Dec. 29, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 29, 2023

Q3. What is the impact of climate change on agriculture? Discuss the measures to mitigate the impact of climate change on Agriculture.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach for the answer  

Understanding the question: The question talks about how agriculture is affected by climate change. The question is divided into two parts, in the first section we need to explain the impact of climate change on agriculture and in the second we need to discuss the measures to mitigate the impact. 

Introduction: We can introduce the question by explaining the changes in the climate and linking it with agriculture.  

Body: Since the directive is what and discuss, we need to first explain how different dimensions of agriculture are affected by climate change. Then in the second part we need to explain the measures to mitigate the impact of climate change on agriculture. Here we need to add some examples and data as well to validate our points. 

Conclusion: We can conclude the answer by mentioning the importance of agriculture and summarizing the steps needed to tackle the impact of climate change on agriculture.


Answer: Climate change is having profound impacts on the agricultural sector. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, increasing intensity of extreme weather events, and rising atmospheric CO2 are having direct and indirect effects on crop yields, water availability, nutrient cycling, and livestock health. 

According to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), crop yields could fall by 10-25% by 2050 due to higher temperatures and extreme weather events. 

Impact of climate change on Agriculture: 

  • Increasing temperature: Climate change is causing temperatures to rise, resulting in longer growing seasons and more intense heat waves. This can be beneficial for some crops, such as corn and soybeans, but can also create more stress on other crops, such as wheat and barley. Additionally, extreme heat can lead to decreased productivity, higher water requirements and increased risk of pest and disease outbreaks  
  • Decreasing precipitation: There is changes in precipitation patterns, both in terms of the amount and timing of precipitation. These changes are making drought conditions more common and causing floods in many areas. This can lead to crop losses due to decreased water availability, soil erosion and increased weed and pest pressure. 
  • Increased pests and diseases: Warmer temperatures and increased precipitation can lead to increased pest and disease pressure, leading to crop losses). For example, pests such as the maize stalk borer have been observed to be more active in warmer temperatures, leading to reduced yields in maize crops.  
  • Increased costs for farmers: There are increased costs for farmers, due to the need for new equipment, increased labor costs, and increased costs for inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. This can also result in food inflation. 
  • Increased food insecurity: The food insecurity is increased due to changes in crop yields, increased costs for farmers, and changes in food prices. This can have serious implications for populations in developing countries, which are often more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. 


Measures to mitigate the impact of climate change on Agriculture: 

  • Improved Crop Varieties: As climate conditions change, farmers need to adjust their crops accordingly. This includes selecting varieties that are more tolerant of extreme temperatures and droughts. For example, maize varieties in Africa that have been bred specifically for heat tolerance have been shown to offer a yield advantage of up to 10%.  
  • Irrigation: A well-managed irrigation system can be a powerful tool for limiting the effects of climate change on agriculture. By decreasing the dependence on rainfall, farmers are able to ensure that their crops are receiving the water they need to thrive, even during periods of prolonged drought.  
  • Precision Agriculture: Precision agriculture uses technology to monitor crop growth and soil health in order to make more informed decisions about planting and fertilization. This can help farmers optimize their yields and reduce their environmental impact.  
  • Agroforestry: Agroforestry combines traditional agricultural practices with tree cultivation. This helps to reduce soil erosion and increase carbon sequestration, while also providing a source of income for farmers.  
  • Water Harvesting: Water harvesting is a simple and effective way to capture rainfall and store it for future use. This can be especially helpful for farmers in areas prone to long periods of drought.  
  • Climate-Smart Agriculture: Climate-smart agriculture is a set of practices that aim to increase agricultural productivity while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This includes practices such as the use of improved crop varieties, efficient irrigation systems, and sustainable land management.  


Agriculture is the primary source of food for much of the world’s population, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to produce food in an unpredictable climate. tackling climate change is necessary to protect and preserve the agricultural industry. By reducing greenhouse gas emissions, investing in renewable energy, and developing sustainable agricultural practices, we can reduce the impacts of climate change, improve agricultural yields, and protect farmers and producers. 


Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 29, 2023

Q1. The Pacific Ring of Fire has a disproportionately large number of volcanoes when compared to all other plate boundaries combined together. Explain (10M, 150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has two parts: 1) Pacific ring of fire 2) Reasons for large number of volcanoes around pacific ring of fire 


Type 1: Introduce the Pacific Ring of Fire by describing its location, shape, and features or  

Type 1: Can also start with volcanoes and its features 


Heading 1: Write the geographical location of Ring of Fire including graphical representation 

Heading 2: Explain how the Pacific Ring of Fire evolved and Its relationship with plate tectonics. 

Heading 3: Mention the reasons for its active state, which is responsible for hosting the most active volcanoes in the world. 


Type 1: Conclude your answer by writing relevance of pacific ring of fire  

Type 2: Write about the devastation from this catastrophe and mitigation methods.


Answer: The Pacific ‘Ring of Fire, or Circum-Pacific Belt, is a path along the Pacific Ocean characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. This is home to more than 450 active and dormant volcanoes (75% of Earth’s total volcanoes). However, there are other significant areas, such as the Mid Atlantic Belt, Alpide Belt, East African Rift, where volcanoes are also concentrated. 

Volcanism across major plate boundaries - A comparison: 

Reasons for disproportionately large number of volcanoes in Pacific Ring of Fire: 

  • Plate movements: Pacific Plate exhibits ocean-ocean, ocean-continental convergence which involves major subductions, and formation of transform boundaries results in intense volcanic activity. On the other hand, other major plate movements, such as continental-continental collisions or divergent boundaries, do not involve extensive subduction, leading to fewer volcanoes.
    • Tectonic Plates: The Pacific Ring of Fire is located at the junction of several tectonic plates, including the Pacific, North American, Eurasian, Philippine, and Australian plates. The movement of these plates causes frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. 
    • Subduction Zones: The region is also characterized by subduction zones, where one tectonic plate is forced beneath another. This process generates magma, which can lead to volcanic eruptions.
  • Nazca Plate subducts beneath the South American Plate- Andes Mountains include the world’s highest active volcano, Nevados Ojos del Salado.
  • Volcanic Arcs: The subduction of oceanic plates beneath continental plates can create volcanic arcs, where magma rises to the surface and forms a chain of volcanoes. 
  • For example, the Aleutian Islands in Alaska run parallel to the Aleutian Trench. 


  • Plate Speed: The relatively fast speed of the Pacific Plate (faster subduction -> higher intensity and frequency of volcanoes) contributes to the concentration of volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire, as compared to other regions where plate movements may be slower.
  • Hotspots: The Pacific Ring of Fire also includes several volcanic hotspots, such as Hawaii and Yellowstone. These areas are characterized by high heat flow and magma production, which can lead to volcanic activity.
    • For example, Mount Erebus, the most southern active volcano on Earth, sits over the eruptive zone of the Erebus hot spot in Antarctica. 

The Ring of Fire has been responsible for many of the world’s most catastrophic volcanic eruptions and earthquakes and has affected many densely populated areas around the Pacific region. However, on the other side, the volcanic activities have provided many valuable resources, such as rich farmland and the possibility of tapping geothermal activities for heating and electricity.

Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 29, 2023

Q2. Indian cities like Chennai, Mumbai, and Ahmedabad are witnessing increasing incidents of urban floods. In this context, discuss the reasons and ways to mitigate them.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has two main headings: 1) Reasons for urban floods 2) Mitigation methods 


Type 1: Introduce with any current news/report related to urban flood in Indian city or 

Type 2: Start with how increasing frequency of flood and the reason briefly. 


Heading 1: Mention the main causes of urban flooding in Indian cities 

Heading 2: Write measures to prevent flooding in cities 


Type 1: Conclude way forward or 

Type 2: Finish with any government initiatives for urban flooding 


Answer: Urban floods have now become a national phenomenon, affecting many cities in India almost annually. Over the past few years, the frequency of urban floods has increased in major cities like Chennai, Mumbai, Ahmadabad, Patna and several other places.  

Floods in urban areas are largely caused by bad planning, inadequate infrastructure, uncontrolled construction, and encroachment on riverbeds, including climate change. 

Urban flooding

Urban flooding is defined as the inundation of land or property within a built environment, particularly in densely populated cities where rainfall exceeds the capacity of drainage systems. It is a manmade disaster

Urban flooding is significantly different from rural floods (which are caused by excessive rain over a flat or low-lying area) leads to developed catchments, which increases the flood peaks from 1.8 to 8 times and flood volumes by up to 6 times


Main causes of urban flooding in India

  • Encroachments on Water Bodies: Urbanization has led to encroachments on water bodies which obstruct the natural flow of water and causes floods.
  • For example, Bengaluru floods in Aug-Sept 2022
  • Illegal Mining Activities: Illegal sand mining activities lead to soil erosion and reduce the water body's water-holding capacity.
    • For example, the flood in Gandak river in East and West Champaran (Bihar). 
  • Uninformed Release of Water from Dams: Unplanned and sudden releases of water from dams and lakes cause floods in urban areas, leaving the population with little time to respond.
    • For example, the release of water from Chembarambakkam lake which caused Chennai floods in 2015. 
  • Climate Change: Climate change has increased the frequency of short-duration heavy rainfall, leading to higher water run-off. Moreover, urban heat islands effect has increased rainfall over urban areas, causing floods. 

Ways to Mitigate urban flooding

  • Effective Water-Shed Management: Rainwater harvesting into all infrastructure projects and construction of flood walls.
    • For example, Tamil Nadu made rooftop rainwater harvesting compulsory across all houses in the state.
  • Developing Blue Green Infrastructure: Climatic concerns can be addressed through a combination of infrastructure, ecological restoration, and urban design to reconnect people with nature.
  • Flood vulnerability Mapping: Analyzing the topography and past information on floods at the city level might help identify the vulnerable locations.
  • Upgradation of Urban infrastructure: The urban infrastructure must be improved, including the building of new storm water drains and the expansion of current sewerage facilities. 

The government has taken measures to tackle the problems of urban flooding through initiatives like AMRUT, Smart Cities Mission, etc., but beyond the states, community approaches are critical for disaster mitigation and management. Furthermore, capacity-building programmes for citizens across cities need to be taken up through a massive educational effort so that risk reduction behaviour becomes part of their daily lives. 

Subjects : Geography

Dec. 28, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 28, 2023

Q3. How climate change affects the frequency and intensity of droughts in India? Give an account of various steps taken by the government to manage droughts in India. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer 

Understanding the question: The question’s demand is to explain the impact of the climate change on the frequency and intensity of droughts in India. We need to explain that the climate change is responsible to increase the droughts in India. In the second part we need to explain the steps taken by the government to overcome the drought conditions in India.  

Introduction: We can introduce the question by giving some facts about the drought conditions and its effect in the last few decades.  

Body: Since the directive is how and account of, we need to make two parts in the question. In the first part explain how climate change is responsible to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in India. This must be substantiated with data, facts and examples from different sources. In the second part we need to explain the steps taken by India to manage the droughts. Here one can mention government programmes and schemes as well.  

Conclusion: We can conclude the answer by summarizing the steps needed to manage the droughts.  


Answer: India's drought-prone area has increased by 57 per cent since 1997. Drought has affected nearly two-thirds of the country from 2020 to 2022. Over the last decade, one-third of India's districts have experienced more than four droughts, and drought affects 50 million people each year.  

Droughts in India are becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change, resulting in lower crop yields, water scarcity, and a rise in water-related illnesses. 

Impact of climate change on the frequency and intensity of droughts in India: 

  • Temperature rise: Warmer temperatures increase the rate of evaporation, reducing the amount of water available for crops, leading to more frequent and severe droughts. 
    • For example, the 2019 drought in India was the worst in the last 45 years, and it was attributed to higher temperatures caused by climate change.  
  • Decreased Rainfall: It is causing reduced rainfall in India, making droughts more likely.
    • For instance, the 2015-2016 drought was the worst in the last 40 years, and it was caused by an abnormally low amount of rainfall.  
  • Melting Glaciers: Climate change is melting glaciers in India, reducing the water supply and increasing the likelihood of droughts. 
    • For example, the 2017 drought in India was caused by the melting of Himalayan glaciers, which reduced the water supply to the region.  
  • Unpredictable Weather Patterns: Climate change has caused unpredictable weather patterns in India, making it harder to predict when droughts will occur. 
    • For instance, the 2018 drought was the most severe in the last 10 years and it was caused by an unexpected shift in weather patterns. 
  • Sea Level Rise: Rising sea levels are causing saltwater intrusion in India, leading to water shortages and droughts. 
    • For example: the 2019 drought was caused by saltwater intrusion in the coastal regions of India.  


Various steps taken by the government to manage droughts in India: 

  • National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA): This project was launched in the year 2009-10 and it aims to provide sustainable livelihoods to farming communities in drought-prone areas. The project works towards management of watersheds through integrated water management and conservation practices.  
  • Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP): This programme was launched in the year 1996-97 and it aims to accelerate the implementation of irrigation projects. The programme provides financial assistance to state governments for the completion of already ongoing irrigation projects. 
  • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY): This initiative was launched in the year 2015-16 and it aims to provide irrigation to every farm in the country. The scheme works to ensure access to water for irrigation to all farmers through a variety of water resources such as rainwater harvesting, groundwater and surface water.  
  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY): This scheme was launched in the year 2016-17 and it aims to provide insurance coverage to farmers against crop losses due to natural calamities such as droughts. The scheme provides financial assistance to farmers in case of crop losses due to drought, flood and other natural disasters. 


Additional information: 

  • National Adaptation Fund on Climate Change (NAFCC): This fund was launched in the year 2010-11 and it aims to support projects and programmes that help the country adapt to the effects of climate change. The fund provides financial assistance to states for the implementation of adaptation measures such as water conservation and drought management. 
  • Introduction of Drought Early Warning Systems: The government has also taken steps to introduce drought early warning systems (DEWS) in the country. These systems are used to provide timely information about the risk of drought conditions in a particular region. 


To address the issue in the short-term, this includes improving water infrastructure, improving access to clean water, and supporting farmers through the development of drought-resistant crops. In the long-term, measures must be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit the severity of future droughts. And also, involvement of local communities is needed to tackle the issue.  

Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 28, 2023

Q2.Explain why Himalayan rivers form large deltas as compared to peninsular rivers. Also, why do west-flowing rivers not form deltas, unlike east-flowing ones?(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer 

Understanding the question: The question is about the delta formation in India by Himalayan, peninsular and west flowing rivers. We need to explain why large deltas are formed by the Himalayan rivers as compared to the peninsular rivers in the first part of the answer. In the second part we need to explain why the west flowing rivers do not form deltas.

Introduction: We can introduce the answer by defining the deltas and their importance for the ecosystem.

Body: Since the direct is explained and why, in the first section we need to explain the reasons for formation of large deltas by the Himalayan rivers as compared to the peninsular rivers. In the second section, we need to explain why west-flowing rivers do not form the deltas as compared to the east-flowing rivers.  

Conclusion: We can conclude the answer by providing the significance of the deltas for the ecosystem.  

Answer: A river delta is a low-lying plain or landform that occurs at the mouth of a river near where it flows into an ocean or another larger body of water. Deltas' greatest importance to human activities, fish and wildlife lay in their characteristic highly fertile soil and dense, diverse vegetation. 

Himalayan rivers form large deltas as compared to peninsular rivers because: 

  • Large size and Speed: Himalayan rivers are much larger, faster, and carry more sediment than peninsular rivers. The increased amount of sediment carried by Himalayan rivers creates large deltas at the mouth of the rivers. 
    • Examples of large Himalayan deltas include the Ganges and Brahmaputra, which form the Sunderbans delta in India and Bangladesh.
  • More sediments: Himalayan rivers are fed by several tributaries that add to the sediment load of the rivers. This, coupled with the higher velocity of the rivers, creates a powerful force that carries sediment further downstream and helps to form large deltas. 
    • For example, the Ganga has many tributaries such as the Yamuna, Ghaghara, and Gandak that all add to the sediment load of the river.
  • More erosion: Himalayan rivers erode the land as they flow, which adds sediment to the river. While the peninsular rivers flow over hard rocks which are eroded slowly. 
    • For example, The Yamuna River has eroded the land as it flows, creating the Yamuna Valley, which has a rich sediment deposit that flows into the Ganges Delta. 
  • Steep slope: The steep gradient of the riverbed of Himalayan rivers as compared to the peninsular rivers causes the river to flow faster, which carries more sediment downstream.
    • Examples include the Ganges Delta and the Brahmaputra Delta.
  • Perennial flow: Himalayan rivers also experience higher levels of monsoon rainfall which increases the amount of runoff and sediment that is carried downstream. Also, the Himalayan rivers have perennial flow of water as compared to peninsular rivers which are seasonal in nature.
    • For example, Ganga flows throughout the year by receiving rainfall in monsoon and melting of water in summer season.  

West-flowing rivers do not form deltas, unlike east-flowing ones: 

  • Steeper gradient: West-flowing rivers generally have steeper gradients, which prevents them from depositing sediment when they reach the ocean. This is because the force of the river is too strong for sediment to be deposited. While those east flowing river flow over gentle or plain area.
  • Shorter distance: West-flowing rivers tend to have a shorter distance to travel from their source to the ocean, which does not give them enough time to build up the large amounts of sediment needed to form a delta.
  • Tectonically active area: West-flowing rivers usually run through areas of high tectonic activity, such as mountains and active plate boundaries. This can cause tectonic uplift, which prevents sediment from being deposited.
  • Ocean Currents: West-flowing rivers often encounter strong ocean currents before they reach their destination as compared to east flowing rivers. These ocean currents can erode sediment away, preventing the formation of a delta.
  • Small Size of rivers: East-flowing rivers tend to be larger and have more water than west-flowing rivers. This gives them more power and the ability to transport larger amounts of sediment, which is necessary for forming deltas. 
    • Examples of east-flowing rivers that form deltas are the Krishna, the Ganges River, and the Godavari River.


River deltas boast some of the most biodiverse systems on the planet. As such, it is essential that these unique and beautiful havens of biodiversity remain as healthy habitat for the many species of plants, animals, insects, and fish.

Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 28, 2023

Q1.Elucidate the causes behind a volcanic eruption and mention different types of volcanoes. How do volcanoes affect the local environment?(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has three main headings: 1) Volcanic eruption 2) Different types of volcanoes 3) Effect of volcanoes on local environment and climate.


Type 1: Briefly introduce your answer by defining what is volcano and how they occur or

Type 2: Start with any recent volcanic eruption around the world like (Mount Semeru volcanic eruption in Indonesia in Dec. 2022).


Heading 1: Mention the reasons for volcanic eruption

Heading 2: Explain the different types of volcanoes based on their periodicity of eruption

Heading 3: Write the impacts of volcanic eruption on local environment

Type 1: Conclude by writing the significance of volcanism on humans, environment etc or 

Type 2: You can also write the measures to mitigate volcanic disasters.

Answer: A volcano is an opening in the earth’s crust through which gases, molten rock materials (lava), ash, steam, etc. are emitted outward during an eruption. Such vents or openings occur in those parts of the earth’s crust where the rock strata are relatively weak. Volcanic activity is an example of an endogenic process. 

Causes of a Volcanic Eruption: 

  • Magma's Buoyancy: Magma rises to the surface and erupts because its density is lower than that of the surrounding rocks. The lighter magma floats upward, driven by buoyant forces. 
  • Expelled Gases: Magma contains dissolved gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. As magma rises closer to the surface, the decrease in pressure allows these gases to form bubbles. When the volume of these bubbles reaches a critical point, usually around 75%, the pressure becomes too great, causing the magma to rupture and release pyroclasts (solid fragments), gases, and lava. 
  • Pressure on Chamber Lid: The pressure from the magma accumulating in underground chambers can cause the chamber lid to rise. Eventually, the pressure becomes too high, leading to an explosive eruption.  

These volcanic eruptions occur at either at inter-plate boundaries or intraplate. 

  • Plate Tectonics: Volcanoes are often found near the boundaries of tectonic plates. When two plates collide or move apart, magma can rise to the surface and cause an eruption. 
  • Hotspots: Some volcanoes are located over hotspots, which are areas of the Earth's mantle where magma is closer to the surface. As the tectonic plates move, new volcanoes can form over these hotspots. 


Different types of volcanoes:

  • Shield Volcanoes: These volcanoes have a broad, gently sloping shape and are formed by the accumulation of fluid lava flows. Shield volcanoes are typically not very explosive and have eruptions that are relatively calm. Example, Mauna Loa in Hawaii 
  • Stratovolcanoes (or Composite Volcanoes): These volcanoes have steep sides and are built up of alternating layers of lava, ash, and other volcanic debris. Stratovolcanoes are often the most explosive type of volcano and can produce pyroclastic flows, ash clouds, and other dangerous volcanic hazards. Example, Mount Fuji in Japan 
  • Cinder Cones: These are small, steep-sided volcanoes that are formed from the accumulation of volcanic debris. Cinder cones are typically less than 1,000 feet tall and have a single vent that erupts lava, ash, and other volcanic material. Example, Paricutin in Mexico 
  • Lava Domes: Lava domes are formed when thick, viscous lava accumulates around the vent of a volcano. These domes can grow to be very large and can produce explosive eruptions if the dome collapses. Example, Lassen Peak in the United States 
  • Calderas: Calderas are large, bowl-shaped depressions that are formed when a volcano collapses in on itself after a massive eruption. Calderas can be several miles across and can be filled with water or lava flows. Example, Yellowstone Caldera in the United States 


Impacts of volcanoes on local environment: 

  • Air Quality: Volcanic eruptions release large amounts of gases, ash, and other particles into the air, which can affect air quality and visibility. The ash and particles can cause respiratory problems and other health issues for people and animals and can also disrupt air travel. 
  • Soil Fertility: Volcanic ash is rich in nutrients and can enhance soil fertility, leading to increased agricultural productivity. However, if the ash is too thick or acidic, it can also harm crops and other vegetation. 
  • Water Quality: Volcanic eruptions can cause flooding and landslides, which can damage water sources and contaminate water supplies with ash and other debris. The ash and other volcanic material can also cause water to become more acidic, which can harm aquatic life. 
  • Landscapes: Volcanic eruptions can dramatically alter the local landscape, creating new landforms such as lava flows, cinder cones, and calderas. These changes can impact local ecosystems and wildlife habitats. 


Volcanism plays a significant role in the formation of many landforms on the earth and has an impact on climate, environment, and human existence. Volcanism is a natural phenomenon that cannot be avoided but may be predicted to a large extent using scientific research. 


Subjects : Geography

Dec. 27, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 27, 2023

Q.2) Explain the numerous aspects of Indian secularism. Also, Discuss how Indian secularism is distinct from western secularism. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

Question has two main heading: Numerous aspects of Indian secularism and difference between Indian and western secularism. 


Type 1: Start by defining Secularism; or 

Type 2: Mention the importance of secularism  


Heading 1: Numerous aspects of Indian secularism: Write various distinct aspects of Indian secularism like mutual respect etc. 

Heading 2: Difference between Indian and western Secularism: Write differences between Indian and western secularism 


Type 1: Give a futuristic conclusion as how secularism should further be enhanced and strengthened. 

Type 2: Give way ahead by giving a balanced view followed by a positive conclusion 



Answer: Secularism means separation of religion from political, economic, social and cultural aspects of life, religion being treated as a purely personal matter. However, Indian secularism is a unique concept that has evolved over time and is rooted in the country's diverse religious, cultural, and social fabric. 


Numerous aspects of Indian Secularism: 

  • Mutual respect: As per Dr. Radhakrishnan, Indian philosophy of secularism is related to “Sarva Dharma Sambhava” a upanishadic dictum. Thus, there exists mutual respect for all religions.  
  • For example, Ajmer Sharif Dargah in Rajasthan, which is a shrine dedicated to the Sufi saint Moinuddin Chishti, is visited by people of all faiths.  
  • Firmly rooted in India’s unique circumstances: Indian secularism owes its origin from India’s social-cultural and historical paradigm. India’s remarkable religious diversity and deeply religious nature of Indian shaped the Indian secularism. 
  • State neutrality: Indian secularism requires the state to remain neutral towards all religions and to not interfere in religious matters. This means that the state cannot promote or favour any religion, nor can it discriminate against any religion.  
  • For example, Haj subsidy and maintenance of Hindu temples by state. 
  • Protection of minority rights: Indian secularism emphasizes the protection of minority rights. State ensures that minorities enjoy the same rights and opportunities as the majority community.  
  • For example, India has dedicated body i.e., National Commission for Minorities for protection of minority rights.  


Difference between Indian and western Secularism: 


Western secularism

Indian Secularism 

It embodies a negative concept of secularism, i.e., strict separation between religion and state. 

It embodies a positive concept of secularism, i.e., equal respect for all religions or equal protection of all religions. 

It holds the principle of strict neutrality i.e., non-interference in the affairs of each other. 

It holds the principle of ‘Principled distance’ i.e., interference of the State as and when required to uphold the Constitutional values 

No public policy can be solely based on religion, as religion is completely a private matter. 

Public policies will also be made on religious issues if there is a need to do so. 

A single unified code of law is used to dispense justice regardless of religious background. 

Certain personal laws of different religious boards are also considered while dispensing justice. 


Indian secularism is like a beautiful tapestry, where different religions are woven together in equality and harmony. It is unique in its approach, respecting each religion while keeping the state separate. This allows everyone to freely practice their beliefs without discrimination. Indian secularism celebrates diversity, protecting minority rights and fostering unity. It is a masterpiece of religious tolerance and inclusivity, making India a shining example of coexistence.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 27, 2023

Q.1) “A growing sense of regionalism may seriously threaten India's unity and integrity”. Critically examine. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

Question talks about regionalism and its linkages with India’s unity and integrity. In the first part, mention how regionalism can pose a major challenge to India’s unity and integrity. In the second part, mention the positive impacts of regionalism.  


Type 1: Start by defining regionalism; or 

Type 2: Start with brief current affair background related to regionalism   


Heading 1: How regionalism threaten India’s unity and integrity: Mention challenges to Indian society due to regionalism 

Heading 2: Positive of regionalism: Write benefits of regionalism  

For value addition, you can mention a way forward, and a case study (in a diagrammatic form).  


Type 1: Give a futuristic conclusion as regionalism should be shaped to secure India’s unity and integrity. 

Type 2: Give way ahead by giving a balanced view followed by a positive conclusion.


Answer: Regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the interests of a particular region, group of regions or other subnational entity. It is driven by the conscientiousness of loyalty to a distinct region with a homogenous population in terms of cultural, social, political, economic aspiration, or ethnicity.


Regionalism can pose a threat to India’s unity and integrity in the following ways: 


  • Disrupting national identity: Regionalism can lead to the fragmentation of the national identity, making it difficult for people to identify with a single unified Indian identity.  
    • For example, in India people identify themselves based on their states like a Tamilian, a Bengali, a Bihari etc, more than the identity of an ‘Indian’. 
  • Demands for separatism: In some cases, regionalism can escalate into demands for separatism, which can seriously threaten India's unity and integrity.  
    • For example, demands for a separate Khalistan state.  
  • Ethnic tensions: Regionalism can cause tensions between different ethnic groups, leading to conflicts and violence, as seen in some separatist movements in states.  
    • For example, ethnic tensions in Northeast India. 
  • Economic disparities: Regionalism can create economic disparities between different regions, leading to feelings of neglect and resentment among people in less developed regions. 


Benefits of regionalism: 


  • Strengthening democracy: Regionalism leads to the rise of regional parties which prevents the monopolization of one single political party.  
    • For example, the rise of regional parties DMK, BSP, AAP, Trinamool congress etc. 
  • Economic development: Regionalism can help promote economic development by encouraging investment in less developed regions. This can lead to the creation of jobs and the growth of local industries, which can contribute to the overall growth of the country's economy.   
    • For example, the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh has promoted their development (SGDP growing by 8%). 
  • Improved governance: Regionalism can encourage the devolution of power from the central government to local authorities, which can lead to more efficient and effective governance.
    • For example, Rise of DMK led to effective implementation of government schemes like the Mid-day meal scheme. 
  • Fostering competitive federalism: Regionalism may induce competition among people of a region and propel them to do better to improve the status of their region.
    • For example, regionalism may foster competition among states regarding resources, setting up of industries, infrastructural facilities, etc.


  • Preservation of local culture: Regionalism can help preserve local cultures and traditions, which are often unique and valuable. It can also promote the use of local languages and dialects, which might otherwise be lost or marginalized.  
  • For example, Tamil Nadu regional parties work for securing its Dravidian identities like Tamil language 


While growing regionalism in India can pose challenges to national unity and integrity, it is crucial to critically evaluate its impact. Balancing regional aspirations with the broader goals of national integration, addressing economic disparities, and promoting inclusive development are essential to ensure that regionalism does not threaten the unity and integrity of the country. Effective governance, inclusive policies, and sustained efforts towards national integration are key in managing the potential negative consequences of regionalism.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 27, 2023

Q.3) The dismal polling turnout in the Maoist-affected areas of Chhattisgarh is a pointer that democracy needs to be strengthened at the grassroots. In light of the statement, highlight the factors contributing to Left-wing extremism and outline the measures undertaken by the government to eliminate LWE. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly introduce with meaning of LWE and the highlight the low voter turnout in  recently concluded elections


Heading 1: Reasons behind LWE

Heading 2: Steps taken by Government( Security and Development)

Conclusion: Conclude with  key remarks on how to eradicate LWE




Left-wing extremism refers to political ideologies and movements that advocate for radical social, economic, and political changes with the aim of establishing a more equitable and classless society. In the recently concluded Chhattisgarh elections, voter turnout in  LWE-affected areas  was significantly impacted by violence, exacerbated by boycott calls from the Maoists. In areas like Bijapur and Konta, which are affected by Maoist influence, the voter turnout was exceptionally low, ranging from 3% to 4%.

Reason behind LWE


  • Socio-economic Disparities: Left-wing extremism often stems from deep-rooted socio-economic disparities, where marginalized communities face poverty and lack of opportunities. 
    • In India, regions like Chhattisgarh's Bastar, with tribal populations, witness Maoist insurgency due to historical neglect and economic deprivation.
  • Alienation and Unemployment: Youth in affected areas often feel alienated and encounter high unemployment rates, pushing them towards extremist ideologies. 
    • In states like Jharkhand, unemployed youth may be susceptible to recruitment by Naxal groups, finding a sense of purpose in the movement.
  • Land Rights and Exploitation: Issues related to land rights and exploitation of natural resources contribute to extremism.
    •  In Odisha's Malkangiri district, for instance, tribal communities protest against displacement and exploitation by external entities
  • Failure of Governance: Left-wing extremism thrives in areas where governance is weak or corrupt. 
    • In parts of Bihar, inadequate governance and rampant corruption create a fertile ground for Naxal influence.
  • Historical Grievances: Historical injustices and grievances, such as displacement and dispossession, fuel extremist movements. 
    • The Telangana region in India witnessed Naxal uprisings rooted in historical land disputes, where peasants rose against oppressive landowners.


Steps taken by Government


Security Measures


  • Deployment of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs): CAPFs like CRPF, BSF, and ITBP have been deployed in LWE-affected areas for counter-insurgency operations and to reinforce police presence.
  • Strengthening State Police: Financial and logistical support is provided to states to modernize their police forces, enhance intelligence gathering, and train personnel in counter-insurgency tactics.
  • Establishment of Specialized Units: Specialized units such as Cobra Commandos and Greyhounds have been established for targeted operations against Naxalite leaders and camps.


Development Initiatives


  • Integrated Development Projects: Schemes like the Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP) and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) aim to enhance infrastructure, provide livelihood opportunities, and meet basic needs like education and healthcare.
  • Skill Development Programs: Youth in LWE-affected areas are provided with skill development training to enhance employability and reduce vulnerability to Naxalite recruitment.
  • Promotion of Sustainable Livelihoods: Initiatives like Van Dhan Vikas Kendras and MGNREGA focus on creating sustainable livelihood opportunities through forest-based activities and rural employment programs for tribal communities.


Way Forward


While the government has made strides in combating Left-wing Extremism there remains a crucial need for additional measures. Emphasizing the effective implementation of the PESA Act, nurturing tribal leadership, and acknowledging tribal aspirations are pivotal steps toward sustainable peace. Furthermore, targeted development programs, counter-propaganda efforts, peaceful negotiations, human rights protection, and a comprehensive, long-term strategy are essential components to address the root causes of insurgency. 


It is imperative for the government to engage in proactive, inclusive governance that prioritizes social justice, sustainable development, and lasting solutions to ensure the complete eradication of Left-wing Extremism in the near future.

Subjects : Social Issues

Dec. 26, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 26, 2023

Q3.  While La Nina is welcomed in India, El Nino triggers anxiety. Discuss. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach for the answer 

Understanding the question: The question is about the two different weather phenomena in the Southern Pacific Ocean which have an impact on the Indian monsoon as well as climatic conditions. The first part talks about the positives of La Nina while the second part talks about the negative impacts of El Nino. 

Introduction: We can introduce the question by giving linkage of the El Nino and La Nina with the climate of Indian subcontinent. You can also provide the definition of both the terms. We can also link the question to recent developments. 

Body: Since the directive is discuss, we need to first explain why La Nina is welcomed (explain here positive impact) in India by providing some examples. And then in the second section explain why El Nino triggers anxiety in India (explain here the negative impact of the El Nino on India) with examples and recent events.  

Conclusion: Conclude the answer by mentioning why El Nino is unwelcomed in India. 


Answer: The weather phenomenon El Niño and La Niña are closely linked to the climate conditions in the Indian subcontinent, and their effects are often felt quite acutely. 


El Niño is a weather pattern characterized by the warming of the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean off the coast of South America, while La Niña is the opposite.  

La Niña is a climate phenomenon that is welcomed in India because: 

  • Increased Rainfall: La Niña typically brings an increase in rainfall for India and can help alleviate drought conditions. This increase in rainfall is beneficial for Indian agriculture, as it helps to replenish soil moisture, increases crop yields, and improves water resources. 
  • Cooler temperature: La Niña also tends to bring cooler temperatures, which can be beneficial in helping to reduce the effects of heat waves.
  • Water security: La Niña reduces the risk of droughts and water shortages, which can be devastating to India’s agricultural sector.  


El Nino triggers anxiety in India because:

  • Decrease rainfall: El Niño typically brings a decrease in rainfall for India, which can lead to drought conditions. This can have serious implications for Indian agriculture, as it can lead to reduced crop yields and shortages of water resources. 
    • For example, data shows a 60% probability of drought in India in an El Nino year, with a 30% chance of below-normal rain and only a 10% chance of normal rain.
  • Increased temperature: El Niño also tends to bring higher temperatures, which can exacerbate heat waves and lead to increased health risks. For these reasons, El Niño triggers anxiety in India.
  • Extreme weather events: El Nino can lead to an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as cyclones and floods, which can cause destruction of homes and property. This can lead to financial hardship and insecurity, which can cause anxiety. 
  • Incidence of diseases: El Nino can lead to an increase in the incidence of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, as well as water-borne diseases, such as cholera. This can lead to fear and anxiety as people worry about their health and the health of their families. 


Hence, La Nina is welcomed in India while El Nino triggers anxiety due to the potential negative impacts it can have on the climate and weather patterns in the country.

Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 26, 2023

Q2. The melting of Thwaites glaciers in the Antarctic region has raised concerns all over the world. Explain the impact of the melting of the ice caps and glaciers in the polar regions and higher altitudes. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer 

Understanding the question: The question is about the recent concerns of melting of the glaciers and its impact all over the globe. We need to first mention the reasons for melting of the glaciers all over the world and then give its impact.  

Introduction: We can introduce the question by linking the topic to the recent event of melting of Thwaites Glacier in the Antarctic region and adding some facts about it.   

Body: Since the directive is explain, we need to first mention a few reasons for the melting of the glaciers and then explain briefly about the impact of the melting of ice caps and glaciers. Additionally, we can provide measures to avoid the melting of glaciers and ice caps.  

Conclusion: We can conclude the answer by summarizing the impact and measures needed to avoid the melting of the glaciers and ice caps.  


Answer: The melting of Thwaites Glacier in the Antarctic region is of great concern due to its potential to significantly contribute to global sea level rise. The glacier is currently losing ice at an alarming rate, estimated to be around 250 billion tons per year. This is due to a combination of warming ocean currents, a decrease in the amount of snowfall, and increased melting of surface ice. 

Reasons for melting of glaciers: 

  • Increased global temperatures due to climate change: As the Earth's temperature increases due to human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, glaciers are experiencing warmer temperatures, causing them to melt at accelerated rates.  
  • Human activities like burning fossil fuels, industrialization, and deforestation: These activities release carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, trapping heat and warming the planet.  
  • Changes in albedo: Albedo refers to the reflectivity of the Earth's surface. When snow and ice cover the surface, they reflect a lot of the sun's energy back into space, keeping the planet cool. But as the snow and ice melt, the surface becomes less reflective, absorbing more of the sun's energy and causing further warming. 
  • Changes in precipitation: If an area receives less snowfall than usual, it can cause the glacier to shrink. Alternatively, if an area receives more snowfall than usual, the glacier can grow. However, changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change can result in overall loss of glacier mass. 


Impact of the melting of the ice caps and glaciers in the polar regions and higher altitudes: 

  • Rising Sea Levels: The melting of ice caps and glaciers in the polar regions and higher altitudes contributes to a rise in global sea levels, which can lead to increased flooding, coastal erosion, and displacement of coastal communities.  
  • Disruption of Weather Patterns: As the ice caps and glaciers in the polar regions and higher altitudes melt, the climate patterns that regulate weather are disrupted. This can cause more extreme weather events such as storms, floods, and droughts.  
  • Loss of Habitat: There will be loss of habitats for many species, as their environment becomes unsuitable for them to survive. For example, loss of habitat of the polar bear 
  • Increased greenhouse gases: Melting ice caps and glaciers can release methane and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This can contribute to global warming, which can cause extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and other environmental disasters. 


Measures to control melting of the ice caps and glaciers: 

  • Decrease Carbon Emissions: This can be achieved through a variety of methods, such as improving energy efficiency, switching to renewable energy sources, and decreasing reliance on fossil fuels. Following the commitments under Paris Agreement is the need of the hour. For example, UN Environment Programme (UNEP) has launched initiatives like the International Program on Arctic Climate Change (IPACC). 
  • Increase Carbon Sequestration: It can be done by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide stored in forests, soils, and oceans by preserving and restoring ecosystems, planting trees, and practicing sustainable agriculture.  
  • Adapt to Climate Change: We must learn to adapt to the changing climate and its impacts, such as rising sea levels, more extreme weather events, and changes in water availability. This includes adopting strategies such as relocating populations to safer areas, improving infrastructure to reduce potential damages, and taking steps to conserve water resources.  
  • Improve Arctic Governance: We must ensure that Arctic governance institutions, such as the Arctic Council, are taking effective steps to protect Arctic marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the impacts of climate change. This includes strengthening environmental protections and promoting sustainable development. 


The melting of ice caps and glaciers in the polar regions and higher altitudes will have a significant impact on global climate patterns and lead to rising sea levels. It is essential to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases to prevent further melting of the ice. The most effective global programmes to tackle the impact of the melting of the ice caps and glaciers in the polar regions and higher altitudes are the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on Climate Change. 

Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 26, 2023

Q1. Trace the reasons for the occurrence of most earthquakes along tectonic plate boundaries. Why did the recent earthquake in Turkey become so devastating? (10M,150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has two parts: 1) Earthquake’s occurrence along tectonic plate boundaries 2) Earthquake in Turkey. 


Type 1: Start with defining what do you understand by an earthquake or 

Type 2: You can also give any news/report related to Turkey earthquake 


Heading 1: Explain why do earthquakes occur along the plate boundaries with examples of various plate boundaries. 

Heading 2: Discuss the reasons why the earthquakes in Turkey was so deadly – by thinking about multi-dimensional points related to earthquake and the characteristics of the region of occurrence.

Type 1: Conclude by writing the relevance of earthquake in understanding plate movement and sea floor spreading.  

Type 2: Can write mitigation measures because of earthquake.


Answer: Earth’s surface is divided into seven major and many minor plates. Earthquakes mostly occur where these tectonic plates meet—the plate boundaries. Each boundary is made up of faults—fractures in the rock along which movement can take place. Movement of these plates is called seismic activity which is known as an earthquake. 

Reasons - occurrence of most of the earthquakes along tectonic plate boundaries: 

The majority of seismic activity takes place at divergent, transform, and convergent plate boundaries. 

  • At Divergent Boundaries: As tectonic plates pull apart from each other, the energy from underneath finds a way to come out, causing an earthquake to hit along the rift.  
  • For example, earthquakes in the mid-Atlantic region near the equator. 
  • At Transform Boundaries: As tectonic plates slide horizontally past each other; parts of these plates get stuck at the places where they touch. Stress builds in those areas which causes the rock to break or slip, suddenly lurching the plates forward and causing earthquakes. 
  • For example, the San Andreas Fault. 
  • At Convergent Boundaries: As tectonic plates crash into each other, the heavier plate slips under the lighter plate, creating a deep trench. Such subduction can cause earthquakes.  
  • Example: Earthquakes in the Himalaya, the Caribbean and Central America region. 

Reasons - earthquake in Turkey was devastating: 

  • Multiple factors led to this earthquake being so devastating, like fault lines, unsafe buildings, heavily populated region and delayed rescue missions
  • Seismic fault line: Turkey lies along one of the world’s most seismically active zone, called the Anatolia tectonic block. The seismicity in this region is a result of interactions between the African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates
  • Shallow depth: The present earthquakes emerged from relatively shallow depths. Shallow earthquakes are generally more devastating because they carry greater energy when they emerge on the surface. 

Case study: The Japanese model of earthquake resistance is known for its unique and innovative approaches to mitigating the effects of seismic events. It is based on multiple lines of defence, flexible bearing system, extensive laboratory experiments etc. 


Despite being a catastrophe for humanity, earthquakes that occur under the oceans provide insight into how plate tectonics impact the expansion of the seafloor. Furthermore, the concentration of earthquakes in particular areas enable us to determine the type, speed, and direction of the plate. This is quite significant in terms of plate boundaries. 

Subjects : Geography

Dec. 25, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 25, 2023

Q.2)“Globalisation will make our societies prosperous but also vulnerable”. In this context, critically analyze the impact of globalisation on vulnerable sections in India. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer:  

Question talks about impact of Globalization on the vulnerable sections of the society. Here, you have to mention both positive and negative impact of Globalization on the various vulnerable sections of the society like women, tribals etc  


Type 1: Start by defining globalisation and briefly describe the quote; or 

Type 2: Mention about the significance of the globalization and connect it with the given quote  



Heading 1: Positive impact of globalization on vulnerable sections: Showcase how globalization is positively impacting the vulnerable sections of society like better economic opportunity etc. 

Heading 2: Negative impact of Globalization on vulnerable sections: Mention how globalization has negatively impacted the vulnerable sections like increasing burden on women etc.  

Heading 3(optional):Measures to navigate the challenges posed by globalization: Emphasize the importance of inclusive policies, social safety nets, and empowerment measures to ensure that vulnerable sections are not left behind in the process of globalization 


Type 1: Conclude with futuristic lines as how negative impacts of globalization on vulnerable sections could be reduced. 

Type 2: Mention initiatives taken by government to protect vulnerable sections from the impact of globalization.  



Globalization is the term for the increasing interdependence of the populations, economies, and cultures around the world. Globalization has impacted every aspect of life. Some of its impacts can be seen on the vulnerable sections of society. 

Positive impact of globalization on vulnerable sections: 

  • Increased employment opportunities: Globalization has led to the growth of the manufacturing and service sectors, creating employment opportunities for many low-skilled workers. This has benefited vulnerable sections of society, such as women and rural communities. 
  • Access to education and healthcare: Globalization has improved access to education and healthcare for vulnerable sections of society. The growth of the knowledge economy has led to the expansion of education and healthcare services in urban and rural areas. 
  • Reduction in poverty: The growth of the Indian economy, driven by globalization, has led to a reduction in poverty levels in the country. This has benefited vulnerable sections of society, such as low-income groups, who have been lifted out of poverty by the economic growth. 
  • Access to technology: Globalization has brought about a technological revolution in India, which has benefited vulnerable sections of society by providing access to new technologies, such as mobile phones and the internet. This has enabled them to access information, connect with others, and engage in economic activity. 
  • Empowerment of women: Globalization has contributed to the empowerment of women in India by creating opportunities for education and employment. Women have become more visible in the workforce and have been able to challenge traditional gender roles and norms. 

Negative impact of globalization on vulnerable sections: 

  • Increased inequality: Globalization has led to an increase in inequality in India. The benefits of economic growth have been concentrated in the hands of a few, leading to widening income and wealth disparities.  
  • Exploitation of labor: The growth of the manufacturing and service sectors has created new employment opportunities, but it has also led to the exploitation of labor. Many workers in these sectors are employed under poor working conditions and receive low wages.  
  • Environmental degradation: The rapid industrialization and urbanization brought about by globalization have led to severe environmental degradation in India. This has disproportionately affected vulnerable sections of society, such as the poor and marginalized communities who are more likely to live in areas with poor environmental conditions.  
  • Isolation of the Elderly:  Elderly population suffering from isolation, powerlessness and depression because of nuclear families, which is the result of globalization. 

Measures to navigate the challenges posed by globalization: 

  • Inclusive Policies: Formulate policies that prioritize the interests of vulnerable sections, ensuring that they are not left behind in the globalization process. 
  • Skill Development: Establish skill enhancement programs targeted at vulnerable groups, aligning their capabilities with the demands of evolving job markets. 
  • Labor Rights: Strengthen labor laws and enforcement mechanisms to safeguard the rights and dignity of vulnerable workers, particularly in industries with global supply chains. 
  • Social Safety Nets: Expand and strengthen social protection programs to provide a safety net for vulnerable populations during economic transitions and uncertainties. 
  • Sustainable Development: Promote sustainable economic practices that consider the social and environmental impacts on vulnerable populations. 
  • Health and Education: Enhance access to quality healthcare and education for vulnerable sections, ensuring they can fully participate in the opportunities created by globalization. 

Thus, while globalisation might have brought several benefits to India, it has also had negative impacts on vulnerable sections of society. It is important to address these negative impacts through policies and measures that promote inclusive and sustainable development. 

Subjects : Economy

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 25, 2023

Q.3) The broken education system fails to nurture individual talents and diverse learning styles, hindering the holistic development of students. In light of the statement, highlight the primary issues within the current education system and elucidate how EdTech apps and coaching centers can significantly contribute to reforming the education system. (10M/150W) 

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly write about the importance of reforming education system. 


Heading 1: Primary Issues within Current Education System

Heading 2: Benefits of EdTech Apps and Coaching Centres

Heading 3: Challenges associated with EdTech App/Coaching Centres

Conclusion: Conclude with your key remarks on how to reform education system




By 2030, India is poised to have the world's largest youth population, presenting a tremendous opportunity, provided these young individuals are equipped with the necessary skills for employment. The key to unlocking this potential lies in ensuring access to high-quality education. However, the current state of the education system jeopardizes India's demographic advantage.


Primary Issues within Current Education System


  • Inadequate Investment in Education: India allocates a meager 2.61% of its GDP to education, falling significantly short of the recommended 6% set by the Education 2030 Framework for Action.
  • Shortage of teachers: According to the Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE), the national pupil-to-teacher ratio in elementary schools is reported at 24:1.
  • Proliferation of Coaching Centres: Growing reliance on tuition centers over traditional schools exacerbates stress-related suicides and mental health issues among students. 
  • Insufficient School Infrastructure: As per the UDISE 2019-20, merely 12% of schools possess internet access, and 30% are equipped with computers. 
    • Approximately 42% face furniture shortages, 23% lack electricity, 22% lack ramps for the physically disabled, and 15% lack essential WASH facilities.


Benefits of EdTech Apps and Coaching Centres

  • Accessibility and Flexibility: EdTech apps break geographical barriers, providing access to quality education anywhere.
  • Personalized Learning: Coaching centers offer personalized attention and tailored study plans.It is observed that personalized learning improves student performance.
  • Interactive and Self-Paced Learning: EdTech apps use multimedia and interactive content for engaging learning experiences. Coaching allows students to progress at their own pace, addressing individual learning needs.
  • Real-time Progress Tracking: EdTech platforms enable real-time monitoring of student progress, facilitating timely intervention.
  • Exam Preparation and Skill Enhancement: Coaching centers excel in exam-focused preparation and conducting mock tests. EdTech platforms offer courses that enhance practical skills, preparing students for the workforce


Challenges associated with EdTech App/Coaching Centres


  • Digital Divide: Disparities in access to technology and the internet.Students in rural areas may lack reliable internet connections, hindering their participation in online learning.
  • Resistance to Change: Institutional and individual reluctance to adopt new technologies. Teachers may resist integrating technology into their classrooms due to unfamiliarity or fear of job displacement.
  • Overemphasis on Standardized Testing: Online platforms may prioritize test preparation over holistic learning. A focus on test scores in online courses may neglect the development of critical thinking and practical skills.
  • Social Isolation and Well-being: Potential negative impacts on social interaction and mental health. Prolonged screen time and reduced face-to-face interactions may contribute to feelings of isolation and mental health issues among students.


Way Forward


A transformative way forward for India's education system involves embracing experiential learning, aligning with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, and creating an education-employment corridor. Integration of vocational learning, mentorship in government schools, and addressing language barriers can bridge educational gaps. Drawing inspiration from India Amrit Kaal Vision 2047, incorporating ethical values and lessons from the Gurukul system can lead to holistic development. Government initiatives like the National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning and Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan must be leveraged for comprehensive educational reforms, promoting inclusivity and skill-based assessments in line with India's rich educational heritage.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 25, 2023

Q.1) Explain how globalization has changed the Indian family system in the 21st century.  (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

Question has one main heading:  Impact of globalization on Indian family system. 


Type 1: Mention about importance of globalization; or 

Type 2: Start by briefly defining distinctive feature of Indian family system and how globalization is influencing it; 


Heading 1: Positive impact of globalization on Indian Family System: Write various distinct positive impacts of Globalization on Indian family system like increasing role of women etc. 

Heading 2: Negative impact of Globalization on Family system: Mention about the negative impacts of Globalization on Indian family system like increasing divorce rates, isolating elderly etc. 


Type 1: Conclude with a way forward. 

Type 2: Summarize the entire scenario and conclude on a positive note. 




Globalization has transformed the world into a global village. It has facilitated the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of cultures, societies and economies worldwide. Globalization has significantly impacted the Indian family system, leading to changes in family structure, roles, and values. These changes can be observed as below: 


Positive Impact of globalization on Indian family system :

  • Modernisation: With globalization, there has been an increase in job opportunities and migration. 
    • This has led to a breakdown in the traditional joint family system, with more and more families becoming nuclear. 
  • Changing gender roles: Women are now more likely to work outside the home and contribute to the family income. 
    • This has led to a shift in power dynamics within the family and a greater sense of independence for women. 
  • Westernisation: Globalization has brought with it the influence of western culture, which has impacted Indian family values and traditions. 
    • For example, the concept of individualism and independence has gained greater acceptance in Indian society, leading to a greater emphasis on personal choice and freedom within the family. 
  • Exposure to diverse cultures: With the rise of globalization, Indian families have become more exposed to different cultures and ways of life. 
    • This has led to a greater acceptance of diversity and tolerance within families. 


Negative Impact of globalization on Indian family system: 

  • Isolation of Elderly: Elderly population suffers from isolation, powerlessness and depression due to rising nuclear families. 
  • Affects Child Development: detrimental impact on child development as grandparents are not there to take care and give them love and affection. Also, Parents are not able to take care of children because of extra workload.  
  • Increasing Divorce Rates: Influence of western values has also increased the incidences of divorces in India. 
    • For example, the rate of divorce has increased 13 times over the last 10 years (Forbes report).  
  • Increased burden on Women: Women have two full-time jobs. Their domestic work continues separately from their official work. This leads to the burdening of women
    • For example, in India, women spend about 5 hours a day on unpaid domestic services while men only spend 1.5 hours (NSS report, 2019) 


It is important to note that the impact of globalization on the Indian family system is not uniform across the country. Rural areas and conservative communities may experience slower changes compared to urban areas and more progressive sections of society. 


Nevertheless, globalization has significantly transformed the Indian family system in the 21st century. These changes reflect the evolving socio-cultural landscape and the integration of global influences into the fabric of Indian families. 


Subjects : Economy

Dec. 22, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 22, 2023

Q1. Pharmaceutical Industry is heavily concentrated on western coast in India. What are the factors responsible for regional concentration of Pharmaceutical Industries in India? (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question gives a fact (location of pharmaceutical industry) and asks to provide reasons to justify this. 


Type 1: Write the nature of pharmaceutical industry. or 

Type 2: Give the importance of pharmaceutical industry especially in the backdrop of COVID-19. 

Draw a map after the introduction showing the location of the pharmaceutical industry. 


Heading 1: Factors Responsible for regional concentration of pharmaceutical industry. 

Conclusion: Provide new trends in the location of pharmaceutical industries. 

Answer: Pharmaceutical is a footloose industry as it does not depend upon specific local raw materials which are either weight-losing or weight gaining. However, despite being a footloose industry, pharmaceutical industry is heavily concentrated in Maharashtra and Gujarat. 


Factors Responsible for regional concentration of pharmaceutical industry 

  • Proximity to ports: Easier imports of active pharmaceutical ingredients and export of finished pharma products to markets like Africa.  
  • For example – ports like Kandla, Mumbai, Bhavnagar etc. 
  • Availability of Capital: Western States have relatively good banking systems. Access to long-term credit is essential to undertake new R&D activities.  
  • For example – Mumbai is considered the financial capital of India. 
  • Labour: Pharmaceutical industry requires a skilled workforce. Western States attract talent from across the country. For example, Maharashtra has many pharma training institutes like Bombay College of Pharmacy and Government College of Pharmacy 
  • Infrastructure: Western states provide good infrastructure such as roads, rail, airports and ports. Moreover, there are many Special Economic Zones on the western coast.  
  • For example – GIFT city in IFSC, Gujarat. 
  • Policies: State governments have provided tax exemptions and faster clearances.  
  • For example – Mumbai gives tax incentives to pharmaceutical industry. The state government offers a stamp duty exemption of up to 50% on the purchase of land for setting up a pharmaceutical manufacturing unit. 
  • Petrochemical hub: Pharmaceutical industry requires petrochemicals as one of the inputs in making drugs.  
  • For example – India's biggest petrochemical plant is in Bharuch, Gujarat. 

However, the pharmaceutical industry in India has seen some diversification by shifting in some hilly states due to favourable climate and in Hyderabad due to favourable state policies. The Government of India has also introduced the Production Linked Incentive for nationwide growth of the pharma industry. 

Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 22, 2023

Q3. Seaweed is nothing but the wealth of the Ocean. Mention the potential uses of seaweed. Also describe the challenges in seaweed cultivation. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has 2 main parts – 1) Potential Uses of seaweed and 2) Challenges in seaweed cultivation. 


Type 1: Give a brief description about seaweed. 


Heading 1: Potential uses of seaweeds 

Heading 2: Challenges in seaweed cultivation 

Conclusion: Write a way forward as your conclusion. 


Answer: Seaweeds are macroscopic algae growing in marine and shallow coastal waters and on rocky shores. Seaweeds are wonder plants of the sea as they are the new renewable source of food, energy, chemicals and medicines with manifold nutritional, industrial, biomedical, agriculture and personal care applications. The worldwide seaweed industry provides a wide variety of products for direct or indirect human uses that have an estimated total value of US$10 billion per year.


  1. Bio-indicator: When waste from agriculture, industries, aquaculture and households are 

let into the ocean, it causes nutrient imbalance leading to blooming of seaweed species, 

which is a sign of marine chemical damage. 

  1. Carbon sequestration: Seaweed absorbs CO2 more effectively than trees. By afforesting 

9 per cent of the ocean with seaweed, it is possible to sequester 53 billion tons of carbon dioxide annually. 

  1. Iron Sequestrator: Seaweeds heavily rely on iron for photosynthesis. When the quantity 

of this mineral exceeds healthy levels and becomes dangerous to marine life, seaweeds 

trap it and prevent damage. Similarly, most heavy metals found in marine ecosystems are 

trapped and removed by seaweeds. 

  1. Climate change adaptation: Seaweed aquaculture contributes to climate change 

adaptation by damping wave energy and protecting shorelines.



Potential Uses of Seaweeds 

  • Food: Seaweeds are used as important source of nutrition since ancient times.  
  • For example, Chinese people were consuming seaweeds in 2500 B.C. 
  • Medicinal Utility: Seaweeds can be used as raw material in pharmaceutical industry.  
  • For example, Seaweeds possess anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. 
  • Industrial Utility: Agar is produced from seaweed. Agar is used in the manufacture of photographic film, paint, batteries, graphite, glue etc. 
  • Renewable Energy: Seaweed is a rich source of biomass which can be used for producing biogas. 
  • For example, According to United Nations University, Baltic Sea contains large quantity of Sugar kelp (type of seaweed) which can be used to produce biogas. 
  • Organic Farming: Seaweeds are a rich source of organic material which makes them suitable for use as manure and biofertilizers. 
  • For example, the Ministry of Earth Sciences and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) are involved in research and development activities related to the use of seaweed as organic manure. 
  • Sewage treatment: Seaweeds can remove most of the nutrients efficiently from the waste waters.  
  • For example, seaweed can remove nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus from domestic sewage.  


Although seaweed can have several potential uses, there are many challenges associated with seaweed cultivation. 

Challenges in Seaweed Cultivation 

  • Water use conflicts between fish landing centre and commercial fishing activities is a major constraint in expanding seaweed cultivation ground. 
  • Eutrophication due to human sewage rich in phosphate and nitrate from major municipalities and small towns has negative impacts on seaweed growth. 
  • Run-off from land-based agriculture, thermal power plants and chemical factories contributes to commercial cultivation challenges as seaweed is highly sensitive to water pollution. 
  • Rising sea surface temperatures (SST) due to climate change inhibits the growth of seaweed species. 
  • Cyclones and high sea water turbulence is witnessed during Monsoonal periods. Cultivation during this period is restricted to seed bank preservation. 
  • Shortage of labour and technology: Other challenges include labour shortages during the paddy harvesting & transplanting season, and lack of technology to improve processed products.  
  • Over-exploitation: India has rich source of seaweed varieties, but we have only focused on harvesting and not cultivation, thus leading to over-exploitation. 

Keeping in mind the benefits of seaweed cultivation, Government of India has earmarked 640 Cr Rupees exclusively to promote seaweed cultivation with a targeted production of more than 11.2 lakh tonnes by 2025, in the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY).

Subjects : Geography

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 22, 2023

Q2. Lithium is becoming the most sought-after mineral in the world. In this context, describe the distribution of lithium across the globe. Mention the steps taken by the government to ensure the supply of lithium to India. (10M,150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the answer 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has three parts – 1) Importance of Lithium, 2) Distribution of Lithium and 3) Government Steps. 


Type 1: Give a brief description about the importance of lithium and draw a hub and spoke diagram to illustrate its uses. 


Heading 1: Distribution of Lithium across the globe. 

Heading 2: Measures taken by the government. 

Conclusion: Write a short way forward. Give some steps to secure lithium supply. 


Answer: The push towards renewable energy has made Lithium a strategic mineral. Lithium as the chief constituent of Lithium-ion batteries, and electronic devices has various industrial applications. However, Lithium is not uniformly distributed throughout the world. 




Distribution of Lithium across the Globe 

  • Lithium Triangle: It consists of Argentina, Bolivia and Chile. It holds around 55-60% of the world’s proven resources of lithium.  
  • For example, Bolivia’s Uyuni salt flat is the site of the world’s largest lithium reserves. 


  • Australia: It contains significant lithium reserves. Currently, Australia is the largest producer of lithium in the world. 
  • China: It has around 7.3% of the world’s reserves. Moreover, around 60% of lithium is processed in China. 
  • India: Recent surveys suggest that Jammu and Kashmir holds around 5.9 million tons of lithium reserves. 

Given India’s limited lithium reserves and concentration of production in few countries, Government is undertaking following measures: 

Measures taken by the Government 

  • Domestic mining and acquisition overseas are incentivized through new initiatives. 
  • For example, KABIL, a PSU, was created to scout for strategic minerals like lithium and cobalt, abroad. 
  • Battery research and development ecosystem has been created for alternative storage techniques and recycling of batteries.  
  • For example, the National Mission for Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage and PLI scheme for Advanced Chemistry Cell Battery Storage manufacturing. 
  • Emphasis on E-Waste collection and recycling from which lithium can be recovered.  
  • For example, India generated around 3.2 million tonnes of e-waste in 2019. (CPCB) 
  • Thrust to exploration of lithium reserves.  
  • For example, 5.9 million tonnes of lithium reserves were found in Reasi district in Jammu and Kashmir making India 5th largest in terms of lithium reserves. 

The access to white gold (lithium) will play a crucial role in the development of new age energy systems and manufacturing. Proactive steps, like long-term contracts, need to be taken to ensure an unhindered supply of lithium. 

Subjects : Geography

Dec. 21, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 21, 2023

Q.1) How do income inequality and lack of access to healthcare contribute to health disparities in India's urban areas? Mention the initiatives taken by the Indian government to address health issues related to urbanization? (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer: Write how do income inequality and lack of access to healthcare, contribute to health disparities in India's urban areas. Also highlight initiatives taken by the government to address health issues.  


Type 1: Start with data on gap between rich and poor – its impact on poor population.  

Type 2: Start with data on poor health indicators in urban areas, especially among poor population.  

Body: Write impact of income inequality and lack of access to healthcare on health disparities in India's urban areas. Then highlight initiatives taken by the government to address these issues.    


Type 1: Conclude with a way forward.  

Type 2: Summarize the entire scenario and conclude on a positive note. 



Answer: India has a highly stratified society with a large income gap between the rich and poor. As per OXFAM report the top 10% of the Indian population holds 77% of the total national wealth. This income inequality, which is very sharp in urban areas, along with unequal access to healthcare results in unequal health outcomes. 


Impact of Income Inequality on health disparities in India's urban areas: 


  • Financial Barriers: Lack of access to affordable healthcare services, high out-of-pocket expenses, and inadequate health insurance coverage pose significant challenges for individuals with lower incomes. 
  • Health Behaviors: Income disparities influence health behaviors, with lower-income individuals often facing challenges in accessing nutritious food, engaging in physical activity, and adopting preventive health practices.  
  • Occupational Health Hazards: Income inequality can lead to occupational health disparities, as lower-income individuals often face hazardous working conditions, inadequate safety measures, and limited access to occupational healthcare. 


Impact of lack of access to healthcare on health disparities in India's urban areas:


  • Limited Healthcare Infrastructure: Urban areas experiencing rapid urbanization may face inadequate healthcare infrastructure to cater to the growing population. This results in overcrowded hospitals, long waiting times, and compromised healthcare quality. 
  • Informal Settlements and Slums: Urban areas often have informal settlements and slums where access to basic healthcare services, sanitation, and clean water is limited, leading to a higher prevalence of diseases and health disparities.  
  • Unequal access to healthcare: Income inequality creates unequal access to healthcare. Wealthy individuals can afford private healthcare, while poorer individuals must rely on government healthcare, which is often underfunded and understaffed.  


Major healthcare initiatives are: 


  • National Urban Health Mission (NUHM): The NUHM launched in 2013 focuses on providing basic healthcare services, including immunization, antenatal care, and treatment for non-communicable diseases, particularly the urban poor.  
  • Ayushman Bharat: It is a national public health insurance fund of the Government of India that aims to provide free access to health insurance coverage for low-income earners in the country. 
  • Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM): Launched in 2014, this program aims to make India clean and free from open defecation. The mission includes the construction of toilets, solid waste management, and improved sanitation facilities in urban areas, which can help to reduce the spread of infectious diseases. 


Additional information: 

  • Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY): Launched in 2005, this program aims to promote institutional deliveries among urban women. The program provides financial incentives to women who deliver in a health facility and provides free transport to the facility. 
  • Smart Cities Mission: The Smart Cities Mission incorporates a focus on health and well-being, aiming to develop urban areas that provide equitable access to healthcare services, promote a healthy environment, and foster community engagement in health initiatives. 


Reducing income inequality and improving access to healthcare, education, and better living conditions can help address these disparities and improve overall health outcomes in urban areas. Addressing health issues related to urbanization requires a multi-faceted approach that involves collaboration between different government agencies, civil society organizations, and community groups.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 21, 2023

Q.3) The independence of the ECI is essential for ensuring free and fair elections that is paramount for a vibrant democracy. In light of the recent Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners Bill, 2023, mention the key provisions and challenges inherent in the proposed Bill. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly write about the recent passage of the Bill in Rajya Sabha


Heading 1: Key Provisions of the Bill

Heading 2: Challenges inherent in the Bill

Conclusion: Conclude with your key remarks on the proposed Bill.  




The Rajya Sabha recently approved the Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners Bill, 2023. This bill aims to bring transparency to the process of appointing the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioners (EC). The legislation is a response to a directive from the Supreme Court of India in the Anoop Baranwal v Union of India case, 2023.


Previously, both the Dinesh Goswami Committee and the Law Commission in its 255th report on suggested appointing the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioners (ECs) through a committee comprising the Prime Minister, Chief Justice of India (CJI), and the Leader of the Opposition or the largest Opposition party in the Lok Sabha. 

Key Provisions of the Bill

  • Appointment Process: The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioners (ECs) will be appointed by the President based on the recommendation of a Selection Committee comprising the Prime Minister, a Union Cabinet Minister, and the Leader of the Opposition or the leader of the largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha.
    • Recommendations of the Selection Committee will be valid even when there is a vacancy in this Committee. A Search Committee will propose a panel of names to the Selection Committee.
  • Term and Reappointment: Members of the Election Commission will hold office for six years or until the age of 65, whichever comes earlier. Reappointment is not allowed.
  • Removal Process: The removal process remains in accordance with Article 324(5) of the Constitution. The CEC can be removed in the same manner as a Supreme Court Judge, while ECs can only be removed upon the recommendation of the CEC.
  • Safeguards for CEC and ECs: The bill includes provisions to protect the CEC and ECs from legal proceedings related to actions taken during their tenure, provided such actions were in the discharge of official duties. This amendment is aimed at shielding these officials from civil or criminal proceedings associated with their official functions.


Challenges inherent in the Bill

  • Transparency in selection process: The validity of the Selection Committee's recommendations even in the event of a vacancy, potentially leading to a dominance of ruling party members. This scenario undermines the committee's diversity and independence.
  • Removed CJI from the panel: The bill seeks to replace the Chief Justice of India with a Cabinet Minister nominated by the Prime Minister in the committee for selection of the CECs and ECs.
  • Eligibility Criteria: The restriction of eligibility to those who have held a position equivalent to the Secretary to the government may exclude potentially qualified candidates, restricting the diversity of backgrounds and expertise within the Election Commission of India (ECI).
  • Absence of Parity :The Bill maintains a constitutional provision allowing the removal of the CEC to be akin to a Supreme Court Judge, while ECs can only be removed on the recommendation of the CEC. This lack of parity in removal processes raises questions about the overall fairness of the system.

While the proposed Bill transitions the appointment process from a purely executive decision to a committee-based selection, it maintains a bias towards the incumbent government. Although Parliament holds the authority to legislate on this matter, retaining the Chief Justice of India (CJI) in the selection committee could have ensured greater independence. However, to bolster public confidence in the Election Commission of India's operations, it would be commendable if selections under the new law are made through unanimous decisions by the proposed committee. 


Thus, transparent and independent appointment of election commissioners is a crucial step in upholding the democratic fabric, ensuring fair play, and safeguarding the integrity of the electoral process.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 21, 2023

Q.2) Sub-urbanisation is the New Order of the Future of Cities. In this context, trace the trend of sub-urbanisation in the Indian cities and discuss the challenges related to it. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer: Define Suburbanization. Then write about reasons/trends of suburbanization and challenges associated with it. Conclude with a way forward. 


Type 1: Start with defining Suburbanization.

Type 2: Start with data on rapid urbanization and consequently shift towards suburbanization. 


Body: There are two parts: first, Mention trends or reasons of suburbanization and second, Challenges associated with suburbanization.



Type 1: Conclude with a way forward.

Type 2: Summarize the entire scenario and conclude on a positive note by striking a balance between both urbanization and Suburbanization.


Answer: Suburbanization refers to the process of population growth and economic development spreading from urban areas to suburban areas. Suburbanization has been a growing trend in Indian cities, with more and more people moving away from the congested urban centers in search of more affordable and spacious housing options. The process of suburbanization in India has been driven by a combination of factors, including rapid population growth, economic development, and improved transportation infrastructure.

Trend of suburbanization in Indian cities:

  •       Growth of suburban areas: New housing complexes and townships springing up on the outskirts of cities lead to growth of suburban areas. This has led to a significant increase in the urban footprint of cities, as well as the creation of new urban centers in suburban areas.
  •       Better and affordable living: Suburbanization offers many benefits to people who choose to live in suburban areas, such as larger homes, more space, and lower costs of living compared to urban areas.
  •       Ease of living: Suburban areas also tend to have better schools, lower crime rates, and a stronger sense of community.
  •       Use of technology: Technological advancements in transportation and communication have made it easier for people to live farther away from urban centers while still being connected.

Challenges associated with Suburbanization:

  •       Transportation challenges: Many suburban areas are poorly connected to urban centers, which makes it difficult for people to access employment opportunities and other essential services.
  •       Environmental concerns: The conversion of agricultural land and green spaces into housing complexes leading to the loss of biodiversity and wildlife habitats. This has also contributed to increased air pollution and carbon emissions from transportation.
  •       Social challenges: Creation of gated communities and exclusionary housing developments has contributed to increased socio-economic segregation. The lack of diversity and cultural amenities in suburban areas can be a deterrent for some people.
  •       Infrastructure challenges: Suburbanization areas lack adequate infrastructure including water supply, sanitation, and healthcare facilities.

Suburban areas will continue to grow, and their challenges require a multi-pronged approach that involves improving transportation connectivity, promoting sustainable development, and investing in infrastructure and social welfare programmes. Whereas urban areas are also likely to evolve in response to changing economic, social, and environmental pressures. For example, some cities are focusing on sustainable urban planning (the "smart cities mission), which involves densifying urban areas, promoting public transit, and creating green spaces to mitigate the negative impacts of urbanisation.

Subjects : Social Issues

Dec. 20, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 20, 2023

Q.1) Ethanol Blending will lead to many benefits. However, there are several challenges which need to be resolved first. Discuss. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has 2 main parts – 1) Benefits, and 2) Issues and Challenges


Type 1: Give a description of Ethanol Blending and write the target set by the Government of India.

Type 2: Give a recent context about ethanol blending by quoting some report


Heading 1: Benefits of Ethanol Blending

Heading 2: Issues and Challenges in Ethanol Blending

Conclusion: Give a forward looking conclusion and write how ethanol blending is important and other suitable measures to reduce oil imports and prevent pollution.



Ethanol Blending refers to mixing of ethyl alcohol to petroleum products like petrol and diesel. In 2022 India has achieved the target of 10% ethanol blending target under the ethanol blending programme.


Benefits of Ethanol Blending

  •       Self-Reliance: India is highly dependent on other countries to fulfill its energy demand and ethanol blending will reduce its oil import bill. 

○       For example, India imports more than 85% of its crude oil requirements. Ethanol Blending can further the cause of self-reliance in the energy sector by reducing imports.

  •       Reduction in Pollution: Ethanol blending leads to complete combustion of fuel and reduces carbon monoxide emissions significantly. 

○       For example, According to the NITI Aayog report titled ‘Roadmap for Ethanol blending in India 2020-25’, carbon monoxide emissions were 50% lower in two-wheelers and 30% lower in four-wheelers after ethanol blending.

  •       Saving of FOREX: Ethanol Blending will reduce crude oil imports which will reduce the current account deficit. 

○       For example, Ethanol Blending can save annually around Rs 30,000 Crore. (NITI Aayog)

  •       Farmer’s Income: The alternative use-case of sugarcane will help the farmers realize more income on their produce. 

○       For example, A total of ₹1 lakh crore worth of biofuel will be purchased every year by oil marketing firms in the future for blending. This money will be ploughed back to the rural economy.


Issues and Challenges in Ethanol Blending


  •       Food Security: Ethanol Production from food crops like wheat and rice can come in direct conflict with food security.
  •       Raw Material: Availability of sufficient raw material in a sustainable manner is required. 

○       For example, Sugarcane is a water intensive crop, so promoting its cultivation may deplete our groundwater. Research on non-sugarcane derived ethanol needs to be undertaken.

  •       Supply Chain Management: Sugarcane is locally available in only some parts of India like Maharashtra, UP and Kerala; thus, the supply chain needs to be strengthened to accomplish the interstate movement of ethanol.
  •       Higher compliance cost for companies: There is a requirement to upgrade the vehicle engines to make it compliant with Ethanol blending. 

○       For example, as per industry estimates it will result in a 5% rise in automobile prices.

  •       Price Volatility: Sugarcane prices are subject to high volatility. This can lead to high risk in ethanol production.

○       For example, In 2019, the sugarcane prices in India witnessed significant volatility due to various factors like droughts and floods. Additionally, the government increased the Fair and Remunerative prices (FRP) for sugarcane by around 7%.


Additional information:

Government initiatives for promoting ethanol production

●       The Ethanol blending programme aims to reach the target of 20% blending of petrol by 2030.

●       The Administered pricing mechanism has been re-introduced. Under the APM, the government sets a fixed price for ethanol that is used for blending with petrol. The APM is intended to ensure that ethanol producers receive a fair price for their product, and to encourage the use of ethanol as a renewable fuel.

●       The Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana was launched in 2019 to promote the use of biofuels and encourage the production of advanced biofuels, including ethanol from agricultural residues, municipal solid waste, and other waste materials.

●       The National Biofuels Policy was launched in 2018 to promote the production and use of biofuels, including ethanol. The policy aims to promote sustainable biofuels production, reduce dependence on imported crude oil, and create new job opportunities in the biofuels sector.


Ethanol Blending has several economic and environmental benefits. Going ahead, there is a need to ensure uniform availability of ethanol blends in the country by allowing more variety of feedstocks and invest in R&D for developing better methods for ethanol generation (like ethanol production from algae).

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 20, 2023

Q.3) Discuss the impediments India is facing in pursuit of its energy diplomacy.(10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: You  can mention current affair related to Energy diplomacy efforts of India or follow a definition based approach. 


Heading 1: Explain how India is pursuing the energy diplomacy. Use suitable explanation with each points for better clarity.

Heading 2: Enumerate the impediments faced by India in pursuit of it’s energy diplomacy. You can also mention key facts, data , initiatives for substantiation.

Conclusion: Give a way forward tone showing futuristic approach for achieving autonomy and benefits for India’s energy diplomacy.



Energy diplomacy refers to foreign activities related to the government that focus on ensuring a nation's energy security and simultaneously fostering business opportunities within the energy sector. 

It’s objectives include to secure a sustainable source of energy and use energy capacities as an instrument of foreign policy.


India’s pursuit of energy diplomacy

India’s energy diplomacy is focused towards promoting energy engagements with hydrocarbon rich countries and prominent international organisations dealing with energy matters to secure India’s increasing energy needs.

    • Power transmission: India exports power under bilateral cooperation models to Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan. India is also a part of the SAARC energy agreement on electricity cooperation signed in 2014.


  • Renewable energy transmission: India led International Solar Alliance and One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG) initiative to connect different regional grids to transfer renewable energy power.


    • Pipe connectivity: Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) to transport natural gas from Turkmenistan to the remaining three countries.
    • Nuclear energy cooperation: India has signed Indo-US Nuclear deal and India-Japan Civil Nuclear Deal for for enhanced cooperation in energy security and clean energy.


  • Hydroelectric cooperation: India imports power from Kurichu, and Mangdechu hydroelectric power plants in Bhutan. India is also involved in the projects of Nepal including the Mahakali Treaty and the Upper Karnali Project.



Impediments faced by India

    • Regional concentration: Heavy reliance on a single region for energy supply exposes India to geopolitical risks and supply disruptions.
      • Over 60% of India's oil and gas imports are sourced from the Persian Gulf.
    • Power Transmission Charges: Transmission charges on power supplied using an interconnected regional network are challenging to decide.
      • Determining transmission charges for power supplied through interconnected regional networks is a complex issue.
    • Technology Intensity: The energy sector's high dependence on technology poses challenges in aligning technological advancements with oil and gas development plans.
      • Keeping pace with evolving technology like green hydrogen development, battery manufacturing etc  becomes crucial for effective and sustainable energy strategies.
    • Cybersecurity Risks: Growing digitalization and interconnectivity along with lack of an international rules-based framework for cybersecurity may expose critical energy infrastructure to vulnerabilities.
    • Coal Dependency: Overdependence on coal hampers India's progress towards cleaner and more sustainable energy solutions.
      • Coal contributes nearly 50% to power generation, overshadowing renewable sources at 43%.


  • Energy Infrastructure Bottlenecks: Developing and maintaining energy infrastructure across borders, such as pipelines and transmission grids, is challenging. This limits the efficient flow of energy resources across borders.


    • Also, over-focusing on solar energy may lead to neglecting the importance of diversification in the energy mix.
  • Economic Feasibility Concerns: Economic challenges like subsea cable construction costs and volatile raw material prices may result in delivery shortfalls.
  • Geopolitical Dynamics: Geopolitical tensions may impact energy partnerships and collaborations, affecting India's strategic objectives.
    • For instance, attack by Houthi rebels on Saudi Arabian refineries, Russia Ukraine war etc  cause energy supply disruptions and increased energy insecurity.


India needs to recognize the importance of import diversification and strategically extend its energy reach through initiatives like ONGC Videsh, holding energy assets across 15 countries. India can also leverage its advantageous geographical location near energy-rich zones in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu etc.  This approach is essential to ensure that the nation reaps the rewards of enhanced energy cooperation and also strategically positions itself as a dependable partner in the international energy landscape.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 20, 2023

Q.2 What is Virtual Water Export? Discuss as to how it depletes water resources in India. Also suggest some measures for effective water management in this context. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has 3 parts – 1) What is virtual water export 2) How it depletes water resources and 3) Measures for effective water management.


Type 1: Give a definition of virtual water export. Substantiate it with some data related to it. or

Type 2: Give a brief idea about the depleting water resources in India.


Heading 1: Depletion of water resources – write how virtual exports deplete water resources

Heading 2: Measures for effective water management 


Type 1: Give a broad positive statement or a way forward

Type 2: Summarise the measures listed above.


Answer: Virtual water export is the export of ‘hidden’ water present in various products, such as textiles, machinery, livestock, and crops. Since all these products require water inevitably for their production. Thus, along with the commodity, water is also exported.


According to NITI Aayog, India exported more than 10 trillion litres of embedded or virtual water through the export of nearly 37 lakh tonnes of Basmati rice in 2014-15 alone.


Depletion of Water Resources in India


As per Niti Aayog’s composite water management index, India is experiencing its worst water crisis in history. Virtual water export leads to depletion of water resources in India in the following ways:

  •       Water intensive Agri-exports: India’s agri-export basket is dominated by water intensive crops like Basmati rice and marine fisheries. 

○       For example, India is the largest exporter of rice in the world.

  •       Groundwater Depletion: India is the largest extractor of groundwater in the world of which a major goes for irrigation. 

○       For example, around 90 percent of India's groundwater is used for agriculture. .

  •       Lack of Water pricing: Water is not suitably priced in India due to huge subsidies given by the government. Thus, water is undervalued in export commodities.

○  The same was highlighted by Mihir Shah Committee

  •       Low water efficiency: India has a high-water footprint in the industrial sector. 

○       For example, as per the Ministry of Jal Shakti, the industrial plants in our countries consume about 2 to 3.5 times more water per unit of production compared to similar plants operating in other countries.


Measures for effective water management


  •       Crop Diversification: Agriculture accounts for more than 80% of consumption of freshwater resources. Thus, less water intensive crops should be promoted for export purposes. 

○       For example, Millets can be a good alternative as its demand is rising with growing awareness.

  •       Promote Micro-Irrigation: Drip and Sprinkler irrigation can increase water efficiency in agriculture. 

○       For example, According to the Dalwai panel micro irrigation can lead to 40% water saving.

  •       Regulate Groundwater: At present, groundwater ownership lies with the landowner under Easement Act 1882. A new legal framework should be brought wherein there should be a cap on groundwater extraction.
  •       Water Harvesting: It should be promoted through revival of traditional groundwater resources through MGNREGA. Further, water harvesting should be made compulsory in big residential societies and government buildings.
  •       Promote Community Participation: Community participation can lead to better resource planning and management. 

○        For example, Pani Panchayats were formed in Rajasthan for effective management of water resources.

  •       Focus on Data: Virtual water should be quantified and there should be a cap on virtual water export after a certain limit.
  •       Import water intensive crop: India should consider importing commodities with a high water footprint. 

○       For example, China is conserving water by importing water intensive crops like Soya.


Addressing virtual water export-related issues requires a multi-stakeholder approach that considers economic, environmental, and social factors. India needs to balance competing interests of increasing the exports and conservation of water resources by undertaking both demand and supply interventions. 


Subjects : Current Affairs

Dec. 19, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 19, 2023

Q.1) Poverty is not merely a state of economic inadequacy but also encompasses social and political exclusion. Substantiate.   (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer: Write how poverty is multidimensional phenomena with specific emphasis on social and political exclusion. Mention Social and political factors and conclude with a way forward.  


Type 1: Write in brief about poverty and its multidimensional factors.   

Type 2: We can even start some current affairs or highlights of any report on poverty.    

Body: Mention the social and political factors that lead to poverty. 


Type 1: Conclude with way forward to address this issue.  

Type 2: Conclude with some initiative of the government which aims to address these issues.   



Poverty can be defined as a state of deprivation, characterized by a lack of access to basic resources and services necessary for an adequate standard of living. Poverty in India is not solely characterized by a lack of money, as it is also influenced by social and political exclusion. 


Social factors which lead to poverty: 

  • Social exclusion exacerbates poverty: Social exclusion can also manifest as discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization, which can further exacerbate poverty. 
    • For instance, discrimination based on factors such as caste, religion, and gender can limit opportunities for social and economic mobility.  
  • Limited access to education: Children from poor families often lack access to quality education due to financial and social constraints. 
    • This results in a lack of skills and knowledge, which can further limit their employment opportunities and earning potential. 
  • Limited access to healthcare: Lack of access to healthcare due to financial constraints and limited availability of healthcare facilities in rural areas. 
    • This can result in poor health outcomes and a further cycle of poverty. 
  • Limited access to basic infrastructure: Poor communities in India often lack access to basic infrastructure such as clean water, sanitation facilities, and electricity. 
    • This can result in poor living conditions and limited opportunities for economic and social mobility. 


Political factors which lead to poverty:  

  • Lack of political representation: Poor communities often lack political representation, resulting in policies that do not address their needs. 
    • This can further perpetuate poverty and social exclusion. 
  • Limited access to information and decision-making led to policy formulation and implementation in silos which results in poor outcomes. 
  • Limited or no access to the political process: poor people are often excluded from voting or are unable to participate in the political process due to their lack of education or social status. 
    • This exclusion makes it difficult for them to advocate for their rights and access to resources. 
  • Political exclusion: It can also contribute to the perpetuation of poverty, as policies and decisions made by those in power may not be representative of the needs and interests of those living in poverty. 


Thus, poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses social and political exclusion. Tackling poverty requires addressing these various dimensions and creating an environment where individuals can participate fully in social and political life. This can be achieved through measures such as providing access to education, healthcare, and affordable housing, creating an inclusive political system, and combating discrimination and stigma.


Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 19, 2023

Q.3) Consultancy firms serve as indispensable navigators in the complex waters of government decision-making, blending expertise with innovation to chart a course that optimizes outcomes for the public good. In light of the statement, highlight benefits of consultancy firms in public policy making and challenges posed by them.  (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly write about the recent reports highlighting the increased involvement of consultancy firms in policy making


Heading 1: Benefits of the consultancy firms

Heading 2: Challenges posed by the consultancy firms

Conclusion: Conclude with way forward on how to balance the involvement of consultancy firms. 




Recently, it has been reported that Union government ministries have paid approximately Rs 5,000 million in fees to global consulting firms over the past five years. Consulting firms like Tata Consultancy Services, McKinsey & Company, Deloitte, etc are playing vital roles in various government projects, such as cleaning the Ganga, Swachh Bharat, Jal Jeevan Mission, and initiatives like corporatizing the Ordnance Factory Board. 


Benefits of Consultancy Firms

  • Expertise and Specialized Knowledge: Consultancy firms bring a wealth of expertise and specialized knowledge in various domains, helping policymakers access insights and information they may not possess internally.
    • McKinsey & Company provided expertise to the Indian government in the implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST)
  • Efficiency and Timeliness: Consultancy firms often work efficiently and within defined timelines.
    • Ernst & Young (EY) worked with the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in India to develop the Skill Development Management System (SDMS) efficiently
  • Capacity Building: By engaging with consultancy firms, government officials and policymakers can enhance their own capacity and skills. 
    • KPMG collaborates with various state governments in India to provide training and capacity-building programs for government officials
  • Cost-Effective Solutions: While consultancy services come with a cost, the expertise they provide can lead to cost-effective solutions in the long run.
    • PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) has assisted in optimizing healthcare spending in India by identifying inefficiencies and recommending cost-effective measures for the National Health Mission (NHM).
  • Innovation and Creativity: Consultancy firms often bring a fresh perspective to policy challenges, promoting innovation and creative problem-solving.
    • Boston Consulting Group (BCG) worked on the "Vision 2030" project for the state of Andhra Pradesh


Challenges posed by Consultancy Firms

  • Cost Concerns: Consultancy services can be expensive, and the substantial fees charged by top firms may strain public budgets. 
    • The Indian government faced criticism for spending substantial amounts on consultancy fees for projects like the Clean Ganga Mission, where firms like McKinsey were engaged
  • Limited Understanding of Local Context: Consultancy firms, especially those operating globally, may lack an in-depth understanding of the local socio-economic and cultural context. 
  • Short-Term Focus: Consulting projects often have specific timelines, and firms may prioritize delivering results within these deadlines. This short-term focus can sometimes lead to recommendations that may not be sustainable in the long run.
  • Dependency on External Expertise: Excessive reliance on consultancy firms can lead to a dependency on external expertise. Over time, this may erode the internal capacity of government agencies and reduce the ability to independently analyze and address policy challenges.
  • Lack of Accountability: Consultancy firms may not bear the same level of accountability as government agencies for the outcomes of their recommendations. If a policy fails, the firm may move on to other projects, leaving the government to deal with the consequences.


Way Forward


Moving forward, it is imperative to establish comprehensive regulatory safeguards for engagements with consultancy groups, focusing on fairness and transparency in the onboarding process while curbing rent-seeking behaviors. To address transparency concerns, mechanisms should be implemented for consultants to disclose the value they add to public policy initiatives, fostering accountability and public trust.  Inclusivity and accountability can be enhanced through stakeholder involvement, utilizing surveys, forums, and participatory budgeting to ensure government policies and programs are responsive to public needs.


As consulting firms continue to play a vital role in public policy, a transparent regulatory framework is crucial to maintain the quality and effectiveness of public service delivery.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 19, 2023

Q.2) India surpasses China to become the most populous country in the world. In this context, examine the impact of rapid population growth on poverty scenarios in India. What are the potential solutions to address these challenges? (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer: Write how rapid population growth affects poverty scenario in India. Also mention solutions to address the challenges.


Type 1: Start with population related data.

Type 2: Start with recent news and link it with poverty scenario.    

Body: Write how population growth contributes to poverty in India then give solutions. 


Type 1: Conclude with a way forward.

Type 2: Conclude with efforts of the govt in this direction. 



According to projections by the World Population Prospects (UN), India has surpassed China as the world's most populous nation. This rapid population growth will have a significant impact on poverty scenarios in India.

(Numbers in parentheses refer to total population in millions)

Ways in which population growth has contributed to poverty in India:

  •       Strain on resources: With a growing population, the demand for resources such as food, water, and energy increases. The inadequate supply of resources to meet the needs of the growing population can lead to poverty, particularly among the low-income population.
  •       Unemployment: High population growth can lead to a higher demand for jobs, which may not be met by the available employment opportunities. This can lead to unemployment, particularly among the youth, which contributes to a vicious cycle of poverty.
  •       Environmental degradation: Rapid population growth can lead to environmental degradation, such as deforestation, air, and water pollution, which can have a disproportionate impact on the poor.
  •       Pressure on infrastructure: Rapid population growth can also place pressure on infrastructure, such as housing, transportation, and healthcare. In India, where there is already a shortage of affordable housing, a growing population can exacerbate the housing crisis and lead to overcrowding and slum formation.
  •       High population below the poverty line: They add to high level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities which leads to poor Human capital which leads to poverty.
  •       Rural Scenario: Increased number of people in agricultural families results in decreased portion of divided land among the family members causing lower incomes which push them in poverty.

Solutions to address these Challenges:

  •       Population control: The government should invest more resources in promoting family planning, increasing access to contraception, and increasing awareness about reproductive health.

o   For instance, the National Family Welfare Programme provides access to contraceptives and reproductive health services.

  •       Employment generation: The government should create employment opportunities by investing in sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, and promote entrepreneurship and small businesses.

o   For example, expand the scope of MGNREGA to urban areas as well.

  •       Improved healthcare infrastructure: Strengthening healthcare infrastructure, especially in rural areas, can help address the health needs of a growing population.

o   For instance, expanding access to primary healthcare, improving the quality of healthcare services, and implementing preventive healthcare measures.

  •       Social protection: Providing social protection to vulnerable populations such as the poor, women, and children can help reduce poverty.

o   For instance, the government should provide basic services such as education, healthcare, and sanitation, and provide social safety nets such as cash transfers and food subsidies.

  •       Investment in education and skill development: Enhancing the quality of education and providing skill development opportunities can equip the growing population with the necessary skills for employment and economic productivity.

Addressing population growth and its impact on poverty requires a holistic approach that involves policies such as family planning programs, education programs, poverty alleviation programs, create employment opportunities, and provide social protection to vulnerable populations. Implementing these policies will require political will, resources, and collaboration between various stakeholders.

Subjects : Social Issues

Dec. 18, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 18, 2023

Q.1) Despite being a major producer of coal, India still faces coal shortage. Mention reasons for such coal shortages alongwith measures taken by the Indian government to solve the issue. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question gives a statement about the coal shortage in India despite being a major producer of coal. 


Type 1: Give the data on coal in India – India is the second largest producer of coal.

Type 2: Give a description of the recent power crisis.


Heading 1: Reasons for coal shortage

Heading 2: Government initiatives – write some of the steps 

Conclusion: Give a brief way forward as your conclusion.



India is the second largest producer of coal with fifth largest reserves in the world. India is currently producing about  893.19 million tonnes (MT) of coal. Despite this, domestic production is not able to meet the demand of coal in the country.


Reasons for coal shortage:

  • Rise in electricity demand: The shortage in coal was a result of a sharp uptick in power demand as the economy recovered from the effects of the pandemic. Total power demand in August 2021 was 124 billion units up from 106 billion units in August 2019.
  • Flooding of coal mines: With a delayed and scattered monsoon, coal production was also impacted at CIL’s mines. Moreover, heavy rains impacted coal production especially in central and eastern India due to severe flooding in mines. This has also impacted certain key logistic routes.
  • Rise in the imported coal prices by more than 40%: China had put restrictions on the export of coal and competed for securing coal supplies in the international market. This led to thermal coal prices and freight costs soaring in the international market, witnessing over a 100% increase in 2021.
  • Inadequate stocks at power projects: Power plants used their coal stocks and did not replenish them. They even did not adhere to the CEA guidelines of stocking the coal for 22 days.
  • Lower generation from other fuel sources: Coal and lignite fired thermal power plants account for about 54 per cent of India’s installed power generation capacity but currently account for about 70 percent of power generated in the country.


Government Initiatives:


  •       Opening of Coal Sector: The sector has been opened for commercial coal mining by private players in 2020. 100% Foreign Direct Investment is allowed for commercial mining of coal. A single window for e-auction of coal blocks has been launched for this purpose.
  •       Scheme for Harnessing and Allocating Koyala (Coal) Transparently in India (SHAKTI) Policy: 209.614 million Tonnes coal linkage have been booked/allocated under different provisions of the SHAKTI Policy.
  •       Improved Connectivity: The government has come up with a ‘first mile connectivity’ initiative to improve coal logistics in India.
  •       Alternative Sources of Energy: India’s push for the renewable sector will help in reducing reliance on coal. India has committed to meet its 50% electricity needs from renewable sources of energy.


The energy crisis due to the shortage of coal witnessed after Covid pandemic calls for a concerted effort, involving technological innovation, policy reforms, investment in renewable energy, and adaptive governance. By investing in non- fossil fuel based energy technologies, India can mitigate its energy vulnerabilities and pave the way for a more resilient and sustainable energy future.


Subjects : Economy

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 18, 2023

Q.2) What are the current challenges faced in the wind energy sector in India? Suggest some measures to overcome these challenges. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has three main parts – 1)  challenges in wind energy sector, and 2)Measures to overcome these challenges.


Type 1: Give India’s state of wind energy 

Type 2: Write about the benefits of wind energy


Heading 1: Challenges in producing wind energy

Heading 2: Measures to promote wind energy

Conclusion: Write about the need to promote wind energy to meet India’s Panchamrit Commitments.




Wind Energy is a clean and renewable energy source, and India is the 4th largest producer of wind power in the world. The distribution of wind energy is mostly concentrated along the coastal states in India. Presently, Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of wind energy in India.



Additional information:

The distribution of Wind Energy in India:

●      Tamil Nadu – Tamil Nadu tops the list of states with the largest installed wind power generation capacity in the country. Share of wind power in electricity generation was around 28% in 2018. Total wind capacity at the end of 2018 stood at 8,631 MW while its total installed electricity generation capacity stood at 30,447 MW at the end of 2018.

●      Gujarat – Gujarat houses the second-largest installed wind power generation capacity in the country. Share of wind power in electricity generation was around 19% in 2018.

●      Maharashtra – Maharashtra houses the third-largest installed wind power generation capacity in the country.

●      Karnataka – Karnataka houses the fourth-largest installed wind power generation capacity in the country.

●      Rajasthan – Rajasthan houses the fifth-largest installed wind power generation capacity in the country. Wind contributes around 20% of total electricity generated in the state.



Challenges in producing wind energy


  •       Increased Installation Costs: In India, there is a scarcity of local substructure producers, installation vessels, and well-trained staff. Offshore wind turbines necessitate more durable construction and foundations than onshore wind turbines do. Increased installation costs may result as a result of this.
  •       Increased Maintenance Costs: Wind turbines can be damaged by the action of waves and even powerful winds, which can occur particularly during storms or hurricanes. At some point, offshore wind farms will require maintenance that is both more expensive and more complex to complete.
  •       Underutilized potential: Only a fraction of the country’s wind potential has been tapped. 

○       For instance, the commercially exploitable potential of wind energy in India is estimated to be more than 200 gigawatts (GW). As of May 2022, the total installed capacity of wind power was 41 GW, i.e., about 20% of the commercially exploitable potential.

  •       Slow Capacity addition: The reasons for slow capacity addition include-

○       Shift in tariff system from feed-in-tariff (guaranteed above-market price for producers) to tariff determination by competitive bidding.

○       Aggressive bidding by developers.

  •       Neglect of wind energy: The committee believed that solar energy has been prioritized over wind energy. 

○       For example, From March 2014 to May 2022, the installed capacity of wind power has increased by 93% as compared to a 2064% increase in solar power. (Standing Committee on Energy, 2022)

  •       Inefficient turbines: The sites with the greatest wind speeds were chosen for wind power generation in the 1980s. However, turbines have not been upgraded since then.
  •       Non-Payment of Dues: Due to their weak financial position, DISCOMS is not able to pay their dues.

○  For example, as of March 2022, a payment of Rs 14,247 crore to wind energy developers was overdue.

  •       Environmental Issues: Many birds hitting the wind turbines affects/damage turbines.

○  For example, the Great Indian Bustard in Rajasthan and Gujarat.


Measures to promote wind energy

  •       Offshore Wind: There is a need to explore the potential of offshore wind power in different coastal states. 

○       For example, offshore wind energy potential was estimated to be about 70 GW off the coast of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.

  •       Hybrid Solar-Wind Projects: Wind and Solar energy are complementary to each other as solar power is harnessed during the day and wind power projects are productive during the night.

○       For example, Adani Green commissioned India’s first Solar-Wind Hybrid plant in Jaisalmer.

  •       Renewable Purchase Obligation: Separate sub-target for procurement of wind energy by the developers can be considered.
  •       Turbines: There is a need to replace old and less efficient turbines with advanced turbines. Also, there should be proper guidelines for recycling old turbines.
  •       International Collaboration: Active collaboration with countries doing well in wind power generation can help in learning best practices.

○       For example, India and France signed an MoU to promote research in renewable sector, which includes wind energy.


Unlike Solar energy, India has strong domestic manufacturing in the wind energy sector. The development of wind energy is in line with India’s commitment to generate 50% of its electricity needs through renewable sources.

Subjects : Economy

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 18, 2023

Q.3) Semiconductor chips are the lifeblood of the modern information age, and India needs to strategically invest in semiconductor manufacturing capabilities. Elucidate. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: You  can mention current affair/facts related to Semiconductor chips manufacturing in India or follow a definition based approach. You can also mention data about Semiconductor industry in India, before the main body.


Heading 1: Explain how the Semiconductor chips acts as a very important part of the modern information age. Use suitable explanation with each points for better clarity.

Heading 2: Enumerate the challenges for India in semiconductor manufacturing. You can also mention key government initiatives to address these challenges in the body part, just before the conclusion.

Conclusion: Give a way forward tone showing futuristic approach for achieving self sufficiency in semiconductor manufacturing capabilities in India.


The demand for semiconductors has experienced a rise in recent years because of factors such as the adoption of 5G technology, consumer electronics, automobiles including EVs  and the government's continuous efforts towards digitalization.

Indian semiconductor industry in 2022 was USD 27 Billion, with over 90% being imported from countries like China, Taiwan, USA and Japan, and therefore a significant external dependence for India. 


Semiconductor chips as the lifeblood of the modern information age

    • ICT development: Semiconductor chips are the drivers for ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) development.
      • Semiconductors drive the processors, memory chips and communication modules within Mobile phones and laptops.
    • Critical infrastructure: They are used in critical infrastructures such as communication, power transmission, etc. that have implications for national security.
      • For instance, Semiconductors helps in multiple aspects from capturing data to encoding, encryption, transmission and decryption of the data in telecom infrastructure..
    • Internet of Things: Semiconductors play an important role in IoT, allowing devices to collect and communicate data to create a connected ecosystem.
      • For instance, Smart cities rely on semiconductors to manage traffic systems, monitor energy consumption and enhance public safety.


  • Automotive Innovation: Semiconductors enables numerous advancements in safety, efficiency, and entertainment in automobiles. 


      • For instance, Electric vehicles heavily depend on semiconductor technology for battery management, motor control, and charging infrastructure. 


  • Healthcare: Semiconductors have led to advancements in diagnostics, treatment, and patient care.


    • For instance, Medical devices like MRI machines, ultrasound systems, and pacemakers rely on semiconductor technology for accurate imaging, data processing, and precise medical processes.


Challenges for India in semiconductor manufacturing

    • Infrastructural requirements: There are challenges in meeting the infrastructural requirements of a cluster of semiconductor manufacturing fabs such as continuous supply of water, uninterrupted electricity etc.
    • Massive investment: Semiconductor Fabrication is a capital and technology intensive process. 
      • Cost of building a new fabrication unit is over one billion U.S. dollars with values as high as $3–4 billion.
    • Complex value chain: The semiconductor value chain has three major components: Design, Fabrication, and Assembly and Testing. Companies focus on their niche and add specific value to different stages of production. 
      • For example, companies from the United States and South Korea dominate the design stage, while Taiwan holds a significant share of fabrication and assembly markets. Hence, there is an incredible amount of interdependence. 


  • International events: The Russian invasion of Ukraine severely constrained the supply of neon, a noble gas needed for lasers in chip manufacture.



A robust semiconductor industry necessitates a holistic approach, incorporating strengthened infrastructure with a focus on capacity planning and logistics. Stable government policies, addressing the interconnected nature of the semiconductor value chain are pivotal for long-term success, emphasizing collaboration through trade and foreign policy. 


Additional information:

Key Government Initiatives to Accelerate Semicon Manufacturing Growth in India

  • Make in India' Initiative (2014): Launched to boost manufacturing in the country and position India as a global manufacturing hub, this initiative aims to accelerate semiconductor production by providing a conducive environment for manufacturers.
  • Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme: The government has introduced a PLI scheme specifically for the electronics sector, offering a substantial $1.7 billion incentive package. This scheme encourages companies to establish semiconductor manufacturing facilities in India, fostering growth and development.
  • Design Linked Incentive (DLI): In addition to PLI, the government has implemented the DLI scheme to further support the semiconductor industry. This initiative provides incentives for the design aspect of semiconductor production, fostering innovation and creativity.
  • Chips to Startup (C2S) Scheme: As part of the comprehensive approach, the government has introduced the C2S scheme, emphasizing the vital connection between semiconductor development and startups. This initiative is designed to fuel innovation and entrepreneurship in the semiconductor sector.
  • Semicon India Program: Recognizing the global chip shortage, the government has launched the Semicon India program. This strategic move encourages manufacturers to establish semiconductor industry setups, addressing the immediate challenge of chip scarcity and promoting long-term sustainability in the sector.


Subjects : Current Affairs
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