.
  • Spread of False Information: The dissemination of a video humiliating the official and their family reflects a deliberate attempt to spread false information, eroding trust and integrity, and posing a significant ethical challenge.
  • Misuse of Social Media: The perpetrators' use of social media as a tool for revenge and harassment aggravates the situation, emphasising the need for responsible online conduct and restraint.
  • Responsibility of Parents and Guardians: The moral responsibility of parents and guardians to protect and support their children comes to the forefront. In this case, it is imperative for the parents to address their child's bullying issue and ensure their well-being, underlining the ethical duty towards the family.
  • Professional Conduct of a Government Official: As a government official, maintaining decorum and professionalism is paramount. Engaging in any form of confrontation or physical altercation, even in defence of one's child, raises pertinent questions about professional conduct and ethical boundaries.

(b) Pros and Cons of Using Social Media to Counter Fake Propaganda



Direct Communication with a Wider Audience

Social media offers a direct channel of communication with a wide audience. The official can present their side of the story without the need for intermediaries, promoting transparency and accountability.

Support and Solidarity for the Family

Posting the video can garner support from friends, colleagues, and the online community, providing emotional and moral support. This demonstrates the ethical value of solidarity and empathy.

Evidence Documentation

Posting a video of the event provides concrete evidence, countering false claims effectively. This upholds the principles of truthfulness and integrity, crucial in ethical decision-making.

Awareness and Education

Social media can be a powerful tool to educate the public about the detrimental effects of cyberbullying and the importance of responsible online behaviour. This aligns with the ethical imperative of promoting the well-being of society.


Escalation of Conflict

Engaging in a public online dispute may worsen the conflict, potentially causing further harm. This stresses the ethical need for prudence and careful consideration of potential consequences.

Perpetuating the Issue

Responding to fake propaganda may inadvertently give it more attention and validity, perpetuating the issue. This underscores the ethical challenge of unintended consequences.

Negative Backlash

Taking a stand on social media can invite negative comments, criticism, or even threats, potentially causing emotional distress for the family. This emphasises the ethical duty to consider the well-being and safety of all involved parties.

Impact on Professional Image

As a government official, engaging in a public dispute may affect the official's professional image and credibility. This highlights the ethical responsibility to uphold the public's trust and confidence in their role.

Recommended Course of Action

  • Open Communication with School: Meet with school authorities to collaborate on a safety plan for the official’s son.
  • Counselling for the Son: Seek professional support for the child's emotional well-being.
  • Report to Law Enforcement: Consider involving law enforcement if the bullying escalates to a criminal level.
  • Empower the Child: Encourage the child to speak up about bullying incidents and teach assertiveness techniques.
  • Educate on Safe Social Media Use: Provide guidance on responsible social media usage and reporting cyberbullying.
  • Promote Inclusivity and Acceptance: Work with the school to foster an inclusive and tolerant environment.

The Government official must carefully think about the pros and cons of each option and prioritise their family's well-being. This decision-making process echoes Mahatma Gandhi's wise words: "Strength doesn't come from the body. It comes from the will." This means that real strength comes from our inner resolve, highlighting the importance of making ethical decisions, especially in difficult situations.

Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 27, 2023

Q1. You are working as an executive in a nationalised bank for several years. 

One day one of your close colleagues tells you that her father is suffering from heart disease and needs surgery immediately to survive. She also tells you that she has no insurance and the operation will cost about Rs. 10 lakh. You are also aware of the fact that her husband is no more and that she is from a lower middle class family. You are empathetic about her situation. However, apart from expressing your sympathy, you do not have the resources to fund her.

A few weeks later, you ask her about the well-being of her father and she informs you about his successful surgery and that he is recovering. She then confides in you that the bank manager was kind enough to facilitate the release of Rs. 10 lakh from a dormant account of someone to pay for the operation with a promise that it should be confidential and be repaid at the earliest. She has already started paying it back and will continue to do so until it is all returned.

(a) What are the ethical issues involved?

(b) Evaluate the behaviour of the bank manager from an ethical point of view.

(c) How would you react to the situation?  (20M, 250W)

Model Answer

Answer: Here an executive grapples with the delicate balance between transparency, which relies on the free flow of information, and accountability, ensuring decision-makers fulfill their duties. This case study delves into the age-old tension of meeting both professional obligations and ethical considerations, demanding consistent standards across all stakeholders

Stakeholders Involved:

  • Executive of national bank
  • Bank
  • Colleague
  • Bank Manager
  • Father of colleague

(a) Ethical issues involved:

    • Confidentiality and Privacy: The bank manager's decision to release funds from a dormant account raises concerns about the confidentiality and privacy of account holders


  • Abuse of Authority: The bank manager has used his position to facilitate the release of funds without proper authorization or ethical considerations.


    • Fairness and Equal Treatment: The preferential treatment given to the colleague in accessing funds may raise concerns about fairness and equal treatment of all bank colleagues.


  • Transparency: In this situation, the bank manager as well as colleagues are not transparent about their actions.
  • Accountability: The colleague and the bank manager do not seem to be accountable to higher authorities as well as to rules and regulations of the bank. The bank manager has flouted obligations of his/her position.
  • Professional Integrity: The apparent breach of professional integrity by both the bank manager and colleague raises ethical concerns regarding their adherence to the bank's policies and principles.



(b) Evaluation of the behaviour of the bank manager from an ethical point of view.

Positive Aspect:

  • Compassionate and empathic: The bank manager's compassion and willingness to help in a medical emergency demonstrate a humane approach and also foster a caring workplace environment.
  • Responsibility towards Bank: The bank manager’s insistence on repayment reflects a sense of responsibility towards the bank and adherence to financial accountability.

Negative Aspect: 

  • Lack of Authorization: Facilitating the release of funds from a dormant account without proper authorization or adherence to standard procedures raises ethical concerns.
  • Confidentiality and Transparency Breach: The promise of confidentiality could be seen as a positive aspect, but it raises concerns about transparency and adherence to banking regulations.
  • Breach of Professional Ethics: Using bank resources, even for compassionate reasons, may be viewed as unprofessional and contrary to established ethical standards.
  • Precedent Setting: The behavior may set problematic precedents, leading to inconsistent decision-making and perceptions of favoritism.
  • Erosion of Trust: The perception of partiality could erode trust within the organization, contrary to principles of impartiality and fairness.

(c) My reaction to the situation

  • Appreciate Compassion: Acknowledge and appreciate the bank manager's compassion and the positive outcome of supporting a colleague in need.
  • Legal Compliance: I would recommend that the colleague and the bank manager seek legal advice to ensure that the actions taken are in compliance with banking regulations and do not expose the bank or individuals involved to legal risks.
  • Advocacy for Transparency and Accountability:
    • Encourage the colleague to ensure full transparency in the repayment process and adhere to any legal or ethical obligations associated with the use of the funds.
    • As an executive, I would emphasize the importance of strict transparency and accountability measures in the bank's board meetings.
    • The bank's reputation hinges on maintaining the trust of its customers and stakeholders, and any deviation from established protocols can erode that trust.
  • Discourage Secrecy:
    • I would propose a clear policy that disallows the secretive authorization of funds to employees, irrespective of their position in the hierarchy.
    • This ensures a fair and consistent approach to financial matters within the institution.
  • Employee Health Insurance:
    • Recognizing the unpredictability of health crises, I would push for the introduction of health insurance accounts sponsored by the bank for all employees and their immediate families.
    • This not only acts as a safeguard for the employees but also reduces the chances of financial improprieties due to personal emergencies.
  • Medical Emergency Fund:
    • As a long-term solution to prevent such incidents, I would advocate for the establishment of a medical emergency fund for all employees.
    • Such a fund could be accessed in dire circumstances, ensuring that employees don't resort to potentially unethical means to address personal crises.
  • Compassionate Accountability:
    • While the actions of the colleague and the manager were driven by desperation, it's crucial to hold them accountable.
    • However, keeping in mind their intent and the unique circumstances, I would refrain from pressing legal charges, opting instead for internal measures to ensure repayment and prevent recurrences.
  • Seek Guidance: If unsure about the appropriate course of action, seek guidance from higher authorities or the bank's ethical committee to address the situation in a manner consistent with ethical standards.

The objective of the bank manager to help the colleague has been done in a good way, however, against transparency and accountability. However, it would have been better if such action were followed according to the rules and regulations of the organisation.

Subjects : Ethics

Nov. 24, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 24, 2023

Q2. In a positive work culture, employees are motivated, engaged, and feel valued. This creates a sense of ownership, which in turn leads to greater productivity, creativity, and a sense of fulfilment. Illustrate by giving suitable examples.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The demand of the question is to explain the relationship between positive work culture and employee productivity in an organization.


Type 1: Give the definition of work culture and 

Type 2: Give the importance of a positive work culture.


Heading 1: Positive work culture and Employees productivity: Give points along with examples.


Type 1: Highlight the importance of positive work culture for employees and organization.

Type 2: Corelate how such positive work culture impacts society at large.


Answer: Work culture refers to the shared values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviours, and practices that define the working environment and social dynamics within an organization. Work culture can influence various aspects of an organization, such as employee engagement, job satisfaction, productivity, innovation, and the overall success of the company.

Positive work culture and Employees productivity

  • Employee empowerment: It could involve giving employees more autonomy over their work and providing opportunities for them to develop new skills. 
    • For example, a software development company may allow developers to choose which projects they work on, giving them more control over their work.
  • Communication and transparency: When employees feel that they can speak up and share their ideas and concerns, they are more likely to feel valued and engaged. 
    • For example, a tech-startup may hold regular company-wide meetings where employees can ask questions, share feedback, and discuss the company's goals and vision.
  • Work environment and facilities: A comfortable and well-equipped workspace can improve employees' well-being and productivity. 
    • For example, a design agency may invest in ergonomic chairs, adjustable desks, and natural lighting to create a more comfortable and inspiring work environment.
  • Wellness programs: Wellness programs can also contribute to a positive work culture, as they promote employee well-being and reduce stress levels. 
    • For example, these programs can include gym memberships, mindfulness training, or mental health support services.
  • Workload management: Ensuring that employees are not overwhelmed with their workload can help prevent burnout and improve job satisfaction. Employers can support this by providing adequate resources, delegating tasks effectively, and setting realistic expectations. 
    • For example, a healthcare organization may implement a patient triage system to help manage the workload of its staff, reducing stress levels and improving patient care.
  • Career growth opportunities: Many Companies provide access to training and development programs and upskilling programs. 
    • For example, Infosys and TCS provide for the cost of MBA degree for their employees.

Case study-Patagonia: 

Patagonia fosters a culture of environmental and social responsibility, which has led to a highly engaged and motivated workforce committed to sustainable practices.


A positive work culture can lead to increased profits, the well-being of employees and overall development of society. By empowering employees, recognizing their contributions and supporting work-life balance, employers can create an environment where employees feel valued and inspired to do their best work.

Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 24, 2023

Q1. There is a view that Citizen Charter has failed to achieve their intended objectives. Lack of awareness among the public, outdated information and no legal enforcement are cited as reasons for the failure of citizen charters in India. Discuss.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main parts – 1) Reasons for failure of Citizen Charters and 2) Measures to improve citizen charters.


Type 1: Give the definition of Citizen Charters and Type 2: Give the Objectives of Citizen Charter.


Heading 1: Reasons for failure: Give points mentioned in the question along with the reasons and examples.

Heading 2: Measures to improve: Give some potential solutions.

Conclusion: Highlight the importance of citizen charter and the need of a dedicated bureaucracy in implementation of citizen charters.

Answer: A Citizen Charter is a document that outlines the services provided by a government agency, along with the expected standards for service delivery and the rights and responsibilities of citizens. 

The objective of Citizen Charters is to improve the quality of public services and their delivery, increase transparency and accountability, and enhance citizen participation. However, citizen charters have not been able to achieve their potential due to some inherent issues.

Reasons for failure of Citizen Charters in India

  • Lack of awareness: Many citizens are unaware of the existence of Citizen Charters due to poor advertising by the government officials.
  • Outdated information: Citizen Charters often contain outdated information, which reduces their relevance and usefulness. 
    • For example, the contact information provided in the Charter may no longer be accurate, making it difficult for citizens to reach the government agency.
  • Lack of legal enforcement: Citizen Charters do not have any legal enforceability, which means that government agencies can ignore them without any consequences.
  • Bureaucratic Apathy: Often, there's a lack of genuine commitment from the bureaucratic machinery towards the effective implementation of Citizen Charters. This renders them merely a formality, rather than a practical tool for public accountability.
  • Inadequate Feedback Mechanisms: Many Citizen Charters do not have a robust feedback and grievance redressal system. Hence they fail to evolve and stay relevant to the public's needs.


Measures to improve Citizen Charters

  • Raise awareness: Government agencies need to undertake awareness campaigns to inform citizens about the existence and contents of Citizen Charters.
  • Regular updates: Citizen Charters need to be updated regularly to ensure that the information provided is accurate and relevant.
  • Legal enforceability: Citizen Charters should be given legal enforceability to ensure that government agencies take them seriously and are held accountable for their performance.
  • Citizen participation: Citizen Charters should be developed with active citizen participation, to ensure that the Charters reflect the needs and expectations of the citizens.
  • Feedback Mechanisms: Establishing robust feedback and grievance redressal systems ensures that the concerns and suggestions of the public are continually integrated into the charters.
  • Training for Officials: Continuous training and orientation sessions for government officials regarding the importance, implementation, and best practices of Citizen Charters can ensure its efficacy.

Citizen Charters needs a dedicated bureaucracy for its success. The civil servants should be guided by spirit of service and provide high quality public services to the citizens.

Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 24, 2023

Q3. The connection between India and the Maldives is characterized by an interdependence linked with the priorities of peace and security for India. Explain.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

Introduction: You can start with Current affairs related to Maldives and India or give historical background.

Body: explain the multidimensional significance of Maldives for India and show the current status of their engagement.

Conclusion: You can briefly explain the challenges and way forward for India vis-a-vis Maldives.

Answer: Maldives recently saw the election of a Pro-China candidate as the next president of the nation, which seemingly raises concern for India in recent times. As India's closest neighbor, Maldives has relied on India for essential support and assistance throughout the years.

Significance of Maldives

  • Geostrategic: Maldives’ proximity to the west coast of India and its potential to allow a third nation’s naval presence in the area makes it an important member of India’s ‘Neighbourhood First’ policy and SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region) vision.
  • Geopolitical: Due to its strategic maritime geography in the Indian Ocean, China’s ‘Belt and Road’ Initiative (BRI) involving the Maldives has increased the Chinese sphere of influence that can adversely impact India’s interests.
  • Geoeconomics: Nearly 50 per cent of India’s external trade and 80 per cent of energy imports transit the westward Sea Lanes Of Communications in the Arabian Sea in the vicinity of the Maldives.
  • Net security Provider: Maldives is positioned as checkpoint between the western Indian Ocean(Strait of Hormuz) and the eastern Indian Ocean chokepoint of the Strait of Malacca.


India-Maldives Relations- Areas of engagement

India was among the first to recognize Maldives after its independence in 1965 and to establish diplomatic relations with the country.


  • Bilateral Economic and Trade Relations: India‐Maldives bilateral trade stood at over US$ 250 million in 2021. 


      • India emerged as Maldives’ 3rd largest trade partner in 2021.
      • India is also offering USD 100 million grant support to the Greater Male Connectivity Project which will be a major catalyst for the Maldivian economy.


  • Security and Defence Cooperation: India provides around 70% of Maldivian defence training requirements.


      • Defense cooperation extends to the areas of Joint Exercises - “Ekuverin”, “Dosti”, “Ekatha” and “Operation Shield”.


  • Development Cooperation: The ongoing development assistance projects executed by India are Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Maldives Polytechnic etc.


    • A US$ 800 million Credit Line Agreement was signed between India and Maldives was signed in 2019 for financing connectivity and infrastructure projects. 
    • Hanimaadhoo International Airport Development project under an Indian credit line is under development.
  • India’s credentials of being the first responder: Under Operation Neer in 2014, India supplied drinking water to Maldives to deal with the drinking water crisis.
    • India supplied 6.2 tonnes of essential medicines to Maldives, under Operation Sanjeevani as assistance in the fight against Covid-19.


India faces challenges in Maldives in terms of slight ruffles with the political regime, growing Chinese influence and increasing popular sensitivity against India. Given India’s huge presence in multiple spheres, the relationship should be boosted through imaginative foreign-policy initiatives including deepening of security cooperation, emphasising a development-oriented approach underlined with principles of Gujral doctrine.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Nov. 23, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 23, 2023

Q3. What are crypto assets? Explain the current status of crypto regulation in India.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Introduction: You can define cryptoassets and show their significance in brief. You can also start with a current affairs based intro.

Body: Try to explain need of crypto regulation in brief and explain the current status of crypto regulation in India in detail. You can also mention some international efforts in the same direction.

Conclusion: Try to conclude with a way forward for effective crypto regulation in India.


Answer: A crypto-asset is a digital representation of value that can be transferred or stored electronically using blockchain technology. Crypto assets as a digital innovation can create new ways of financing for consumers . It can also present opportunities for cheaper and faster cross-border payments by limiting intermediaries.

Common crypto assets include cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, tokens such as USDC & DAI, Non-fungible tokens including BAYC etc.


Crypto regulation in India

  • Legal provision: At present, the administration of cryptocurrencies is under the ambit of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) 2002.
    • It requires all entities dealing with crypto to implement mandatory KYC processes, report suspicious activities etc.
  • RBI’s stance: RBI has expressed serious reservations about crypto assets, saying that these assets threaten financial stability. 
    • In 2019, RBI issued that use of cryptocurrencies in any manner is an offence with penalty and imprisonment.
    • In 2020, the Supreme Court of India removed the ban on cryptocurrencies imposed by RBI.
  • Regulatory Framework: In 2022, the Ministry of Finance released a report proposing the creation of a digital rupee, a state-backed cryptocurrency, as well as a framework for regulating private cryptocurrencies.
    • The report recommended the establishment of a Digital Currency Regulatory Authority (DCRA) to oversee the use of cryptocurrencies in India.
  • Tax regime: In 2022, the Union Budget officially classified digital assets, including cryptocurrency, as “virtual digital assets.”
    • The government has announced a flat 30-percent income tax on the transfer of “crypto-assets”.
    •  The Centre also announced another 1% tax deduction at source (TDS).


Other International Best Practices


  • IMF-FSB Synthesis Paper: In the recent G20 summit, the countries endorsed the report by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Financial Stability Board (FSB) on risks and the framework for regulating crypto assets. 


      • This includes creating, reporting and licensing mechanisms for the regulation of digital assets by 2025.


  • Markets in Crypto-Assets Regulation (MiCA): Framed by the European Union, it is the first cross-jurisdictional framework for crypto-assets. It will bring governance practices to crypto firms.



To ensure effective regulation of crypto assets in India, enhancing financial awareness about the risks and benefits associated with cryptocurrency transactions is important. Robust international collaboration to develop a standardized protocol would  be the suitable step ahead.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 23, 2023

Q1. ‘Probity is essential for an effective system of governance and socio-economic development.’ Discuss. (10M, 150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Introduction: Begin by defining "probity" as the adherence to the highest principles of integrity, honesty, and ethical conduct in governance. Highlight its significance in fostering trust, accountability, and transparency within a system.


Heading 1: Importance of Probity for Effective System of Governance

Heading 2: Importance of Probity for Socio-Economic Development

Heading 3: Challenges in ensuring probity

Conclusion: Summarize by reiterating the crucial role of probity in fostering effective governance and socio-economic development. Emphasize the need for continuous efforts to uphold the principles of integrity and ethical conduct in all facets of public administration.

Answer: Probity implies strong morals, honesty and integrity, and is an essential foundation for good governance and sustainable development. The absence of ethical conduct in public and private spheres fosters corruption and mistrust, leading to lop-sided growth. Thus, probity is an essential virtue for national progress.


Importance of Probity for Effective System of Governance


  • Builds Public Trust: Probity fosters public trust essential for policy implementation.
  • Example: Chanakya's emphasis on honesty for rulers to gain trust.
  • Enables Efficient Governance: Probity supports public interest, ensuring equitable services.
  • Example: The eradication of the Licence-Permit Raj in India enhanced efficiency.
  • Ensures Optimal Resource Use: Probity in financial management reduces waste.
  • Example: The UN highlights global illicit outflows costing billions due to lack of probity.
  • Promotes Innovation: A system rooted in probity encourages fair competition and innovation.
  • Example: Corruption-induced favouritism stifles genuine innovation and enterprise.


Importance of Probity for Socio-economic Development


  • Attracts Investment: Probity ensures a transparent environment appealing to investors.
  • Example: Countries like Singapore attract global investments due to their strong probity standards.
  • Economic Growth: Probity eliminates barriers like corruption, boosting growth.
  • Example: Corruption in India has historically deterred potential economic growth.
  • Reduces Transaction Costs: Probity diminishes uncertainty for businesses, aiding development. 
  • Example: High transaction costs due to corruption hinder business efficiency.
  • Fosters Knowledge Economy: With probity, there's an emphasis on meritocracy, driving a knowledge-based economy.
  • Example: Nepotism in corrupt systems undermines the potential of a dynamic knowledge economy.


Challenges in ensuring probity

  • Gaps in laws and policies related to political funding, whistleblower protection, Lokpal etc. enable a lack of transparency and conflicts of interest.
  • Lack of effective audits, disclosures and oversight mechanisms for higher officials and politicians. The powerful are able to circumvent regulations.
  • Poor public service delivery and redressal systems that foster petty corruption and bribery.
  • Inadequate enforcement of existing rules and laws due to capacity gaps, delays and pendency in the judicial system.
  • Limited use of technology for transparency, accountability and grievance redressal.
  • Politicisation and erosion of autonomy of investigative agencies hampering impartial enforcement.
  • Ineffective electoral and judicial reforms to improve the accountability of political executives.
  • Limitations in public awareness, activism and movements against corruption due to lack of information and reprisals.

Robust mechanisms for accountability, transparency and strengthening ethics are essential to improve probity. Impartial enforcement and severe consequences for wrongdoing can help promote integrity.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 23, 2023

Q2. The involvement of civil societies and public participation is a key tool for transparent service delivery. Discuss. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

The question talks about the importance of civil societies and public participation for efficient and effective public service delivery. 



1. Definition-based Introduction: Begin by providing a brief definition of civil society and public participation, emphasizing their role in governance and decision-making processes. 

2: Context-based Introduction: Start with a real-world example or case study that highlights the impact of civil societies and public participation in achieving transparent service delivery. 



As the directive is to discuss, explain the importance of civil societies and public participation in promoting transparent service delivery and explore various tools and mechanisms that facilitate transparent service delivery through civil societies and public participation 



Type 1: Summarize the importance of civil societies in promoting accountability, citizen-centric approaches, trust-building, and collaborative problem-solving. 

Type 2: Call for increased collaboration between government agencies, civil societies, and the public to foster a culture of transparency and inclusive governance. 


Answer: The involvement of civil societies and public participation plays a crucial role in ensuring that governance processes are accountable, responsive, and inclusive. By engaging citizens and civil society organizations (CSOs) in decision-making and implementation, governments can benefit from diverse perspectives and enhance transparency.

The involvement of civil societies and public participation is a key tool for transparent service delivery as:

  • Service delivery partner: Civil Society Organizations are independent organizations that work to ensure that government and private sector institutions are held accountable to their citizens. By engaging citizens in the service delivery process, they can provide a critical check on the use of public resources.
  • Responsiveness: Service providers can better understand and meet the needs of their constituents by engaging the public in the decision-making process. This allows for services to be tailored to the specific needs of the community, rather than providing generic services.
    • Example: Gram Sabha is a platform for citizens to voice their opinion, ask questions, and provide suggestions to their elected representatives.
  • Equitable distribution: Engaging citizens in the service delivery process can help to ensure equitable access to quality services for all, especially disadvantaged and marginalized groups, by allowing service providers to better understand their needs.
    • Example: The Right to Public Services programme.
  • Transparent and accountable: Involving citizens and civil society organizations in decision-making processes can help hold service providers accountable and guarantee that services are provided fairly and without corruption or abuse of power. 
    • Example: Right to Information (RTI) Act of 2005
  • Efficiency: Improve service delivery efficiency by providing feedback on existing processes, which can be used to identify areas for improvement and ensure equitable distribution of services.
    • Example: The Social Audit Network (SAN) is a civil society that works to promote and strengthen social accountability through social audits.
  • Ensure satisfaction of citizens: This can help to ensure that citizens are satisfied with the services being provided and that they are getting the most out of them. 


Engaging civil societies and promoting public participation are crucial for achieving transparency and accountability in service delivery. Collaboration among civil society organizations, public bodies, and citizens is key. These measures help ensure fair, equitable, and effective delivery of public services.

Subjects : Polity

Nov. 22, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 22, 2023


You have been appointed as the project manager of the expressway construction which is planned to run through a small town in the coastal region of a particular state. The expressway will provide a direct route to the town and reduce traffic congestion, while also providing a better mode of transport for the people of the town.

However, the construction of the expressway has been objected to by the people of the town due to the potential environmental hazards it poses. They have raised concerns about the disruption of the ecosystem of the region and the sustainability of the region. They have argued that the expressway will lead to an ecological imbalance in the region and the region will not be able to sustain itself once the expressway is constructed.

The state government has proposed to use green technologies and sustainable practices to construct the expressway and reduce its environmental impact. They have also highlighted the potential benefits of such expressways, such as infrastructure development, investment and employment generation, as well as the potential to boost small businesses in the region.

As the project manager, it is your responsibility to ensure that the expressway is constructed in a manner that is sustainable and does not cause any environmental harm. You must also ensure that all the necessary measures are taken to reduce the environmental impact of the expressway.

1. As the project manager of the bridge, what ethical dilemmas are you facing?
2. What options do you have?
3. What should be your course of action?

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:



Introduce the scenario and highlight the ethical dilemmas arising from balancing the benefits of infrastructure development with potential environmental harm.



Divide the body as per the demand of the question into three sections.

Section 1: Identify the ethical dilemmas faced as the project manager.

Section 2: Discuss the options available.

Section 3: Determine the recommended course of action.


Conclusion: Highlight the significance of ethical decision-making in balancing economic development and environmental sustainability.



Answer: The case study highlights the conflict between the need for infrastructure development and the concerns regarding environmental sustainability in the construction of an expressway. It emphasizes the importance of incorporating green technologies and sustainable practices to mitigate environmental impacts and balance economic development with ecological preservation.


Stakeholders involved:

  1.     Me:  project manager of the expressway construction which is planned to run through a small town in the coastal region of a particular state.
  2.     People of the town: who will be impacted by the construction of the project.
  3.     The state government: which has proposed to use green technologies and sustainable practices to construct the expressway and reduce its environmental impact.
  4.     Small businesses: who will get a potential to boost due to the construction of highways.
  5.     Me, the project manager: it is my responsibility to ensure that the expressway is constructed in a manner that is sustainable and does not cause any environmental harm.

  1. Ethical Dilemmas faced as a project manager:
  2.     Economic Development vs. Environmental Preservation: Balancing the need for economic growth and improved transportation infrastructure with the potential harm to the environment, including disruption of ecosystems, destruction of habitats, and potential pollution.
  3.     Participatory Decision-Making vs. Efficiency and Timeliness: Ensuring inclusive stakeholder engagement and considering their interests and concerns while making project decisions, vs the fact that it may slow down the decision-making process and potentially impact the project timeline and efficiency.
  4.     Technological Advancements vs. Cost and Feasibility: Incorporating green technologies and sustainable practices to minimize environmental impact and reduce ecological harm, while also considering the cost and feasibility of implementing these measures within the project budget and timeline.
  5.     Private Property Rights vs. Public Interest: Balancing the need to acquire land for the expressway construction, which may involve displacing people or acquiring private properties, with respecting the rights and interests of property owners and ensuring fair compensation.
  6.     Short-Term Economic Benefits vs. Long-Term Sustainability: Evaluating the potential short-term economic benefits the expressway may bring, such as increased tourism, trade, and business opportunities, against the long-term sustainability and resilience of the region, considering factors like resource depletion and dependency on the expressway.


2.Options Available:

  1.     Proceed with the Construction as Planned:



  • Enables timely completion of the project.
  • Provide improved transportation infrastructure and potential economic benefits.
  • Meets the demands of the state government.
  • Promotes regional development.


  • Potential negative environmental impacts on ecosystems, wildlife habitats, and natural resources.
  • Disregards community concerns and may lead to social unrest and strained relationships.



  1.     Modify the Project Design and Implementation and explore alternative routes:



  • Incorporates green technologies and sustainable practices to minimize environmental harm.
  • Allows for a thorough evaluation of different route options, considering environmental, social, and economic factors.
  • Provides an opportunity to identify routes that minimize ecological impact and address community concerns.
  • It addresses community concerns, promotes stakeholder satisfaction and fosters positive relationships.


  • Increased project costs and potential delays due to design modifications.
  • Challenges in balancing environmental sustainability with economic feasibility.
  • Potential conflicts with landowners or other affected communities along alternative routes.




  1.     Engage in Collaborative Decision-Making:



  • It will involve all relevant stakeholders in the decision-making process, ensuring transparency and inclusivity.
  • It facilitates the identification of shared goals and compromises that balance economic and environmental considerations.


  • Time-consuming process, potentially leading to project delays.
  • Challenges in achieving consensus among diverse stakeholder groups.


  1.     Seek Independent Expert Assessment:



  • Engaging independent experts can provide objective evaluations of the project's environmental impact and sustainability.
  • Enhances credibility and trust among stakeholders through the inclusion of unbiased perspectives.


  • Cost implications associated with hiring independent experts.
  • Potential disagreements between expert recommendations and project requirements.



3.Course of Action:

  1.     Conduct Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessments: Engage environmental experts to conduct thorough assessments of the proposed expressway's potential impact on ecosystems, wildlife habitats, and natural resources.
  2.     Incorporate Green Technologies and Sustainable Practices: Modify the project design to integrate environmentally friendly technologies and sustainable practices, such as using renewable energy sources, implementing effective waste management systems, and minimizing carbon emissions during construction and operation.
  3.     Engage in Transparent and Inclusive Stakeholder Consultation: Organize public consultations and engagement sessions to provide an opportunity for community members, environmental organizations, and other stakeholders to voice their concerns, provide input, and participate in the decision-making process. Ensure transparency in sharing project information and respond to concerns raised.
  4.     Collaborate with Environmental Organizations and Experts: Seek partnerships with environmental organizations and independent experts to ensure a comprehensive and objective assessment of the project's environmental impact. Their expertise can help identify potential mitigation measures and sustainable alternatives.
  5.     Monitor and Mitigate Environmental Impacts: Implement robust monitoring and mitigation plans throughout the construction and operational phases of the expressway. Regularly assess the effectiveness of mitigation measures and adapt them as needed to minimize environmental harm.
  6.     Promote Environmental Education and Awareness: Launch educational campaigns to raise awareness about the importance of environmental stewardship and the project's efforts to minimize its impact. Foster a sense of environmental responsibility among project team members, contractors, and local communities.
  7.     Continuously Evaluate and Improve: Establish mechanisms for ongoing evaluation and improvement of environmental performance. Regularly review project activities, monitor environmental indicators, and seek feedback from stakeholders to identify opportunities for further enhancements.


The case study suggests that development of infrastructure projects need to strike a balance between development and sustainability. There is a need to prioritize sustainable practices, engage with stakeholders, conduct thorough environmental impact assessments, and make ethical decisions that consider long-term interests. By considering these factors, civil servants can promote environmentally responsible and socially beneficial infrastructure development.

Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 22, 2023


Rajesh is a senior manager at a large financial firm. Recently, the firm has been approached by a large corporation with a proposal to invest in a new venture. Rajesh has been tasked with evaluating the proposal and making a recommendation to the board of directors. Rajesh knows that the investment could be hugely profitable for the firm. However, he is concerned that the venture will have a negative environmental impact, as well as a direct impact on the local community.

Rajesh is also aware that the venture could cause the displacement of many local workers. Rajesh is aware of the potential ethical dilemmas in this decision. He is also aware that the firm's reputation is at stake if the decision is not handled in an ethical manner. Rajesh is also aware that the board of directors will likely decide to move forward with the investment if the financial return is sufficient. He must now decide whether or not to recommend the investment, and if he does, what measures should be taken to mitigate the potential negative implications.

1. What ethical considerations should Rajesh take into account when making his recommendation?
2. What measures should Rajesh recommend to the board of directors to mitigate the potential negative implications

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer:



Introduce the scenario where Rajesh, a senior manager at a financial firm, is tasked with evaluating a proposal to invest in a new venture.



As per the demand of the question, we can divide the answer into the following sections:

Section 1: Identify the ethical considerations that Rajesh should take into account. Highlight the importance of ethical decision-making, considering the long-term reputation and social impact of the firm.

Section 2: Recommend measures that Rajesh should propose to the board of directors to mitigate the potential negative implications of the investment.



Emphasize the importance of making an ethical decision that aligns with the firm's values and long-term reputation.


Answer: The case study is about the ethical dilemma that Rajesh faces in deciding whether or not to recommend an investment that could be profitable for the firm but potentially have negative environmental, community, and labor implications.


Stakeholders involved in the case study:

  • The large financial firm: This firm is invested in the potential success of the venture and will benefit financially from the investment.
  • The large corporation: This corporation is proposing the investment and could benefit financially from the venture if it is successful.
  • The board of directors: These individuals will make the ultimate decision as to whether or not to invest in the venture.
  • The local community: This community could be affected by the venture in either a positive or negative manner.


Rajesh should consider the following ethical considerations when making his recommendation:

  • Environmental impacts vs Economic benefits: He should assess whether the investment will have a negative environmental impact, such as increased air and water pollution, or destruction of natural resources, disruption of local wildlife and ecosystems and other long-term impact like climate change.
  • Firm's Reputation vs. Local Community Impact: The success of the investment could enhance the firm's reputation, attracting more clients, investors, and business opportunities. But the project may have a direct impact on the local community, displacement of local workers, decreased access to resources, and disruption of traditional ways of life should be considered.
  • Legal and regulatory implications vs success of the project: He should assess whether it would be compliant with applicable laws and regulations, and whether it would have any potential legal or regulatory ramifications. He should also see that the project is successful by upholding accountability and transparency.
  • Long term Benefit vs short term benefits: The investment may offer significant short-term financial benefits like immediate profits or increased market share. But the long-term implications may be on the firm's sustainability and the well-being of the employees, customers, and the broader community.

Measures Rajesh should recommend to the board of directors to mitigate the potential negative implications:

  1. A) Financial recommendations for firm:
  • Compensation to the local community and workers for lost wages, relocation costs, and any other costs associated with the venture.
  • Invest in the local community, through job training and placement programs.
  • Develop a plan to help local businesses that may be affected by the investment.
  • Set up an independent monitoring system to track the progress of the project.
  • Develop a transparent reporting system for the local community.


  1. B)   Non-financial recommendations for firm: 
  • Conduct an environmental impact assessment (EIA) involving the local communities.
  • Ensure implementing strict environmental standards, monitoring the impact on the local environment, and investing in renewable energy sources.
  • Engage with the local community to ensure that their concerns are heard and addressed.
  • Commitment to regular monitoring of the venture's impacts and a process for responding to any negative consequences that may arise.
  • Develop an environmental protection plan to minimize the environmental impact of the venture.

By implementing these measures, Rajesh can ensure that the firm's decision to invest in the venture is ethically sound and in line with the firm's values.

Rajesh must consider the potential ethical implications of his decision, including potential financial return and impact on individuals, the environment, local communities, and the public perception of his organization. He should also consider any long-term implications and strategies to mitigate any potential negative impacts.


Subjects : Ethics

Nov. 21, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 21, 2023

Q2. International funding is crucial for the rapid growth of developing and underdeveloped nations, but it comes with its own threats. Examine the ethical issues involved in such funding. Also, suggest a functional ethical framework to make such funding more sustainable. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

The question comes in the context of rising debates w.r.t. ethical issues involved in international funding. Here, the approach should be to highlight the ethical issues involved in international funding and then follow it up by suggesting an ethical framework for sustainable international funding.


We can introduce the answer by highlighting the importance of international funding in the development of underdeveloped nations. We can also introduce by stating any recent event (like government looking into NGOs funding) to highlight the issue raised by question.


Since the directives are Examine and Suggest, there would be two major headings. The first shall state the ethical issues involved in international funding I.e., issues like lack of accountability, undemocratic functioning etc. whereas the second shall state how an ethical framework I.e., model based on ethical principles should be constructed to make international funding sustainable.


Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of body section or by stating how India is coping with the ills of unethical international fundings.

Answer: International funding is imperative in a developing nation’s developmental aspirations due to lack of economic resources. However, lately these international fundings have come under scanner due to various ethical issues involved in their ultimate objectives like dollar imperialism or China’s debt trap/cheque book diplomacy.


Ethical Issues involved in International Funding

  • Inequality and Exploitation: Due to inequality between developed and developing nations, international funding often results in exploitation. This is mainly done by conditional lending and often results in compromised sovereignty of developing nations.
    • For instance, Sri Lanka under Chinese cheque book diplomacy had to give away the rights of territorial integrity of Hambantota port.
  • Conditional Funding: The donors shape the policy framework and strategies through impositions, seriously undermining the rights, choices, and decisions of the people to determine their demands and actions needed for their development.
  • Impacting National Security: International funding in many countries is aimed at impacting national security of other countries.
    • For instance, Pakistan’s ISI has been actively supporting radical organizations to create social disharmony, radicalize local youths, and hire them for terror activities.
  • Lack of Accountability: A main ethical issue in international funding is the lack of accountability mechanism.
    • For instance, a country receives foreign aid due to a natural disaster. However, the donor doesn’t know how the government of the affected country will use the money due to lack of accountability mechanism.
  • Funding to NGOs: Local NGOs receiving money for humanitarian work are often blamed for targeting the government’s policies and serving their donor’s interests.
    • For instance, NIA has alleged Jammu and Kashmir Coalition of Civil Societies (JKCCS) for funding terror activities in the valley under the disguise of citizen’s empowerment.
  • The proliferation of Monoculturalism: These aid programmes are often aimed at inculcating certain forms of culture and have low regard for indigenous culture in the targeted nations.
  • Dependency on foreign aid: The receiving state starts to lose its independence and relies on foreign aid for socio-economic policies.


Ethical Framework to Make Funding more Sustainable:

  • Maintaining Transparency and Accountability: Transparency and accountability are critical in international funding to maintain public trust and ensure that their work is effective and ethical.
    • For instance, countries (receiving funds) can achieve transparency and accountability by implementing strong governance structures, including regular audits and reporting, stakeholder engagement, and open communication with their beneficiaries and partners.
  • Ethical Partnerships: International fundings must be governed by ethical partnerships.
    • For instance, a country more conscious about climate change must fund countries/bodies sharing the same concern.
  • Need based Approach: To avoid excessive funding, NGOs must limit themselves to some core functions like creating awareness about government policies, capacity building of citizens etc.
  • Need for international law: There is a need to ensure an international framework devised by international organizations and Governments to ensure an ethical approach is taken to give and receive funds internationally.
  • Abiding by Local Laws: International funding must comply with local laws and regulations and maintain ethical standards in their operations and decision-making processes.
    • For instance, NGOs operating in India and are receiving foreign fundings must comply with Enforcement Directorate norms.


Ethical considerations are fundamental to the functioning of international funding operations. Though the pursuit of aiding developing countries in their development is noble, international funding operations cannot be devoid of ethics.

Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 21, 2023

Q1. Social accountability is considered a more effective mechanism than the conventional methods of extracting accountability. Do you agree? Justify.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

The question talks about social accountability and whether or not it is more effective than conventional accountability. The approach here should be to start by highlighting issues with conventional accountability and then by stating the significance of social accountability.


We can introduce the answer by defining social accountability or by stating the significance of accountability in general sense vis-à-vis governance.  


Since the directive is do you agree, thus, we must take a stand and state arguments as per our stand. Here, if we agree with the statement, we must justify our standby listing arguments like social audit empowers citizens, ensures participative governance etc. using examples/facts.  


Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of body section or by stating how India can promote social accountability in all spheres of governance.  


Answer: Social accountability is an approach towards ensuring accountability that relies on civic engagement, i.e., in which ordinary citizens and citizen groups participate directly or indirectly in exacting accountability.


Conventional Means of Accountability -

  • Media
  • Judiciary
  • Government bodies like CAG, CVC, CBI, Lokpal etc.
  • Parliament and State Legislature
  • Conventional audits of government schemes by multilateral agency or government agency.
  • Laws like Freedom of Information (FOI) Act, 2002 etc.


Issues with Conventional Accountability:

  • No Citizen’s Participation: There’s no participation of citizens in exacting accountability.
  • For instance, accountability in India is mostly in the form of executive-legislature (Council of Ministers and Parliamentary Committees) or executive-another executive body (Government Officials and Lokpal) etc.
  • Poor Grievance Redressal: Since the citizens aren’t empowered, their grievances are often unheard. This results in poor governance perception amongst citizens.
    • For instance, in case of inaction of CVC/lokpal there’s no podium to redress grievances.
  • Policy Ineffectiveness: The helicopter approach to policy making and no proper way to gauge the performance of policy results in its ineffectiveness.
    • For instance, poverty eradication policies of government framed till recently focused entirely on felt needs rather than actual needs. 
  • Executive’s Discretion: Since the accountability is extracted by government bodies, the discretion on acting on complaints, reports etc. lies with the official. This often leads to conflict of interest and corruption.
    • For instance, a grievance redressal/enquiry committee on complaint would be constituted having members associated with maligned officer.


Social Accountability is a more effective mechanism than Conventional Accountability because:

  • Empowers Citizens: It empowers every person to hold the government institutions and officials accountable to them to deliver their rights as citizens. 
  • For instance, in Kerala, a practice of ‘Participatory Planning and Policy Formulation’ is followed which results in citizens empowerment.
  • Raises Awareness: It raises awareness about the law and takes up sustained advocacy for passage of the Bill in the next Assembly session.
  • For instance, ‘Participatory Budget Analysis’ is followed in Gujarat which raises awareness about various initiatives undertaken under budget.
  • Grievance redressal: The mechanism for redressing grievances ensures time bound action against ineffective official/policy.
  • For instance, Citizens’ Surveys/Citizen Report Cards tools are used in Bangalore and Maharashtra which makes administration responsive. 
  • Improved Governance: Social accountability contributes to improved governance as it increases development effectiveness through better service delivery, and citizen empowerment.
  • For instance, Participatory Expenditure Tracking System (practiced in Delhi, Rajasthan) and Citizen Charters (practiced in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka) help in improving governance. 


In India, social accountability mechanism is seen in MGNREGA in terms of planning of work, registration of workers and ensuring quality check of assets constructed. Since accountability of government officials is a cornerstone for ensuring good governance, it must be promoted.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 21, 2023

Q3. Explain the concept of "Loss and Damage" in the context of climate change. Also, highlight the significance of Loss and Damage Fund in addressing injustice from the climate crisis.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer

Introduction: You can write about the concept of  Loss and Damage & Loss and Damage fund in brief.

Body:Explain Inequities of climate crisis along with benefits and concerns of the fund.

Conclusion: you can write about the significance and a suitable way forward along with this step to address climate crisis at fundamental level.


Answer: Loss and damage refers to the negative consequences that arise from the unavoidable risks of climate change, like rising sea levels, prolonged heatwaves, desertification, the acidification of the sea and extreme events, such as bushfires, species extinction and crop failures.

To tackle the same, the Loss and Damage Fund was established at Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt - COP27 in 2022. The fund aims to provide financial assistance to vulnerable nations affected by climate change. Research studies indicate that the economic costs of loss and damage are projected to be between US$290 billion and $580 billion annually by 2030 in developing countries alone. 


Dimensions of injustice from climate crisis:

  • Geographic Disparities: Low-lying coastal areas and Small Island nations like Mauritius, Marshall Islands, bear the brunt of extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and changing climate patterns.
  • Economic Disparities: Economically marginalized communities with limited resources and infrastructure have fewer means to adapt or recover from climate-related disasters.
    • People in low and lower-middle-income countries are five times more likely to be displaced by sudden extreme weather disasters.
  • Social Inequities: Out-migration of the marginalised population from drought affected areas, rise in school dropout rates of vulnerable children, greater indebtedness of farmers, alienation of land and livestock assets, malnutrition, starvation etc.
  • Health Disparities: Climate change exacerbates existing health inequalities, as farming communities face higher risks of heat-related illnesses; poor people in low lying areas suffer from vector-borne diseases etc.


Role of Loss and Damage Fund:


  • Immediate Relief and Recovery:


      • Emergency Response Funding: It will provide essential financial support to meet basic needs and fast emergency response efforts in the aftermath of climate-related disasters.
      • Infrastructure Rehabilitation: The fund will allocate resources for timely rehabilitation and rebuilding vital infrastructure including road, buildings, utilities in disaster affected regions.
      • Livelihood Support: The fund will offer financial support for affected individuals and businesses to help stabilize communities and protect livelihoods.


  • Building Resilience and Long-term Sustainability:


      • Climate-Resilient Infrastructure: In order to reduce vulnerability to future disasters, the  fund will invest in climate-resilient infrastructure like constructing flood-resistant buildings, reinforcing coastal defenses, and implementing water management systems. 


  • Sustainable Livelihood Programs:  The fund will finance transitioning to sustainable livelihoods that are less susceptible to climate impacts like renewable energy, sustainable agriculture, or eco-tourism. 
  • Community-Based Adaptation Initiatives: It will facilitate community-led initiatives that empowers local stakeholders and ensure that adaptation strategies are tailored to specific needs.
  •  Communities often possess valuable local knowledge and traditional practices like modified agricultural planting, eco villages etc.



The Loss and Damage Fund is a lifeline for countries facing the worst impacts of climate change.  However, it's important that alongside this fund, we need to take complementary climate actions like reducing emissions and building climate-ready infrastructure to tackle the root causes of climate change and protect our planet for the long run.


Subjects : Environment

Nov. 20, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 20, 2023

Q2. CSR is a vehicle on which the companies can race past the profit highway towards sustainable growth. Elaborate.   (10M/150W)

Model Answer
  • Approach:


    We can introduce the answer by defining CSR and its status in India. We can also introduce by highlighting some important CSR activities undertaken by some renowned companies alongside their social impact.   


    Here, we can start by listing arguments on how CSR helps companies achieve sustainable growth and then follow it up by stating what more needs to be done?  


    Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of the body section or by stating the importance of CSR activities in wider aspect i.e., community, society, nation or corporate perspective.  


    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) entails that a company should play a positive role in the community. In India, CSR was made mandatory in 2014 whereby companies are required to spend a minimum of 2% of their net profit over the preceding three years as CSR. 

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Realizing Sustainable Growth:

    • Improves Company’s Brand and Public Trust: Customers are more likely to spend money on goods or services provided by a company with a strong social reputation in the community. 
    • For example, TATA group in India has better customer trust as most of its CSR spending targets community improvement and poverty alleviation programs.
    • Attracts and Retains Employees: Being a part of a workforce that cares about society may provide employees of these firms a sense of pride and fulfilment.
    • For instance, working in Larsen and Turbo is considered prestigious. 
    • Encourages Investors: They are more likely to invest in a company or body that has supported its community and environmental development.
    • For instance, better brand recognition and social standing helps a company perform better in the equity market.  
    • Fosters a Sustainable Environment: Using renewable energy, creating climate change awareness and reducing carbon emissions are examples of how companies can contribute to environmental sustainability.
    • For instance, ITC group carries out social and farm forestry program which assists farmers in converting wasteland to pulpwood plantations.
    • Improves Welfare: Companies' social responsibility also involves human rights protection, livelihood training and ensure commitment to education for young people.
    • For instance, Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M) company primarily focuses on education programs to assist economically and socially disadvantaged communities.

    Limitations of CSR:

  • Rising Costs of Operations: Investing in CSR, at any scale, can lead to high costs and expenses. 
      • Unnecessary Financial Burden: Shareholders, clients or customers may experience the financial burden of an organization’s CSR activities. 
  • Public Image: Once a corporate is in the public eye, they more likely to be scrutinized for everything they do. 
    • Relevant Actions: Most of the CSR is spend on limited activities like promoting education, creating awareness, capacity building activities etc. However, other important activities like agriculture, renewable energy, supporting MSMEs etc. takes a back seat.


    Additional Actions Needed:

    • Ethical Governance: A company practicing ethical governance helps in better performance and thereby ensures sustainable growth. For instance, Incentives for environmentally-beneficial behaviours help in ensuring sustainable growth.
    • Social Goal: Apart from monetary targets, a company must have a social goal or vision which differentiates it from its competitors. This would help achieve sustainable growth. Social goals could be to protect the environment by taking reasonable steps to limit corporate carbon footprint or to serve community via schools, charities etc.
    • Transparency in Functioning: Sustainable growth can be ensured by being transparent in one’s functioning. For instance, routine internal audits with external oversight helps in sustainable growth in long term.

    Though, CSR is mandated in India, but companies must look beyond the monetary expense involved. Their contribution helps in making society a better place and in the process ensures sustainable growth for the company.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 20, 2023

Q1. Besides domain knowledge, a public official needs innovativeness and creativity of a high order to resolve ethical dilemmas. Discuss with suitable example.  (10M/150W)

Model Answer



We can introduce the answer by highlighting the nature of the functions of a civil servant i.e., he is considered a generalist. We can also start by highlighting the significance of modern-day skills to solve modern-day problems.  


Since the directive is to discuss with example, thus, we have to categorically explain both i.e., utility of domain knowledge and modern-day skills/innovation and creativity in resolving problems in administration. This must be aided with examples.   


Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of body section or by stating why both domain knowledge and creativity along with innovativeness is needed to address needs to 21st century India.


A civil servant is a generalist officer who is considered to be a ‘jack of all trade and master of none.’ However, modern-day problems require them to be innovative and creative, i.e., thinking out of the box or undertaking unorthodox solutions while resolving ethical dilemmas.    


Importance of Domain Knowledge in Resolving Ethical Dilemmas  

  • Understand Nuances: Civil servants with domain expertise are able to understand nuances and dynamics of a particular field that helps in resolving clash between conflicting values.  
  • For instance, a bureaucrat with civil engineering background would be able to tackle road infrastructure issues better.  
  • Need for Specialized Knowledge: The changing times is making government functions more specialized and sophisticated, particularly with a greater role of private players in service delivery. 
  • For instance, dealing with cyber security/crime is the function of an IPS officer. However, a well-versed IPS (having understanding of cyber terms) would coordinate better with private players.      
  • Improving Quality of Decisions: Domain expertise in civil servants helps in improving quality of decisions and service delivery, thus promoting public trust.  
  • For instance, a civil servant with MBBS background would’ve been able to take better decisions to manage the COVID-19 pandemic.   


Need of Innovation and Creativity to Resolve Ethical Dilemmas   

  • Out of the Box Solutions: At times going through routine or procedures might not result in success. It requires an out of the box solution and a bureaucrat with innovation would be able to solve such problems.  
  • For instance, delivering government benefits via ICT to eligible people without proper documents. 
  • Reconciling Diverging Views/Values: A creative bureaucrat would be able to reconcile seemingly diverging values/course of actions to resolve ethical dilemmas.  
  • For instance, resolving a development v/s environment dispute by coordinating with economic and environment groups.  
  • Red Tape Reduction: Reducing bureaucratic processes while maintaining governance quality poses ethical concerns. 
  • For Example: In the face of complaints about delayed permits, a creative digital portal can be introduced to speed up the permit process without compromising on the thoroughness of checks. 
  • Transparency in Governance: Public officials often face the dilemma of ensuring total transparency while safeguarding sensitive information. 
  • For Example: The creative use of technology, like blockchain, can be implemented for transparent procurement processes while still keeping certain details confidential. 
  • Cultural Sensitivities: Balancing modern development with cultural preservation is challenging. 
  • For Example: When constructing a highway near a historical site, using innovative methods and materials can preserve the site's integrity while allowing for infrastructural development. 


Thus, innovation and creativity are valuable traits for public officials when addressing ethical dilemmas.  

These qualities enable officials to think beyond conventional solutions, adapt to changing circumstances, and find ethical resolutions that balance competing interests and uphold the principles of good governance and public trust. 

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 20, 2023

Q3. Ensuring transparent and equitable state funding of elections in India is not just a financial investment; it is an investment in the democratic foundation of the nation. In light of the current discussion in the Supreme Court regarding transparency in election funding, examine the statement.  (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly mention about the recent discussion and meaning of State funding of election


Heading 1: Pros of state funding of election

Heading 2: Cons of state funding of election

Conclusion: Conclude with way forward on how to improve election funding


Recently, the SC concluded hearings challenging the legitimacy of the electoral bonds scheme. The primary focus was on ensuring transparency in election funding, reigniting discussions about  state funding of elections. It refers to the financial support provided by the government to political parties or candidates to help cover their campaign expenses. The goal is to foster transparency, fairness, and equal opportunities for everyone involved in the electoral process.


The Indrajit Gupta Committee in 1998 supported state funding of elections for constitutional, legal, and public interest reasons. In 2008, the Second Administrative Reforms Commission recommended partial state funding to limit "illegitimate and unnecessary funding" of election expenses. Conversely, the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution in 2001 did not support state funding of elections. 


Pros of state funding of election

  • Reduced Corruption: State funding can help reduce the reliance of political parties on private donations, thereby minimizing the potential for corruption and undue influence by wealthy individuals or corporations.
    • In Germany, state funding for political parties, tied to electoral performance, reduces corruption risks by lessening reliance on private donations.
  • Level Playing Field: State funding aims to create a more level playing field by providing equal financial resources to all eligible political parties or candidates, regardless of their financial backing. This promotes fair competition in elections.
    • In the case of Kanwar Lal Gupta v. Amar Nath Chawla, the Supreme Court noted that having significant financial resources equates to gaining an advantage in elections
  • Increased Accountability: With public funding, there is a higher degree of transparency and accountability as parties and candidates are required to disclose their expenses and sources of income. This enhances the integrity of the electoral process.
  • Encourages New Entrants: State funding can encourage new and smaller political parties to participate in the electoral process by providing them with the necessary financial resources to compete with established parties.

Cons of state funding of election 

  • Burden on Taxpayers: State funding is financed by taxpayers, and critics argue that citizens may be opposed to using public funds for political campaigns, especially when there are competing priorities for government spending.
    • State funding of elections may divert crucial government funds away from urgent priorities in the social sector, such as healthcare, education, and skill development.
  • Potential for Misuse: There is a risk that state funds could be misused by political parties or candidates for purposes other than election campaigning. Effective monitoring mechanisms are crucial to prevent such misuse.
    • State-sponsored electoral funding will exacerbate the fiscal strain on the government exchequer, further deteriorating the government's financial health.
  • Inadequate Allocation: Determining the fair allocation of state funds among numerous political parties can be challenging. An inadequate allocation may still result in disparities, defeating the purpose of promoting a level playing field.
    • The Election Commission of India (ECI) has objected to state funding of elections, citing its inability to restrict or monitor candidates' expenditures beyond the funds allocated by the state.
  • Not a Panacea: While state funding addresses financial aspects, it may not fully eliminate other forms of corruption, such as nepotism or favoritism. Critics argue that comprehensive electoral reforms are necessary for a more effective solution.


The implementation of state funding is considered a desirable goal, but consensus among major political parties is crucial for proper fund distribution. Meanwhile, suggested reforms include exploring a National Electoral Fund, auditing political party accounts, capping expenditures and donations, and enacting comprehensive legal reforms to regulate political finances. The emphasis is on transparency, with calls for disclosure of funding sources, establishing upper limits on donations, strengthening independent oversight, and leveraging technology for enhanced financial transparency. Adopting international best practices, conducting public awareness campaigns, and continuous review of regulations are essential components to fortify India's democratic institutions and ensure transparent electoral funding.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Nov. 17, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 17, 2023


The tribal village in a remote area of India was facing an acute water crisis due to depleting ground water levels and lack of access to clean drinking water. Most of the villagers depend on rainwater harvesting for their water needs, which is proving to be inadequate due to the prolonged drought in the region. The villagers are also facing severe health issues due to the lack of access to clean drinking water.

The government has promised to provide assistance to the village, but the process is proving to be slow. The villagers are frustrated with the government's lack of commitment and have started to protest against it. The government has formed a team to provide assistance to the villagers, but they are met with resistance from the local tribal leaders who are suspicious of their motives.

The local tribal leaders are suspicious of the government's intentions, as they have had bad experiences with similar projects in the past. The leaders are concerned that the government may take away their land or exploit their resources in the name of development. They fear that the government is only interested in using the village as a resource and not in providing any real assistance to the villagers. You are the leader of the team appointed by the government to provide assistance to the tribal village in a remote area of India facing an acute water crisis. Your authority, responsibility, and jurisdiction are to ensure that the villagers have access to clean drinking water and are provided with the necessary support to address their water needs.

1. How will you manage the situation and provide the much-needed assistance to the villagers without antagonizing the tribal leaders?
2. Examine the qualities of a public servant who will be required to manage the situation.

(250 words, 20 marks)

Model Answer



Introduce the scenario and highlight the challenges of gaining the trust of the local tribal leaders and addressing the villagers' needs without antagonizing the leaders.


Divide the body in two sections

Section 1: Managing the situation and providing assistance to the villagers.

Section 2: Qualities of a public servant required to manage the situation.


Reiterate the steps that need to be taken to solve the issues of the tribal people.


Answer: The case study highlights the issue of water crisis in the tribal areas and steps taken by the government which are very slow. This is delaying the project and because of this the tribal people are frustrated. The government needs to take steps to get support from the tribals and solve the issue as soon as possible.

Stakeholders involved:

  1.     Villagers: who depend on rainwater harvesting for their water needs, which is proving to be inadequate due to the prolonged drought in the region.  They have started a protest against government efforts.
  2.     The government: which has promised to provide assistance to the village, but the process is proving to be slow.
  3.     The team formed by the government to provide assistance to the villagers. They are met with resistance from the local tribal leaders who are suspicious of their motives.
  4.     The local tribal leaders: who are suspicious of the government's intentions, as they have had bad experiences with similar projects in the past.
  5.     Me, the leader of the team: to provide assistance to the tribal village in a remote area of India facing an acute water crisis.

1.Steps to manage the situation:

  1.     Build Trust and Collaboration: Work collaboratively with the tribal leaders to develop a shared vision and plan for addressing the water crisis. Involve them in the decision-making process and seek their input on project implementation.
  2.     Provide Evidence and Assurance: Back up intentions with evidence and provide assurance that the government is committed to assisting the villagers without any ulterior motives. Share success stories from similar projects, showcase positive outcomes, and demonstrate that the assistance provided will genuinely benefit the villagers.
  3.     Engage Local Expertise: Collaborate with local experts, including tribal leaders or respected individuals from within the community, to assist in project implementation. Their involvement will ensure that the project respects and aligns with the cultural and environmental context of the village, addressing any concerns and mitigating potential conflicts.
  4.     Prioritize Villagers' Well-being: Ensure that the assistance provided is primarily focused on the well-being of the villagers. Clearly communicate the objectives of the project, which should include access to clean drinking water, improved health conditions, and long-term sustainability.
  5.     Engage in Capacity Building: Invest in capacity building programs that empower the villagers and tribal leaders to take an active role in managing their water resources. Provide training on sustainable water management practices, rainwater harvesting techniques, and maintenance of infrastructure.


  1. To effectively manage the situation and provide assistance to the villagers without antagonizing the tribal leaders, a public servant should possess the following qualities:
  2.     Empathy and Sensitivity: Being empathetic and sensitive to the needs, concerns, and cultural context of the villagers and tribal leaders helps in building trust and fostering effective communication.
  3.     Strong Communication Skills: Excellent communication skills are essential to convey information clearly, listen actively, and articulate the government's intentions and plans.
  4.     Collaboration and co-operation: A public servant should value collaboration and actively seek input from the villagers and tribal leaders which will help in building trust, ownership, and sustainable solutions.
  5.     Problem-Solving and Adaptability: The ability to analyze complex situations, identify creative solutions, and adapt to changing circumstances is critical to address the water crisis effectively.
  6.     Integrity and Trustworthiness: The public servant should be transparent in their actions, fulfill commitments, and ensure that the assistance provided is genuinely aimed at improving the villagers' lives and addressing their water needs.
  7.     Cultural Competence: A public servant should approach the situation with cultural competence, recognizing and valuing the uniqueness of the community and ensuring that solutions are culturally appropriate and sustainable.
  8.     Patience and Resilience: A public servant must be patient, persistent, and resilient to manage difficult situations, overcome obstacles, and remain positive despite any resistance, delays, and setbacks.
  9.     Strong Leadership Skills: Leadership is critical for managing such a complex situation effectively. Public servants must possess strong leadership skills, such as strategic thinking, decision-making, and conflict resolution, to guide and motivate the team and stakeholders towards a common goal.


By adopting a responsive, transparent, and collaborative approach, civil servants can navigate these challenges and ensure the provision of essential services to communities facing water crises, thereby improving their health and well-being. This is particularly relevant in the present context as governments and societies strive for equitable and sustainable development for all.


Subjects : Ethics

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 17, 2023


You are a commerce graduate and have prepared for government exams for years. On being unable to crack a government job, you have given up and taken a job in a private company. The job comes as a relief after years of struggle and thus is of utmost importance to you and your family. The company offers financial advice to its investors/customers and enjoys a good reputation in the market.  

The company seems to be generating very good returns for its investors/customers. Lately, you’ve been asked to study the profile of certain stocks and analyse their performance. This report could very well become the criteria for your promotions. On analysing these stocks, you found that the stocks are of good companies which have sound fundamentals. Before you submit your final report, you’ve been approached by a person who happens to be working in one of the companies you analysed.    


He offered you some confidential information. You are stunned but this information could be used by your company to generate profits for your investors. However, this information could be detrimental to the company if it comes out in public. The person, in return for information, asks for a job in your company and a meeting with the top executive. You asked for some time before arriving at a decision.   


On enquiring further, you came across certain facts which makes you uncomfortable. Your company is performing good because it has good connections with top executives of some companies which passes insider information to it. This helps them to beat competition and generate a good return on investment. Neither the company nor the its privy group finds any wrong in this.     


  1. What are the ethical dilemmas present here? 
  1. What are the options available to you under the given situation? Critically examine all the options listed by you. 
  2. What course of action will you choose and why? 

(250 words, 20 marks)

Model Answer



You need to introduce the answer by giving a short description of the case in hand and briefly mentioning the core theme of the case study. You can also mention facts like (w.r.t. core theme) like the famous cases dealing with insider trading such as Rakesh Agarwal v/s SEBI, Hindustan Unilever v/s SEBI etc. Mention all the stakeholders involved, alongside facts w.r.t. case and aims/objectives assigned to you.  



The body section should be divided in the following sections i.e.,  

Section 1: You must enlist various ethical dilemmas concerning the case study.  

Section 2: Talk about all possible options available to you (along with merits and demerits). The options available here would be – avoiding the advice, acting on the advice and making professional or personal profit or taking measures to address the problem holistically. 

Section 3: This must be followed by your chosen option and Course of Action (CoA). Justify your CoA.  


Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of the body section or by stating the ill impact of insider trading, ethical dilemma arises and skills a bureaucrat must possess to counter them.   




Here I am working with a financial company which offers financial advice to investors. The unethical practices adopted by the company amounting to insider trading is presenting a dilemma in front of me of whether to choose the organization’s practice and see personal/professional growth or uphold righteousness and suffer. The practice of using illegal means to generate profit has been witnessed in India in corporate scams like Harshad Mehta Scam, Rakesh Agarwal scam etc.  


Stakeholders Involved 

Facts of the Case 


  • Me as a commerce graduate working for a financial advisor company. 
  • Financial advisor company, engaged in insider trading. 
  • The person approaching me for personal gains in lieu of confidential information. 
  • The employees working in the company and the investors associated with the company. 
  • Society at large. 
  • Government exam failures and finally getting a job. 
  • Financial advisor company generating great returns for their investors. 
  • A person approaching me for personal gains in exchange for sharing confidential information of his former company. 
  • The revelation that the company’s primary mode of operation is based on insider trading.  
  • Listing ethical issues present in the case. 
  • Resolving the dilemma between personal gains and personal conscience.  



  1. Ethical Dilemmas Present
  • Personal Interest v/s Personal Conscience: After years of struggle finally getting a stable job v/s personal conscience which debars from continuing in the job.  
  • Personal Gains v/s Legal Validity: Getting promotion by submitting report and facilitating person’s meeting with superiors against reporting the insider trading matter (which is legally punishable) to regulators. 
  • Family’s interest v/s Personal Ethics: Family’s expectations w.r.t. job and stable life against personal ethics preventing me to support this insider trading. 
  • Good Corporate Governance v/s Illegitimate means of generating profit: The strong companies, who earn by following good corporate governance against a company indulging in insider trading and earning profits causes harm to the good companies. 
  • Transparency v/s Organizational Ethics: Going on to reporting the matter to regulators against following organizational norms of hierarchy and reporting the matter to superiors. 



  1. Options Available to Me –

Option 1 

Avoid the Advice and Resign: Here I would be avoiding the advice of the person i.e., not passing it to superiors and resigning from the job.  

  • Merits 


  • Demerits 


  • Personal Integrity: By upholding righteousness, I would be upholding personal integrity.   
  • Not Being Accomplice to Unlawful Activity: The matter discussed above is ‘insider trading’, which is an illegal act and thus by resigning I would be upholding law. 
  • Organization’s Interest: By avoiding advice I would not be harming the company which has good fundamentals and thereby upholding healthy competition practice.  
  • Against Organizational Norms: In private organizations, morality comes after profit and by acting against the organization’s interest I will be violating organizational norms.  
  • Personal Loss: After years of struggle, I finally got a job. Then giving up everything due to morality might disappoint my family and I might face financial and stability problems. 
  • Veracity of Information: The lack of authenticity w.r.t. information might have a negative impact on the retail investors of my company. 
  • Professional Repercussions: I might be negatively projected by the company and thus I might lose job opportunity elsewhere. 


Option 2
Acting on the Advice and Informing Superiors: Here I would be passing on the information to my superiors.   

  • Merits 


  • Demerits 


  • Organizational Norms: I will be acting in my organization’s interest and pass on the information which will help it perform better economically.   
  • Personal Growth: I might get promoted for helping the company gain financially and thus, it may lead to economic prosperity and stability in my life.   


  • Against Personal Integrity: Personal conscience might not permit indulging in an unlawful activity and thus I would be violating personal integrity.  
  • Veracity of Information: The lack of authenticity w.r.t. information might have a negative impact on the retail investors of my company. 
  • Unlawful Activity: Working for the organization and benefiting from an unlawful activity might give me short term rewards but in the long term I might get apprehended by law.  


Option 3 

Approaching superiors to get clarity regarding the situation and then act accordingly. If the information regarding the use of unethical means is true, I will resign and if not, I would avoid the matter altogether. 

  • Merits 
  • Demerits 


  • Personal Integrity: Without conscience approval, I cannot prosper and thus, by resigning and reporting the matter, I would be upholding personal integrity.    
  • Clarification: Instead of jumping to conclusions without proper knowledge, confronting superiors on the same would help me get clarity and decide rationally.    
  • Lawful Action: The law of the land is supreme and any act that hurts innocent civilians should be reported. 
  • Acting Holistically: Instead of merely resigning, I would be reporting the matter which will address the problem holistically.      
  • Personal and Professional Loss: Financial issues, lack of stability in career, unemployment, family disappointment etc. are some problems that I might face. 
  • Organizational Norms: I have violated official secrecy and confidential functioning of the organization. This might prevent other organizations from employing me. 



  1. I would be choosing option 3 and following would be my course of action–
  • First, I will approach my superiors and tell them about the incident without disclosing the necessary information. 
  • I would clarify with them if indeed what I came to know from my sources is true or not. If not true then I will forget the incident but if it is true, then I would resign. 
  • I would report the matter to SEBI as indulging in insider trading is illegal and the innocent investors (not aware of confidential information) suffer. This would also protect me from getting reprimanded in future.  
  • On the personal front, since I have subjective knowledge and little experience, I would apply for other suitable private jobs.  


The above-mentioned measures would help in resolving the dilemma and tackling the problem of insider trading. Insider trading impacts not only innocent investors but also impacts society on a wider scale by killing healthy competition. 

Subjects : Ethics
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