Jan. 31, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 31, 2024

Q3. The rise of protectionist tendencies in recent years poses a significant challenge to the WTO. Discuss.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer



Type 1: Define protectionist tendencies and briefly explain their recent rise in the global context,

Type 2: Provide an overview of the World Trade Organization and its role in fostering international trade, setting the stage for discussing challenges.


Heading 1: Impact of Protectionist Tendencies on International Trade with examples of countries adopting protectionist policies

Heading 2: Challenges Posed to the WTO


Type 1: Conclude on the need for collaborative efforts to address these challenges.


Type 2: Conclude by suggesting measures or reforms that could be undertaken by the WTO or its member countries to counteract the rise of protectionist tendencies and reinforce the principles of global trade.

Answer: Protectionism refers to policies and practices that favor domestic industries and businesses over foreign competition. These typically tariffs, non-tariff barriers such as  quotas, regulations, and subsidies; and government procurement. While the WTO strives to promote free trade and economic cooperation, rising protectionism threatens its core mission.


Impact of Protectionist Tendencies on International Trade:

Positive Impacts:

  • Protecting domestic industries: from foreign competition, allowing them time to develop and become more competitive.
  • Saving jobs: in specific industries facing intense foreign competition.
  • National security concerns: to safeguard critical industries or technologies deemed essential for national security.

Negative Impacts:

  • Reduced trade volume: Tariffs, quotas, and other protectionist measures increase the cost of imports, making them less competitive and discouraging trade. This leads to lower overall trade volume, impacting both exporting and importing countries.
    • Ex: The EU imposes tariffs and subsidies on many agricultural products under its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The aim is to increase prices for domestic farmers and ensure food security, but this also reduces the competitiveness of farmers in developing countries and increases the cost for consumers.
  • Higher prices for consumers: as imported goods become more expensive. This reduces purchasing power and leads to lower overall economic growth.
    • Ex: The USA has imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum imports from most countries, as well as on many Chinese goods such as fridges, washing machines, and clothes. The tariffs raised the prices of inputs and final goods, hurt US exporters who face retaliatory tariffs from China.
  • Disrupted supply chains: leading to production slowdowns and shortages.
  • Job losses in export-oriented industries: While protectionism aims to protect domestic jobs, it also leads to job losses in export-oriented industries that rely on foreign markets.
  • Increased international tensions: Trade wars and protectionist disputes can increase tensions between countries, hindering cooperation and diplomacy.
    • Ex: The Trump administration imposed tariffs on billions of dollars worth of Chinese goods, sparking a trade war that disrupted global supply chains and raised consumer prices.

Challenges Posed to the WTO by Protectionist Tendencies on International Trade:

  • Enforcement of WTO rules: Protectionist measures often take the form of seemingly legal loopholes or grey areas that exploit ambiguities in WTO rules. This makes it difficult for the WTO to enforce its principles and adjudicate disputes effectively.
    • Ex: US tariffs on steel and aluminium based on national security concerns, which is technically allowed by WTO rules but contradicts its spirit of free trade.
  • Stalemated Doha Round negotiations: The Doha Round, aimed at further global trade liberalization, has been stalled since 2008 due to disagreements between developed and developing countries. This lack of progress weakens the WTO's authority and legitimacy in addressing contemporary trade challenges.
  • Rise of regional trade agreements: Many countries are increasingly turning to regional trade agreements (RTAs) that bypass WTO rules and create separate trading blocs. This fragments the global trading system and undermines the WTO's role as the central forum for trade negotiations.
    • Ex: The Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership create preferential trade arrangements that exclude non-member countries.
  • Lack of consensus on new issues: Emerging trade issues like e-commerce, intellectual property, and digital services are not adequately addressed by existing WTO rules. The lack of consensus on how to adapt the WTO to these new realities further hinders its effectiveness.
  • Weakening public support: Growing populism and concerns about job losses due to globalization fuel public scepticism towards free trade. This weakens the political support for the WTO and its role in promoting open trade.
    • Ex: The "America First" policy under the Trump administration.
  • Decision-making by consensus: The WTO's requirement for consensus decision-making is cumbersome and slow, especially with rising protectionist sentiments.
  • Lack of transparency: Concerns exist about the transparency of WTO negotiations, Dispute Settlement Body and decision-making processes, leading to accusations of unfairness and bias.

Protectionism poses a threat to the WTO and global trade. To combat this, the WTO can revamp dispute settlement, modernize rules, and increase transparency. Member countries can commit to open trade, address domestic concerns, and foster collaboration on joint initiatives and innovative solutions. By working together, the WTO and its members can reinforce free and fair trade principles for a more prosperous and inclusive global economy.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 31, 2024

Q1. As the world celebrated the International Year of Millets 2023, India, a historical custodian of these "forgotten grains," found itself at a crossroads. Discuss the potentials and challenges associated with their mainstreaming millets, and suggest concrete policy measures to unlock their full potential for the nation's future. (10M, 150 Words)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

The answer has 3 main headings - ‘Potential of Millets in India’, ‘Challenges associated with Millets’ and ‘Policy measures’. It can be structured as given below.


 Type- 1: Write about the millets in the content of International Year of Millets 


Heading-1: Potentials of Millets in India

Heading-2:  Challenges associated with Millets

Heading-3:  Policy measures


 Type- 1: Give an optimistic conclusion


The International Year of Millets in 2023 underscored the historical and cultural importance of millets in India. While once dietary staples, millets like pearl millet, finger millet, sorghum, and foxtail millet have witnessed declining cultivation. The renewed interest stems from their potential to address food security, nutritional deficiencies, and environmental challenges.


Potentials of Millets in India


  • Nutritional Security: Rich in fibre, iron, calcium, and essential micronutrients, contributing to overall health.
  • Example, finger millet (7.8g protein per 100g), can bridge India's significant protein deficiency (20.2% population affected).
  • Agricultural Resilience: Millets' drought-tolerant nature is crucial for India's vast drought-prone areas (68% of land).


      • Example, Bajra, requiring 50% less water than rice, and thriving in less fertile soils, promotes sustainable agriculture.


  • Environmental Sustainability: Millets exhibit a lower carbon footprint (0.7-1.2kg CO2 per kg) compared to major cereals (rice: 4.8kg CO2 per kg).
  • Their cultivation supports sustainable water management and soil conservation.


Challenges associated with Millet

  • Low Yields: Millet yields average 800-1000 kg/hectare, compared to 4000-5000 kg/hectare for rice and wheat (FAO, 2023).
  • Processing and Value Addition: Limited millet processing units (700) hinder transformation into consumer-friendly products.
    • Example, Processing Gap- India has a processing capacity of just 10% of its millet production, leading to post-harvest losses and limited availability (NITI Aayog, 2022).
  • Low Awareness: Only 20% of urban Indian households consume millet regularly, compared to 80% consuming rice and wheat (ICRISAT, 2023).
  • Price Barrier: Millets cost 15-20% more than rice or wheat, impeding affordability and accessibility (Millet Foundation, 2024).
  • Pest Vulnerability: Millets face significant losses due to pests like stem borers and shoot flies, reducing productivity (ICRISAT, 2023).
  • MSP Disparity: The minimum support price (MSP) for millets is 20-30% lower than for rice and wheat, disincentivizing farmers (Government of India, 2024).
  • Research Funding: Only 1% of India's agricultural research budget is allocated to millets (ICRISAT, 2023).

Policy Measures

  • Campaigns and Education: Launch nationwide awareness campaigns highlighting the health benefits, cultural significance, and culinary versatility of millets. Partner with celebrities, nutritionists, and chefs to promote their unique appeal.
  • Branding and Marketing: Develop innovative brands and marketing strategies to position millets as a premium, healthy, and sustainable food choice. Partner with restaurants and supermarkets to offer millet-based products and highlight their nutritional value.
  • Value Addition and Convenience: Invest in processing technologies and research to develop convenient and diverse products like ready-to-eat meals, snacks, and flour. Make millets easily accessible in supermarkets and online platforms.
  • Research and Development: Focus on developing high-yielding, pest-resistant, and water-efficient millet varieties through public and private investments in research. Promote climate-resilient cropping practices for sustainable production.
  • Minimum Support Prices (MSP): Increase MSPs for millets to close the gap between rice and wheat, incentivizing farmers to switch to millet cultivation.
  • Investment in Infrastructure: Allocate greater public and private funds to develop processing facilities, cold chain infrastructure, and rural transportation networks to support millet production and marketing.
  • Addressing Social Stigma via Success Stories and Role Models: Share stories of successful millet farmers and entrepreneurs to inspire others and demonstrate the economic viability of cultivating and marketing millets.
  • Promote Organic Farming: Encourage farmers to adopt organic farming practices for millet cultivation, which improves soil health, reduces water consumption, and minimizes environmental impact.

Millets offer a compelling solution to address India's food security, nutritional challenges, and environmental concerns. By capitalizing on their potential, addressing market barriers, and implementing supportive policies, India can position millets as key contributors to a more sustainable and resilient food system for the nation's future.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 31, 2024

Q2. Discuss the significance of WHO in addressing contemporary health challenges and promoting international cooperation. Also, analyze the key challenges faced by the WHO.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer



Type- 1: Briefly introduce the World Health Organization (WHO) and its role in addressing global health challenges. Mention the importance of international cooperation in tackling health issues.


Heading-1: Significance of WHO in Addressing Contemporary Health Challenges

Heading-2: Key Challenges Faced by WHO


Summarize the vital role of WHO in addressing contemporary health challenges and fostering international cooperation. 

Acknowledge the importance of addressing key challenges to strengthen WHO's effectiveness in the future.

Answer: The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a pivotal role in the realm of global health, functioning as the leading international agency responsible for coordinating and directing international health efforts. Founded in 1948, it operates as the United Nations' specialized agency for health with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.

Significance of WHO in Addressing Contemporary Health Challenges:

  • Health Systems Strengthening: The WHO works towards building robust health systems globally, emphasizing the importance of accessible, affordable, and quality healthcare services.
  • Disease Surveillance and Response: One of the primary functions of the WHO is to monitor and assess global health trends, providing early warnings and responding to health emergencies such as epidemics and pandemics. 
    • The pandemic also highlighted the importance of international collaboration, as exemplified by initiatives like COVAX, where WHO collaborated with UNICEF and others to ensure equitable access to vaccines.
  • Norms and Standards Setting: Initiatives such as the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control showcase the organization's commitment to addressing major public health issues. Additionally, WHO's emphasis on essential drug lists and condemnation of the promotion of artificial infant-formula products reflects its dedication to promoting health equity and evidence-based practices.
  • Research and Innovation: The organization facilitates research and development to address emerging health challenges and promotes the equitable distribution of medical advancements.
  • Country-Specific Contributions and Cooperation: WHO's country offices play a crucial role as primary contact points. 
    • For example, in India, the WHO has been instrumental in eradicating smallpox and battling diseases like polio through initiatives like the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The Country Cooperation Strategy – India (2012-2017) demonstrates the collaboration between the WHO and the Indian government to enhance healthcare infrastructure and services.

Key Challenges Faced by WHO:

  • Funding Issues: Despite its vital role, WHO faces financial challenges, with 80% of its funding tied to programs chosen by donors. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014 revealed the consequences of insufficient funding, staffing, and bureaucratic challenges, questioning WHO's efficacy.
  • Political Influence: During the COVID-19 pandemic, tensions between major powers impacted the organization's ability to coordinate global responses effectively.
  • Response Time: The WHO has been criticized for delays in responding to health emergencies, as witnessed in the initial stages of certain pandemics.
  • Coordination Challenges: Coordinating efforts among member states with diverse healthcare systems and priorities presents a persistent challenge for the organization.

Thus, the World Health Organization is a crucial player in addressing global health challenges, promoting international cooperation, and setting norms and standards. However, it must continually address criticisms and overcome challenges to fulfill its mission effectively.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Jan. 30, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 30, 2024

Q2. Discuss the evolution of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the challenges it faces, and analyze India's stance on CTBT.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


The question revolves around discussing the evolution of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), analyzing the challenges it faces, and examining India's stance on the CTBT. The answer can be structured as follows:


Type-1: Start by setting the context with a reference to significant events or developments related to nuclear disarmament or non-proliferation, such as recent international summits or diplomatic engagements.


Heading-1: Evolution of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

Heading-2: Challenges Faced by the CTBT

Heading-3: India's Stance on the CTBT

Conclusion: Conclude by offering insights into the way forward for addressing the challenges facing the CTBT and fostering global nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation efforts. Emphasize the need for constructive dialogue, confidence-building measures, and enhanced cooperation among states to advance the objectives of the CTBT and strengthen the global nuclear security architecture

Answer: The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) stands as a landmark international agreement in the realm of nuclear disarmament. Conceived against the backdrop of the devastating consequences witnessed during World War II, particularly the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the CTBT represents a collective effort by the global community to curb the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

Evolution of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT):

  1. Background and Initial Arms Race:
    • In the 1940s, the USA and the Soviet Union conducted the first successful nuclear weapons tests, triggering a prolonged arms race.
    • Over 2,000 nuclear tests were conducted between 1945 and 1996, leading to global concerns about the environmental and health impacts.
  2. Limited Test-Ban Treaties:
    • In the 1960s, the Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (LTBT) prohibited atmospheric, outer space, and underwater nuclear testing, but allowed underground tests.
    • The Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) in the 1970s set limits on nuclear testing yields.
  3. Cold War Dynamics:
    • Cold War politics hindered efforts for a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing.
  4. CTBT Negotiations:
    • Breakthrough in the 1990s after the Cold War ended.
    • CTBT negotiations began in 1994, aiming to prohibit all nuclear weapons tests and explosions.
  5. CTBT Adoption:
    • Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 1996.
    • Aims to ban nuclear explosions for both civilian and military purposes in all environments.

Challenges Faced:


  • Controversies and Contentious Negotiations:


  • Challenges marred the CTBT negotiations, with nations like France and China expressing reservations and emphasizing the need for validation through continued testing.
  • Debates on low-threshold testing and concerns about the impact on nuclear deterrence complicated the process.
  1. Entry-into-Force Dilemmas:
    • The CTBT faced hurdles in its entry-into-force provisions (Article 14), leading to disagreements.
    • Out of the 44 Annex 2 states, only 36 ratified the treaty, preventing it from becoming legally binding.

India's Stand on CTBT:


  • Historical Engagement:


  • India's historical engagement with nuclear disarmament includes the Standstill agreement in 1954, suspending nuclear testing, and support for the LTBT in 1963 under the leadership of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
  1. Contemporary Position and Concerns:
    • However, India did not lend support to the CTBT in 1996, expressing concerns about its security implications.
    • India's objections revolve around perceived discrimination, the absence of a time-bound disarmament schedule for nuclear weapon states, and the limited coverage of the treaty.
  2. Observer Status in CTBTO:
    • Despite not ratifying the CTBT, India assumed the role of an "Observer" in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2016, reflecting a nuanced approach towards global non-proliferation efforts.

Recent Developments and Global Implications:


  • Russia's Potential Revocation:


  • Recent developments, notably Russia's contemplation of revoking its CTBT ratification, inject a new dimension of uncertainty.
  • The prospect of Russia's withdrawal raises concerns about potential repercussions, influencing other nations and instigating a renewed nuclear arms race.
  1. Global Ramifications:
    • The global implications of such a move extend beyond Russia, posing a threat to the broader non-proliferation architecture.
    • The risk of other nations reconsidering their commitments could heighten geopolitical tensions, exemplified by potential nuclear escalation or "Nuclear Blackmail," as witnessed in regions like Ukraine.

Thus, the evolution of the CTBT reflects the multifaceted nature of global efforts towards nuclear disarmament. Despite persistent challenges and recent uncertainties, the international community's commitment to a world free of nuclear explosions remains pivotal.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 30, 2024

Q3. The 2023 SDG Summit expressed apprehension regarding the slow progress in achieving SDGs. Highlight the progress and persistent challenges for India's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) roadmap. (10M, 150W).

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

The answer has 2 main headings - ‘India’s SDG progress’ and ‘Persisting Challenges’. It can be structured as given below.


 Type- 1: Use the context of the recently held SDG summit 2023


Heading-1: India’s SDG Progress

Heading-2:  Persisting Challenges


 Type- 1: Conclude with a way ahead for India’s SDG progress

Answer: World leaders convened at the 2023 SDG Summit to accelerate progress on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, a global blueprint for a more just and sustainable future by 2030. Amidst progress on goals like renewable energy and girls' education, the Summit highlighted persistent challenges like hunger and inequality, calling for urgent action and collaboration in the final seven years of the SDG timeline.

India's SDG Progress

  • SDG 4 - Quality Education: Initiatives like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and digital platforms like DIKSHA have significantly increased enrollment, particularly for girls, showcasing adaptability during the pandemic.
  • Green Energy Leadership, SDG 7 - Affordable and Clean Energy: India's ambitious renewable energy expansion, particularly in solar power, positions the nation as a global leader in green technology, aligning with environmental and economic goals.
  • Women's Empowerment through Entrepreneurship, SDG 5 - Gender Equality: Programs like Udyam Shakti and Stand Up India have empowered women economically, contributing to gender equality and social development.
  • Financial Inclusion Revolution, SDG 1 - No Poverty, SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth: Aadhaar-based platforms like UPI have transformed financial access in rural areas, promoting financial inclusion and community empowerment.
  • Healthcare, SDG 3 - Good Health and Wellbeing: Telemedicine initiatives like eSanjeevani have bridged healthcare gaps, particularly in underserved areas, aligning with SDG 3.


Persisting challenges 

  • Hunger, SDG 2 - Zero Hunger: Despite surplus food production, India's 107th ranking on the Global Hunger Index highlights the urgency of addressing storage issues, PDS system flaws, and food affordability.
  • SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation: Open defecation, despite Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, remains a challenge due to inadequate infrastructure and behavioural hurdles, hindering progress towards SDG 6.
  • Skill Gap, SDG 4, 8: The gap between education and employable skills persists, demanding integration of skill development into curricula and fostering industry-academia partnerships.
  • Environmental Sustainability, SDG 15 - Life on Land, SDG 13 - Climate Action: Pollution, deforestation, and unsustainable practices persist, requiring prioritisation of green technologies and sustainable management for SDG 15.
  • Inequality, SDG 5, 10, Reduced Inequality: Uneven progress exacerbates social and economic inequalities, necessitating efforts to address gender imbalances, rural-urban divides, and caste-based discrimination.

Government commitment, innovative solutions, public-private partnerships, and community engagement are pivotal for India to fulfil the SDGs' promise, forging a sustainable, equitable, and prosperous future for all citizens.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 30, 2024

Q1. Throw light on the major outcomes of COP28 in the context of global climate action. How can India leverage the outcomes of the conference to achieve its own sustainability goals?(10M, 150W)

Model Answer



Type 1: Briefly define COP28 and its significance in the global climate change discourse.

Type 2: Provide context on the urgency of global climate action and the role of international conferences like COP28 in addressing environmental challenges.


Heading 1: Major outcomes of COP28 in global climate action

Heading 2: India's potential leverage of COP28 outcomes for sustainability goals


Type 1: Emphasise the critical role of international cooperation in addressing climate change and India's proactive stance in aligning its sustainability goals with the outcomes of COP28.

Type 2: Present a forward-looking perspective, highlighting the potential positive impact of COP28 outcomes on India's sustainable development and the need for continued global collaboration.

Answer: COP28 took place in Dubai, UAE, with the main objective to agree on policies and actions to limit global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. According to the IPCC, the world needs to reduce its net GHGs by 45% by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050 to have a 50% chance of limiting warming to 1.5°C. If the current policies of countries are implemented, the world is on track to warm by about 2.7°C by the end of the century, which would have devastating consequences for people and nature. 

Significant Outcomes of COP28 Climate Meeting:


  • Fossil Fuel Acknowledgement:
  • For the first time, COP28 explicitly addressed the need to move away from fossil fuels, even with opposition from some players.


      • The final declaration emphasizes a just and equitable transition to net zero by 2050, acknowledging the role of transitional fuels like natural gas in the process.


  • Renewable Energy & Efficiency:
  • More ambitious targets were set: tripling global renewable energy capacity to 11,000 GW and doubling annual energy efficiency gains to 4% by 2030.
  • India was recognized as a frontrunner in both areas, showcasing its commitment to clean energy.
  • Expanding Clean Energy Sources:
  • COP28 included nuclear energy, green, and blue hydrogen as clean energy sources, aligning with India's focus on diversifying its energy portfolio.
  • Collaborative Initiatives:
  • Like previous COPs, countries formed alliances for specific sectors:
  • US-led effort to reduce methane emissions.
  • Powering Past Coal Alliance (PPCA) and Nuclear Power Group (NPG).
  • India chose to stick with UNFCCC consensus targets and welcomed the "phase-down" of unabated coal power rather than a complete phase-out.
  • Holistic Approach:
  • This is a key priority for COP28, and a number of initiatives were launched to support this goal. These include the Global Renewables and Energy Efficiency Pledge, the Global Cooling Pledge, and the Oil and Gas Decarbonization Charter.
  • Establishing Loss and Damage Fund
  • This ensures those who created the problem of climate change – developed states and major emitters – would compensate those experiencing its most devastating effects.


India's potential leverage of COP28 outcomes for sustainability goals:


  • Building on Existing Initiatives:
  • Promote Mission LiFE globally through the Green Credit Initiative, encouraging sustainable lifestyle choices.
  • G20 Green Development Pact: Implement the pact domestically through green infrastructure projects, clean energy investments, and climate-resilient development plans.
  • Global Biofuel Alliance: Lead the alliance to advance biofuel research, production, and adoption, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and strengthening energy security.
  • Global River Cities Alliance: Expand the alliance's reach by bringing more countries on board and implementing river-centric development strategies domestically.
  • Utilizing Global Support:
  • Mobilizing Climate Finance: Advocate for developed nations to fulfil their climate finance commitments to support India's clean energy transition and adaptation efforts.
  • Technology Transfer: Collaborate to access and adapt advanced clean technologies in areas like renewable energy storage and smart grids.
  • Strengthening Domestic Policies:
  • Update NDCs: to reflect COP28's ambitious targets.
  • Green Investments: Direct public and private investments towards renewable energy infrastructure, etc.
  • Enhancing Global Leadership:
  • International Partnerships: Actively participate in and lead international climate initiatives like the PPCA and the NPG.
  • South-South Cooperation: Share India's expertise and resources with other developing nations facing similar challenges to promote collective action and knowledge exchange.


While COP28 made progress with the Loss and Damage Fund and the Global Goal on Adaptation, it missed the mark on decisive climate action. Loopholes in the Global Stocktake and uncertain carbon market futures remain. India's S.E.E.D.S. framework outlines its post-COP28 leadership strategy, focusing on global collaboration, adaptation, community empowerment, innovation, and climate justice. This holistic approach holds promise for a sustainable future.

Subjects : Environment

Jan. 29, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 29, 2024

Q1. Briefly discuss the significance of India’s relation with all weather friend Russia. Suggest some potential measures to enhance the cooperation between the two nations.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by briefly mentioning the recent context of  Moscow visit by India's Foreign Minister.

Body: Mention significance of India and Russia relations and then suggest  some measures to Strengthen India-Russia Relations.

Conclusion: Conclude by emphasizing on the need to address contemporary challenges and ensure a proper dialogue and communication.


Answer: The recent Moscow visit by India's Foreign Minister signals a significant evolution in India-Russia relations, moving beyond the traditional "special and privileged partnership" to a more dynamic and multifaceted engagement on the global stage and in bilateral affairs. India and Russia have a legacy of cooperation built on a strong foundation of trust and understanding between the two nations.

Significance of India-Russia relationship

  • Longstanding ties and mutual trust: The relationship dates back to the Cold War era, with the Soviet Union supporting India against Western pressure. This legacy of cooperation has fostered a strong foundation of trust and understanding between the two nations. 
    • For example- In the wake of the Indo-Pak war (1971) Russia supported India while the US and China supported Pakistan.
  • Security and Defence: Russia remains India's primary source of military equipment and technology, including fighter jets, tanks, and missiles. 
    • For instance- India and Russia have cemented their strategic alliance through joint development of the supersonic BrahMos missile and a multi-billion dollar acquisition of the advanced S-400 Triumf air defense system.
  • Nuclear Energy: Russia actively collaborates with India in the peaceful use of nuclear energy, constructing reactors and supplying fuel. 
    • For example- The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) is being built in Tamil Nadu with the technical assistance of Russia.
  • Economic Cooperation: Trade and investment between the two countries are growing, with Russia supplying oil and gas to India and Indian companies investing in sectors like pharmaceuticals and IT in Russia. 
    • The bilateral trade has reached USD 45 billion already surpassing the target of bilateral trade of USD 30 billion by 2025 The two countries intend to increase bilateral investment to USD 50 billion by 2025.
  • Convergence of Interests: India and Russia share common interests in several areas, including counter-terrorism, regional stability, and promoting a multipolar world order. This convergence further strengthens their strategic partnership.
  • Balancing Geopolitics: Both India and Russia face complex geopolitical challenges. Their strategic partnership allows them to balance the influence of other powers, such as the United States and China, and promote a multi-polar world order.

Despite the strong ties, the relationship faces challenges. Recent developments like Russia's war in Ukraine and growing US-India relations have introduced complexities. Additionally, there are concerns about diversifying India's military equipment sources and balancing its relationship with Russia and the West.


Potential measures to enhance India-Russia relation:

  • Deepening military-technical cooperation: Explore joint development and production of advanced defense equipment and moving beyond just procurement. Focus on areas like artificial intelligence, drones, and cyber security.
  • Boosting trade and investment: Diversify beyond traditional sectors like oil and gas. Encourage investments in infrastructure, pharmaceuticals, IT, and agriculture. Streamline trade processes and establish a Rupee-Ruble payment mechanism.
  • Enhancing cultural and educational exchanges: Promote student exchange programs, cultural festivals, and joint research projects in fields like history, art, and literature.
  • Arctic cooperation: Explore joint research and development projects in the Arctic, leveraging Russia's expertise and India's growing interest in the region.

Both the countries should maintain frank and open communication on the Ukraine war, respecting each other's positions while focusing on shared interests. Both India and Russia should engage with other major powers while maintaining their close ties. This avoids creating zero-sum situations and fosters a more stable multipolar world order.’

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 29, 2024

Q3. Analyze the challenges and opportunities presented by the Indo-Pacific construct for India’s foreign policy in the 21st century.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by defining the Indo-Pacific construct and its importance for the evolving Indian Foreign Policy.

Body: Discuss the Opportunities and the Challenges presented by the Indo-Pacific construct. Address multifaceted dimensions in order to address the issue comprehensively.

Conclusion: Conclude by highlighting the significance of a balanced & pragmatic foreign policy approach in order to navigate the choppy waters of the Indo-Pacific.

Answer: The term "Indo-Pacific" refers to a geopolitical concept that encompasses the maritime region connecting the Indian Ocean and the western and central Pacific Ocean. From the perspective of India's foreign policy, the Indo-Pacific has gained increasing importance in recent years, influencing its strategic outlook and diplomatic engagements.


The challenges presented by the Indo-Pacific construct are:


  1. Geopolitical Competition: The Indo-Pacific is witnessing intense geopolitical competition, primarily between the United States and China. Navigating this rivalry without compromising national interests poses a significant challenge for India.


  1. Border Disputes and Maritime Tensions: Ongoing border disputes with China and competing maritime claims in the South China Sea create security challenges for India, necessitating a delicate balancing act in regional engagements.


  1. Economic Dependence and Competition: India's economic engagement in the Indo-Pacific region exposes it to potential disruptions due to geopolitical tensions and trade imbalances between major players in the region.


  1. Infrastructure Development: China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) poses challenges for India in terms of strategic infrastructure development, especially in neighboring countries where China is heavily investing.


  1. Military Modernization and Arms Race: The increasing military capabilities of various regional powers, particularly China, contribute to an arms race, requiring India to continually modernize its military to maintain strategic stability.


  1. Climate Change and Environmental Risks: The Indo-Pacific region is vulnerable to climate change and environmental degradation. Addressing these issues requires regional cooperation, but conflicting priorities and resource competition may impede progress.


The opportunities presented by the Indo-Pacific construct are:


  1. Economic Growth and Trade: The Indo-Pacific is an economic hub and India can leverage its growing economy by fostering economic partnerships, trade agreements, and participating in regional economic initiatives.


  1. Strategic Partnerships: Strengthening strategic partnerships with like-minded nations such as the United States, Japan, Australia, and ASEAN countries through platforms like the QUAD provides India with opportunities to counterbalance geopolitical influences and promote shared values.


  1. Maritime Security Cooperation:  Collaborative efforts on maritime security, including joint exercises and information-sharing agreements, enhance India's naval capabilities and contribute to regional stability. For example,the Malabar Naval exercises. 


  1. Infrastructure Development Initiatives: Actively participating in infrastructure development projects, both domestically and in collaboration with regional partners, allows India to counterbalance China's influence and ensure connectivity on its terms. For example the IPEF framework. 


  1. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR): India's expertise in HADR operations can be leveraged to build goodwill, strengthen ties with regional partners, and enhance its role as a responsible actor in times of crises.


  1. Climate Change Cooperation: Collaborating on climate change mitigation and adaptation aligns with global climate targets and India can play a leadership role in promoting sustainable practices within the region.


  1. Energy Security: Access to energy resources in the Indo-Pacific is crucial for India's energy security. Strategic partnerships and cooperative agreements contribute to energy resilience and diversification along with enhanced focus on renewable energy.


India's foreign policy in the Indo-Pacific must carefully navigate these challenges while capitalizing on the opportunities. A balanced, pragmatic, and adaptive approach is essential to safeguarding national interests and promoting regional stability in the 21st century.


Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 29, 2024

Q2. Discuss the challenges and opportunities for India's participation in peacekeeping operations in Africa, in the context of evolving global security threats.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer

Here the keywords are peacekeeping operations and India’s contribution to Africa. Collect the current challenges and opportunities ahead.


Type 1: Give some facts about India’s UN peacekeeping engagement wrt India

Type 2:  Start with India India-Africa bilateral relationship wrt the peacekeeping forces of India


Heading 1: Challenges 

Heading 2: Opportunities

Conclusion: Conclude the answer with a progressive trajectory of India’s engagement with Africa.


Answer: India has contributed over 200,000 troops to UN peacekeeping missions, with over 7,600 currently deployed in Africa. India, a long-standing contributor to UN peacekeeping, faces a dynamic landscape in Africa with evolving security threats. 

Challenges for India's participation in peacekeeping operations in Africa:

  1. Shifting Threats: Traditional peacekeeping focused on inter-state conflict is giving way to complex challenges like terrorism, transnational organized crime, and climate-induced instability. These require specialized skills, equipment, and training that may not readily align with India's current capabilities.
  2. Mandate Imbalances: Peacekeeping mandates often lack clarity and resources, leading to mission creep and frustration. The South Sudan mission (UNMISS), for example, has been criticized for its inability to protect civilians despite a large troop presence. This can also lead to increased risks for Indian peacekeepers.
  3. Political Tensions: Some African nations have expressed concerns about the dominance of Western powers in peacekeeping and the potential for neo-colonialism. India, though seen as a neutral actor, needs to be sensitive to these concerns and ensure its engagement aligns with African priorities.
  4. Resource Constraints: Deploying and sustaining troops is a costly endeavour. With India facing domestic economic pressures, balancing peacekeeping commitments with other priorities can be difficult.


  1. Leveraging Soft Power: India's historical and cultural ties with Africa, coupled with its experience in democratic nation-building, offer a unique advantage. Engaging in capacity-building initiatives and promoting good governance can create long-term stability and reduce the need for future interventions. 
    1. Example - In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India has been praised for its role in providing medical assistance and building infrastructure, contributing to local development and stability.
  2. Specialized Skills: India's expertise in areas like engineering, medical services, and disaster relief can be invaluable in addressing the complex challenges facing African nations. Providing training and equipment in these areas can contribute significantly to mission success.
  3. Regional Collaboration: Partnering with African regional organizations like the African Union (AU) and regional security bodies can enhance the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. India's participation in the AU's Peace and Security Architecture demonstrates its commitment to such collaboration.
  4. Tech-Enabled Solutions: Utilizing technology like drones and advanced surveillance systems can improve situational awareness and mission effectiveness. India's investments in these areas can contribute to a more agile and responsive approach to peacekeeping.

India's continued participation in peacekeeping in Africa remains vital. By navigating the challenges and seizing the opportunities presented by the evolving security landscape, India can further enhance its contribution to peace and security on the continent, solidify its global leadership role, and strengthen its historical partnership with Africa.

Subjects : Polity

Jan. 27, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 27, 2024

Q2. Discuss the challenges posed by China's growing influence in Bhutan to India's security interests. Suggest strategies to mitigate these challenges and strengthen India-Bhutan's strategic partnership.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer

Here are the keywords India Bhutan relationships and growing impact of China. Here look for the present threats and possible avenues that India has to mitigate that threat.

Introduction: Give brief importance of Bhutan w.r.t. India and link it with the growing aggression of China


Heading 1: Challenges Posed by China's Growing Influence

Heading 2: Mitigating Strategies and Strengthening the Partnership

Conclusion: Conclude the answer with a progressive trajectory of India-Bhutan Diplomatic relations


Answer: Bhutan, nestled between India and China, is strategically crucial in the Himalayas. While India has traditionally been Bhutan's closest ally, China's growing influence in the region poses significant challenges to India's security interests. Understanding these challenges and crafting effective strategies to navigate them is critical for preserving the unique India-Bhutan partnership.

Challenges Posed by China's Growing Influence:

  1. Strategic Encirclement: China's infrastructure investments in Bhutan, including roads and hydropower projects, aim to create economic dependence and potentially facilitate military deployment closer to India's vulnerable Siliguri Corridor, the narrow landmass connecting its northeastern states.
  2. Border Disputes: China lays claim to over 270 sq km of Bhutanese territory, particularly the Doklam plateau, strategically located near the tri-junction with India. Any resolution without Indian involvement could undermine its strategic interests.
  3. Weakening Buffer State: A more China-dependent Bhutan could dilute its strategic autonomy and reduce its effectiveness as a buffer state against Chinese expansionism, impacting India's overall security posture.
  4. Limited Leverage: China's growing leverage over Bhutan could weaken India's ability to influence regional geopolitical dynamics, potentially forcing it to accommodate Chinese interests in other areas.

Mitigating Strategies and Strengthening the Partnership:

  1. Economic Re-engagement: India must counter China's economic influence by increasing its own investments in Bhutan's infrastructure development, renewable energy projects, and digital connectivity, all while respecting Bhutan's environmental sensitivity. India's recent announcement of a $2 billion aid package for Bhutan demonstrates its commitment to maintaining economic primacy.
  2. Border Resolution: Collaborative efforts to resolve the Doklam standoff and other disputed border areas through peaceful negotiations and multilateral forums like SAARC, showcasing India's commitment to Bhutan's territorial integrity.
  3. Enhanced Security Cooperation: Deepening military-to-military cooperation through joint exercises, intelligence sharing, and capacity building for the Royal Bhutan Army can bolster Bhutan's self-defence capabilities and deter further Chinese incursions.
  4. Soft Power and Cultural Ties: India can leverage its historical, cultural, and linguistic ties with Bhutan through increased cultural exchanges, scholarships, and educational opportunities to strengthen people-to-people connections and maintain its appeal as a reliable partner. The ongoing Bhutan-India Friendship Motor Rally fosters people-to-people connections and showcases India's presence in the region.
  5. Multilateral Partnerships: India can involve Bhutan in regional initiatives like the Indo-Pacific Economic Corridor and Quad, providing Bhutan a platform to voice its concerns and secure diplomatic support against undue Chinese pressure.

Navigating China's growing presence in Bhutan demands a proactive and multi-pronged approach from India. By focusing on economic re-engagement, border resolution, enhanced security cooperation, and continued cultural ties, India can safeguard its security interests and secure a future where Bhutan remains a valued strategic partner, not a geopolitical pawn. 

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 27, 2024

Q3. Discuss the complexities in Sino-Indian relations and the strategic measures that India can adopt to manage these complexities and ensure regional stability.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by highlighting the complex interplay of different factors affecting Sino-Indian relations.

Body: Discuss the different dimensions which affect the relations. Next, elaborate upon the adoption of strategic measures needed by India.

Conclusion: Conclude by stating the significance of understanding the complexities and the need following strategic measures.

Answer: Sino-Indian relations are characterized by a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, and economic factors. 

These can be understood through several dimensions:

  1. Border Disputes: The longstanding border disputes, particularly over territories like Aksai Chin, have been a persistent source of tension. This has led to periodic military standoffs, such as the Doklam standoff in 2017 and the Galwan Valley clash in 2020.


  1. Historical Legacy: Issues including the 1962 Sino-Indian war, continue to cast a shadow on bilateral relations, affecting mutual trust. Also the differing interpretations of historical events contribute to the sensitivity surrounding various territorial and geopolitical matters.


  1. Geopolitical Competition: Both India and China aspire to play leading roles in the region, leading to a geopolitical competition for influence in South Asia and beyond. China's growing influence in India's neighboring countries and its strategic projects like the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) raise sovereignty concerns for India.


  1. Tibet and Dalai Lama Issue: India's hosting of the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government-in-exile is a source of friction, with China viewing it as interference in its internal affairs.


  1. Strategic Partnerships: India's strategic partnerships with countries like the United States and Japan are perceived by China as attempts to contain its rise, contributing to a more competitive and sometimes confrontational environment.


  1. Water Security and Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra River, which originates in Tibet, is a critical water source for India. Any alteration of the river's flow or construction of dams by China raises concerns about water security in downstream areas.


  1. Cybersecurity Concerns: Cybersecurity threats and concerns over cyber espionage complicate the security dimension of the relationship. Both countries have accused each other of engaging in cyber activities that impact national security.


To navigate these challenges and ensure regional stability, India can consider adopting the following strategic measures:


  1. Diplomatic Engagement: There is a need to strengthen high-level diplomatic dialogues to address outstanding issues and foster better understanding. Also, promoting Track II diplomacy and people-to-people exchanges can build trust and enhance cultural ties.


  1. Conflict Resolution Mechanisms: Utilizing existing mechanisms like the Special Representatives talks and implementing Confidence-Building Measures(CBMs) can lead to peacefully resolving border disputes and reducing tensions along the border.


  1. Economic Cooperation: Leveraging economic interdependencies to create common interests and exploring opportunities for increased trade, investment, and collaboration on regional development projects.


  1. Regional Multilateralism: Actively engaging in regional forums and multilateral organizations can address common challenges and promote regional stability. Also, we need to strengthen partnerships with like-minded countries to build a collective approach towards shared concerns.


  1. Strategic Communication: Enhancing communication strategies so as to manage public perceptions and prevent misinformation that could escalate tensions. There is also a need to foster open channels for communication between military and diplomatic channels to prevent misunderstandings.


  1. Strategic Autonomy: Pursuing a balanced foreign policy that upholds India's national interests while maintaining strategic autonomy is the need of the hour. India needs to diversify diplomatic and economic partnerships to mitigate dependencies on any single nation.


Understanding and navigating these complexities is crucial for both India and China to build a stable and cooperative relationship. By implementing these strategic measures, India can better manage the complexities in Sino-Indian relations, foster stability in the region, and create an environment conducive to cooperation and shared prosperity.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 27, 2024

Q1. Briefly discuss the multifaceted relationship between India and Maldives. Suggest some measures to strengthen the partnership between two countries, in light of emerging geopolitical realities.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by briefly mentioning the background of India Maldives relations.

Body: Mention the various dimensions of India and Maldives relations and then suggest  some measures to Strengthen India-Maldives Relations.

Conclusion: Conclude by emphasizing on the need to address contemporary challenges and maintaining a harmonious relationship.

Answer: India and Maldives share ethnic, linguistic, cultural, religious and commercial links and enjoy close, cordial and multi-dimensional relations. India was among the first to recognise Maldives after its independence in 1965 and to establish diplomatic relations with the country. Maldives’ is strategically significant for India due to its proximity to the west coast of India.

Multifaceted relationship between India and Maldives

Political Relations:

  • India’s prompt assistance during the 1988 coup attempt, led to development of trust and long-term and friendly bilateral relations with the Maldives. Under Operation Cactus the Indian Armed Forces helped the Government of Maldives in the neutralization of the coup attempt.
  • Till recent times, ‘India First’ has been a stated policy of the Government of Maldives.
  • On international issues Maldives has consistently supported India in multilateral fora, such as the UN, the Commonwealth, the Non-Alignment Movement and the SAARC.

 Economic relations:

  • India and Maldives signed a trade agreement in 1981, which provides for export of essential commodities.
  • As of 2022, The total trade volume between India and the Maldives reached USD 501.82 million.
  • In 2022, India provided a grant of $100 million to help the island nation address economic difficulties.

Defence Cooperation:

  • India provides the largest number of training opportunities for Maldivian National Defence Force (MNDF), meeting around 70% of their defence training requirements.
  • A Comprehensive Action Plan for Defence was also signed in April 2016 to consolidate defence partnership.

Indian Diaspora:

  • Indians are the second largest expatriate community in Maldives with an approximate strength of around 22,000.
  • About 25% of Doctors and Teachers in Maldives are Indian nationals.


  • Tourism directly accounts for about a quarter of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Maldives and indirectly for a much larger proportion of GDP.
  • In 2023, India remained the top source of tourists for the Maldives, with over 209,198 Indian visitors, making up 11.1% of the total 1,878,543 tourists that year. This continued the trend from 2022, when India also sent the most tourists to the island nation.

Assistance in time of disasters-

  • Operation Neer (2014): When a fire at the Male Water and Sewerage Company disrupted the capital's water supply, India promptly launched Operation Neer. Indian Air Force and Navy ships delivered a total of 3,775 tonnes of drinking water, alleviating the crisis for the Maldivian people.
  • India has proactively helped Maldives during COVID-19 with supply of essentials, medicines, vaccines etc.

 Measures to Strengthen India-Maldives Relations:

  • Open and transparent communication: To address the contemporary challenges, there is need to maintain open channels of communication to address concerns and misunderstandings promptly. This will help in preventing unnecessary friction.
  • Respect for Maldivian sovereignty: There is a need for properly acknowledging and respecting Maldives' right to make independent decisions regarding its foreign policy and partnerships.
  • Engage constructively with all stakeholders: Foster dialogue and cooperation with Maldivian political parties, civil society, and private sector to build comprehensive partnerships and address the underlying issues.
  • Promote cultural and educational exchange programs: Regular student exchanges, artist residencies, and cultural festivals can foster greater understanding and appreciation between the two societies.
  • Economic Diversification: Both the countries should move beyond tourism dependence and explore various other economic opportunities. India may support Maldivian initiatives to diversify its economy by exploring industries like fisheries, renewable energy, and eco-tourism.
  • Maintain regular security dialogue: Establish a robust framework for regular security dialogues and joint military exercises to address shared security threats and maintain regional stability.Collaborate on maritime security initiatives like patrolling, information sharing, and capacity building to ensure safety in the Indian Ocean.
  • Promote multilateral cooperation: Various regional forums like the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) and Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) should be utilized properly to address the regional challenges collectively.

While historical and cultural ties provide a strong foundation, contemporary challenges like the "India Out" campaign and Chinese influence underscore the need for proactive measures to ensure the stability and growth between the two nations. The success of the India-Maldives relationship hinges on a commitment to mutual respect, proactive engagement, and a shared vision for a stable and prosperous Indian Ocean region.

Subjects : Polity

Jan. 25, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 25, 2024

Q.2 MGNREGA has been able to address the issue of rural distress in India Discuss. Write the issues with implementation of MGNREGA in India.  (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce the topic by writing precisely about MGNREGA


Heading 1: Mention how scheme has been able to address the issue of rural distress in India i.e.- its achievements

Heading 2: Also write the issues in implementation of MGNREGA in India.

Conclusion: Conclude appropriately by providing optimistic solution about MGNREGA



The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), also known as MGNREGS is an Indian legislation enacted in 2005.It provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage.


MGNREGA scheme has been able to address the issue of rural distress in India as :

  • Infrastructure: MGNREGA has helped to improve the infrastructure and natural resource base of the rural poor, which has had a positive impact on the environment. The program has also helped to improve the accessibility of basic services in rural areas, such as water, sanitation, and housing.
  • Compensating income loss: As per a study conducted by Azim Premji University across four states (Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh), MGNREGA helped in compensating 20-80% of the income loss incurred because of the Covid-19 induced lockdown.
  • Preventing migration to urban areas: The goal is also to decrease migration from rural areas to urban areas by utilizing the untapped labor in rural areas.
  • Livelihood: It seeks to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor and create durable assets such as wells, ponds, roads, and canals.
  • Right-based approach:  Unlike previous employment guarantee schemes, the act aims to combat chronic poverty through a rights-based approach, giving citizens a legal right to work.
  • The program incorporates accountability measures to ensure compliance and transparency at all levels.


Issues in implementation of MGNREGA in India are:

  • Corruption: There have been instances of corruption, particularly in the form of embezzlement of funds and manipulation of records. For example, a recent example of an IAS officer in Jharkhand was accused of corruption in MGNREGA.
  • Limited job opportunities: MGNREGA provides only 100 days of employment per person per year, which may not be enough to meet the needs of all rural citizens.
  • Lack of awareness: Many rural citizens are not aware of their rights under MGNREGA, and as a result, they do not take advantage of the benefits it offers. 
  • Bureaucratic delays: The program is often bogged down by bureaucratic delays and inefficiencies, making it difficult for citizens to access benefits in a timely manner. For example, delay in payments in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Quality of work: Many critics argue that the quality of work carried out under MGNREGA is not up to the mark and the work undertaken is not aligned to the local needs and priorities. 
  • Limited financial inclusion: Limited financial inclusion in the states such as Bihar is also a challenge for the proper implementation of MGNREGA regarding the transfer of wages. 

Hence, in order to resolve these issues, increasing in no of work (from 100 days to 150 days), Revision of permissible works, uniform wage rate across the country and increase in wages commensurate with inflation could prove to be instrumental.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 25, 2024

Q.1 Discuss the various merits and demerits of bringing political parties under Right to Information Act 2005. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by briefly mentioning the background of the Right to Information Act.

Body: Mention the various merits and demerits of bringing political parties under Right to Information Act.

Conclusion: Conclude by mentioning the need for a balanced approach between transparency and responsible implementation.



Right to Information, is derived from the fundamental right of freedom of speech and expression under Article 19 of the Constitution. The basic objective of the Right to Information Act is to empower the citizens, promote transparency and accountability in the working of the Government.

Merits of bringing political parties under Right to Information Act

  • Increased transparency and accountability: Bringing political parties under RTI would subject their internal workings, funding sources, decision-making processes, and candidate selection procedures to public scrutiny. This could potentially reduce corruption, nepotism, and opaque dealings within parties, leading to cleaner politics.
  • Informed electorate: With access to information about parties' platforms, finances, and activities, voters could make more informed decisions during elections. This could strengthen democracy by promoting accountability and responsiveness to public concerns.
  • Reduced political corruption: Increased transparency about funding sources and expenditure could deter financial irregularities and corrupt practices within parties. Additionally, exposing internal party dynamics could shed light on potential deals and quid pro quos, making it harder for corruption to flourish.
  • Level playing field: Smaller parties, often at a disadvantage due to limited resources and visibility, could benefit from access to information about larger parties' strategies and funding. This could create a more level playing field during elections.


Demerits of bringing political parties under Right to Information Act

  • Internal dissent and disruption: RTI requests could potentially be used to stir up internal dissent within parties by making internal disagreements public. This could hamper party functioning and decision-making processes.
  • Strategic information leakages: Opponents may use RTI requests to strategically obtain and use sensitive information about a party's internal planning or strategies, giving them an unfair advantage in elections.
  • Frivolous requests and harassment: The RTI Act's wide ambit could be misused to submit frivolous requests aimed at harassing or burdening political parties with unnecessary paperwork and administrative processes.
  • Impact on free speech and association: Some argue that applying RTI to parties could infringe on their right to free speech and association, as internal discussions and strategies might be protected under these rights.
  • Operational feasibility and challenges: Implementing RTI for parties could be challenging, considering their diverse structures and funding sources. Defining the scope of information disclosure and setting up proper administrative mechanisms could be complex and resource-intensive.


While transparency unlocks immense potential, the concerns about internal functioning and strategic leaks present legitimate hurdles. There is a need to find a way to leverage RTI's power for increased accountability without jeopardizing the effective functioning of our political parties. Crafting a meticulously balanced approach that prioritizes both transparency and responsible implementation is the need of the hour.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 25, 2024

Q.3 The Anusandhan National Research Foundation Act, 2023 aims to provide high level strategic direction for research, innovation and entrepreneurship in the fields of natural sciences, which at present suffers from lack of adequate resources and private participation. Discuss. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by highlighting the Act and its aims. Then talk about the two main concerns i.e. lack of adequate resources & private participation.

Body: Elaborate upon the two domains: Addressing Resource Scarcity & Encouraging Private Participation.Now highlight the challenges associated with the Act.

Conclusion: Conclude by stating the significance of the Act and the factors on which its success depends.




The Anusandhan National Research Foundation Act, 2023 is a significant legislation that aims to address the challenges faced by research and innovation (R&I) in India, particularly the lack of adequate resources and private participation.


Addressing Resource Scarcity:

  • Increased Funding: The Act establishes an autonomous Anusandhan National Research Foundation (NRF) with an initial allocation of Rs. 50,000 crores for the first five years. This dedicated funding can significantly support research activities, creating more opportunities for researchers to secure adequate grants and pursue their projects.
  • Infrastructure Development: The NRF is tasked with facilitating and financing the growth of R&D and related infrastructure. This could involve investments in laboratories, equipment and other critical resources needed for cutting-edge research.
  • Improved Resource Allocation: The Act mandates the NRF to undertake annual surveys of scientific research expenditure. This data can help identify areas where resources are scarce and allocate funds strategically to address those gaps.


Encouraging Private Participation:

  • Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs): The NRF has the authority to encourage investments in R&D by private and public sector entities. This can incentivize private corporations to collaborate with researchers on projects of mutual interest, bridging the gap between academia and industry.
  • Promoting Entrepreneurship: The Act explicitly mentions fostering innovation and entrepreneurship as goals of the NRF. This could involve supporting the development of start-ups and ventures based on scientific discoveries, thereby translating research into marketable technologies and attracting private investment.
  • Streamlined Regulations: The Act aims to simplify regulations related to R&D and intellectual property, potentially making it easier for private companies to invest in and commercialize research findings.


However, there are certain challenges associated:

  • Effective Implementation: The success of the Act hinges on the efficient and transparent implementation of the NRF's mandates. Streamlining bureaucratic processes, attracting qualified personnel, and ensuring fair and merit based grant allocation are crucial aspects.
  • Industry Readiness: Private companies need to be receptive to collaborating with academia and investing in R&D, considering the longer-term returns and potential risks involved.
  • Focus on Societal Needs: Balancing basic research with research addressing pressing societal challenges like healthcare, agriculture and climate change is vital for ensuring the Act's impact extends beyond economic benefits.


The Anusandhan National Research Foundation Act, 2023 offers a promising framework for revitalizing India's natural sciences R&I landscape. Its success will depend on a collaborative effort between researchers, government agencies, and private entities, all working towards a shared vision of scientific advancement and innovation.

Subjects : Polity

Jan. 24, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 24, 2024

Q.2 Discuss the primary functions of the National Commission for Minorities in India, and the challenges it faces in effectively safeguarding and promoting the rights and interests of minority communities. (10M/150W)

Model Answer



Type 1: Define the National Commission for Minorities and outline its  mandate.

Type 2: Provide a brief historical background of the NCM and its establishment to address the concerns of minority communities.


Heading 1: Primary Functions of the National Commission for Minorities

Heading 2: Challenges faced by the National Commission for Minorities


Conclude with recommendations or potential reforms to enhance the effectiveness of the National Commission for Minorities in addressing the evolving needs of minority communities.



The National Commission for Minorities (NCM) in India was established in 1992 through the National Commission for Minorities Act. Its formation came amidst growing concerns about the well-being and protection of minority communities in the country. Prior to 1992, there was no dedicated national body specifically tasked with safeguarding the interests of minority communities. Issues faced by minorities, including discrimination, violence, and lack of access to opportunities, were often addressed through ad hoc measures or existing legal frameworks.

The Commission's primary functions are outlined below:

  1. Progress Evaluation: of developmental schemes for minorities at both the Union and State levels.
  2. Safeguard Monitoring: of efficacy of constitutional safeguards and legislative provisions, enacted by both Parliament and State Legislatures, aimed at protecting the rights of minorities.
  3. Recommendation Formulation: for the effective implementation of safeguards, guiding both Central and State Governments.
  4. Complaint Resolution: regarding the deprivation of minority rights, taking proactive measures by engaging with relevant authorities to rectify any infringements.
  5. In-Depth Studies: Undertake comprehensive studies, research, and analysis to identify and address issues arising from discrimination against minorities and valuable insights for informed policymaking.

On the other hand, the NCM confronts various challenges and limitations in executing its mandate, encompassing:

  1. Human Resource Deficiency: it grapples with inconsistencies in staffing and key official appointments, impacting the commission's composition and operational efficiency over the years.
  2. Limited Role of State-level Minority Commissions: due to insufficient integration of state-level Minority Commissions with the National Minorities Commission.
  3. Underutilization of Technology: while the Commission employs a complaint monitoring system, its functionality remains basic, lacking a comprehensive end-to-end complaint handling mechanism.
  4. Financial Planning & Expenditure-related Challenges: a substantial portion of the Commission's allocated budget remains underutilized for research activities. Financial constraints and the absence of allocated funds for research on minority-related issues impede the Commission's ability to fully realize its mandated objectives.
  5. Legal and Constitutional Authority-related Challenges: NCM’s decisions can be overturned by District and High courts, underscoring the need for empowering the Commission with more robust legal standing to ensure the effective execution of its responsibilities.


To enhance the NCM’s effectiveness, recommendations include implementing outcome-based performance assessments, setting baseline targets for case pendency, and introducing a Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey for feedback. Technological upgrades, such as an "e-hearing" mechanism, and expanding the role of State Minorities Commissions are suggested for increased efficiency and reduced pendency. These shall foster a more inclusive and empowered environment, ensuring a brighter future for safeguarding the rights and interests of minority communities in India.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 24, 2024

Q.1 What are the constitutional and legal provisions pertaining to Administrative Tribunals in India? Do you think tribunal needs reform? (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce the topic by writing precisely constitutional and legal framework of administrative tribunal


Heading 1: Mention constitutional and legal provision pertaining to administrative tribunals in India.

Heading 2: Write the issues and solution with regard to reforms of tribunals in India.

Conclusion: Conclude appropriately by providing an optimistic solution.



Tribunals in India are adjudicatory bodies that serve as an alternative to the traditional court system. Tribunals were established to provide swift, cost-effective, and decentralized resolution of disputes across various issues. The original Constitution did not contain provisions with respect to administrative tribunals. The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added a new Part XIV-A to the Constitution. This part is entitled ‘Tribunals’ and consists of Article 323A and Article 323B.


Constitutional and legal provisions pertaining to Administrative Tribunals in India

  •   Article 323A-It empowers the Parliament to provide for the establishment of administrative tribunals for the adjudication of disputes relating to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services of the Centre, the states, local bodies, public corporations and other public authorities.
  • Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985-In relation to Article 323 A, The Parliament enacted the Administrative Tribunals Act in 1985, which empowers the Central government to establish the Central Administrative Tribunal and state-level administrative tribunals. This Act opened a new chapter in the sphere of providing speedy and inexpensive justice to the aggrieved public servants.


Tribunals needs reform

Issues with Tribunals in India

  •   Conflict of Interest: Government is one of the main litigants in the tribunals. However, the appointments and removal of members of tribunals lie with the government.
  •   Tribunalisation of justice: Tribunals take away the power of regular courts, undermining the judiciary's authority and violating the principle of separation of powers.
  •   Lack of independence: Salary, condition of office, and term of members of tribunals are decided by the executive, hence affecting the independence of tribunals.
  •     Overlapping Jurisdiction: There are some instances of overlapping jurisdiction of tribunals, such as the Competition Appellate Tribunal (COMPAT) with the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLT).
  •   Jurisdiction of High Courts: By-passing the jurisdiction of High Courts has been a major criticism against tribunals which has been partly resolved under the Chandra Kumar Case (1997), where appeals were allowed in the division bench of High Courts.
  •   Administrative concerns: There is non-uniformity in the appointment process, qualification of members, age of retirement, resources, and infrastructure of different tribunals working under different ministries, which hampers their overall efficiency.
  •   Pendency: There is high pendency in tribunals due to reasons such as a shortage of personnel. According to the 272nd Law Commission Report, the pendency figures for the CAT is 44,333 cases.
  • Persisting Vacancies:  In 2021, the Supreme Court noted that the vacancies of 20 presiding officers, 110 judicial members, and 111 technical members were pending across the country in various tribunals.


Reforms can help towards the better functioning of tribunals in India

  •   National Tribunal Commission: The 74th report of the Parliamentary standing committee on Law recommended the creation of a National Tribunal Commission (NTC) to regulate issues linked with tribunals such as oversee the selection process, set eligibility criteria for appointment, etc.
  •   Timely appointments: It is important to ensure that appointments to tribunals are made in a timely manner to avoid the delays in justice delivery.
  •   Independence and autonomy: Appointment, removal, and terms of service of tribunal members must be free from political interference.
  •   Rationalization of tribunals: There are currently many tribunals in India, leading to duplication of functions and overlapping jurisdictions. A rationalization of tribunals could help to streamline their functioning and make them more effective.

Hence, in order to serve the true purpose of the tribunal, it needs to implement the above mentioned suggestions. Moreover, law commission recommendations regarding appointment, qualification, selection and tenure of members as well as location of tribunals should be implemented in letter and spirit as well.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 24, 2024

Q.3 Highlighting the related constitutional provisions, discuss the concerns associated with the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) in India. Also suggest reforms for a more effective role of NCBC in advocating for socially and educationally backward classes. (10M/150W)

Model Answer




Heading 1: Concerns associated with the National Commission for Backward Classes

Heading 2: Reforms for a more effective role of NCBC


Conclude with recommendations or potential reforms to enhance the effectiveness of the NCBC addressing the evolving needs of OBC communities.



The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) in India has evolved over time to address historical disparities and uplift marginalized sections, ensuring social justice and equality. The 1992 Indra Sawhney case prompted the establishment of a permanent entity for evaluating and recommending inclusion/exclusion of Backward Classes.

Constitutional Provisions:

  1. 102nd Amendment Act (2018):
    • Provides constitutional status to the NCBC.
    • Introduces Articles 338B and 342A.
    • Article 338B grants authority to examine complaints and recommend welfare measures.
    • Article 342A empowers the President to specify socially and educationally backward classes.
  2. Article 340:
    • Addresses the identification of socially and educationally backward classes.
    • Analyzes factors contributing to their backwardness and suggests remedies.


Concerns associated with the National Commission for Backward Classes:

  1. Non-binding Recommendations: Recommendations made by the NCBC lack the force of law, making them non-binding on the government.
  2. Defining Parameters of Backwardness: NCBC faces hurdles in addressing the ongoing issue of various castes vying for inclusion as Backward Classes due to a lack of authority in defining parameters.
  3. Retained Conventional Nomenclature: Retention of the conventional name raises concerns about potential jeopardy to the entire framework of specialized constitutional protections.
  4. Failure to Incorporate Expert Characteristics: The new NCBC configuration lacks incorporation of characteristics of an expert body, as mandated by the Supreme Court.
  5. Imbalanced Representation: Recent data highlights imbalanced representation within SC/ST and OBC categories, raising concerns about effective representation.


Reforms for a More Effective Role:


  1. Inclusive Composition: Enhance gender sensitivity and diverse stakeholder representation in the composition of the NCBC to reflect the diversity of the communities it serves.
  2. Shift from Vote Bank to Value-based Politics: Move away from vote bank politics and adopt a value-based political approach to ensure that only genuinely disadvantaged sections of society benefit from reservations.
  3. Periodic Revision Mechanism: Address the Supreme Court’s directive by incorporating a mechanism in Article 338B (5) for the periodic revision of the list of backward classes in consultation with the NCBC.
  4. Enhance Binding Nature of Recommendations: Consider legislative changes to confer a certain degree of binding nature to the recommendations made by the NCBC, empowering it to have a more direct impact on policy decisions.
  5. Community Consultations: Ensure active consultation with the communities being represented by the NCBC in the decision-making process to better understand their needs and concerns.


Thus, the NCBC, with its constitutional status, plays a pivotal role in addressing the concerns of socially and educationally backward classes. However, challenges persist, and reforms are crucial for the commission to effectively fulfill its mandate and contribute to the broader goals of social justice and equality in India.


Subjects : Polity

Jan. 23, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 23, 2024

Q3. Lokpal and lokayuktas, despite having powers, are not able to realise their mandate and thus have become clawless tiger. Discuss the issues and suggest measures to be taken to revive the institutions.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has two main headings: 1) Issues with the functioning of Lokpal/Lokayuktas and 2) Measures required to revive the institutions. Additionally, provide a case study for a comprehensive answer. 


Type 1: Briefly state the significance of Lokpal and lokayuktas and quote an observation from a report.  

Type 2: Mention related law and the objective of their formation. 


Heading 1: Issues with the functioning of Lokpal/Lokayuktas: Mention underlying issues with their functioning. 

Heading 2: Measures required to revive the institutions: Suggest measures for revival. For value addition, use institutional data, report findings, etc.  

Optional: Provide some insights with a case study.    

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking conclusion –  

Type 1: Mention the importance of such institutions for transparent and accountable governance.  

Type 2: Some suggestions from the case study can be used for the conclusion. 


Answer: The institutions of Lokpal and Lokayuktas at the Centre and States, respectively, are established under the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act (2013) to address the corruption issues and charges against the public officials including the Prime Minister. However, the failure to realize their full potential has rendered them ineffective and powerless. 

Issues with the functioning of Lokpal/Lokayuktas 

  • Lack of constitutional backing with political interference cause delayed appointment, budgetary constraints, etc., leading to inefficient performance of Lokpal and Lokayuktas. 
  • For example: As the selection committee consists of members of political parties, it may lead to manipulation in appointments. 
  • Lack of autonomy such as limited decision-making power leads to delay in investigation and timely action against corruption. 
  • For example: Lokpal cannot Suo moto proceed against any public servant; many Lokayuktas are working without a prosecution wing and special court. 
  • Lack of political will to implement the recommendations of Lokayuktas. 
  • For example: Lokayuktas in almost all states are deliberately weakened by inadequate infrastructure, budget and workforce. (Transparency International India Report 2020) 
  • Inherent incapability of the law like lack of transparency and sufficient enforcement power makes it toothless.  
  • For example: Provisions of heavy punishments for false complaints, non-acceptance of anonymous complaints and seven-year limitation on filing a complaint.  
  • Other issues include lack of digitalisation, exclusion of judiciary from the purview, restrictive impositions on civil society organisations, non-alignment of states’ laws with the central act, bureaucratic hurdles, etc.  

Measures required to revive the institutions 

  • Strengthening of legal framework by the means of amendment of the act is needed to provide these institutions sufficient enforcement powers, resources and autonomy to function effectively. 
  • Imposing criminal culpability for government interference in the functioning of Lokpal and lokayuktas could be utilised.  
  • Developing own dedicated cadre of officers who are not bothered about deputation and abrupt transfers. This is possible with the delegation of power and adequate resource allocation. 
  • Bringing uniformity in the lokayuktas’ mechanisms for all states; Karnataka and Kerala Lokayukta Acts could be considered as model state laws. (Transparency International) 
  • Accountability mechanisms to ensure that Lokpal and Lokayukta members are held accountable for their actions. An independent oversight body in place can help.  



Case Study- Singapore enjoys a well-earned reputation for a high level of incorruptibility. The success of Singapore in fighting corruption is the result of an effective corruption control framework with its four key pillars of laws, adjudication, enforcement and public administration, underpinned by political will and leadership. 


Lokpal and Lokayukta in India require urgent attention to fulfil their mandate. Efforts must be made to strengthen these institutions, reduce political interference and ensure adequate resources to promote transparency, accountability and good governance.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 23, 2024

Q2. The GST Council is the crown jewel in India's experiment with cooperative federalism. How the composition and the functioning of the GST Council reflect the spirit of cooperative federalism. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question deals with the relationship between GST Council and cooperative federalism. 


Type 1: Give a brief description about GST Council and quote Article 279A and Type 2: Define Cooperative federalism and the need to have fiscal cooperation between Centre and States. 


Heading 1: Spirit of Cooperative federalism: Explain as to how composition and functioning of GST Council reflects the spirit of cooperative federalism. Provide examples to substantiate your points. 


Type 1: Highlight the importance of GST in creating more unified and harmonized tax regime in India 

Type 2: Highlight the need to replicate the model of GST Council in other fields as well. 

Answer: The GST Council was formed under Article 279A through 101st Constitutional Amendment Act. It is a joint forum of the Centre and the states. The Council is the principal forum for deciding various matters in the implementation of GST regime. 

Reflects the spirit of Cooperative federalism 

  • Representation: The GST Council consists of members from both the central and state governments.
    • For example, it includes the Union Finance Minister, who acts as the Chairperson, and the Ministers of Finance or Taxation from each state. 
  • Decision-Making: All decisions, including those related to tax rates, exemptions, thresholds, and administrative issues, require the approval of at least three-fourths of the Council members. However, the decisions are largely taken based on consensus. 
    • For example, the GST Council took all decisions by consensus in the first 37 meetings. 
  • Voting Power: The central government has one-third of the total votes, while all state governments hold the remaining two-thirds.  
    • This voting structure gives significant weightage to the states, ensuring their active participation and influence in decision-making. 
  • Dispute Resolution: It serves as a platform for dialogue, negotiation, and finding mutually agreeable solutions, thus strengthening intergovernmental relations.  
    • For example, GST Council has allowed the Kerala government to impose additional cess to deal with the Kerala floods of 2018. 
  • Addressing Regional Imbalances: The GST Council acknowledges regional disparities and concerns.  
    • For example, it has established mechanisms like the Compensation Cess and the GST Compensation Fund to address revenue shortfalls faced by certain states during the initial implementation phase. 

The GST Council has contributed to a more unified and harmonized tax regime in India while maintaining the spirit of cooperative collaboration between the central and state governments. 

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 23, 2024

Q1. The recent judgement of the Supreme Court related to the appointment of Chief Election Commissioner and other election commissioners is a welcome step, but several other issues still affecting the functioning of the institution. Discuss. Also suggest necessary reforms to strengthen the election watchdog.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer: 

The question has two main parts – 1) Issues in EC and 2) Necessary reforms. Provide additional election reforms for a comprehensive answer. 


Type 1: Give the recent supreme court judgement about appointment of election commissioners. And Type 2: Give constitutional provisions about EC and highlight its role. 


Heading 1: Issues still Existing: Give existing issues in EC 

Heading 2: Reforms: Quote expert committees like NCRWC, Law Commission and Dinesh Goswami Committee for value addition. 


Type 1: Give a forward-looking conclusion about the need to strengthen EC to conduct free and fair elections. 

Type 2: Highlight other electoral reforms as suggested by EC. 


Answer: Recently, Supreme Court (in Anoop Baranwal Case 2023) has introduced a collegium system for the appointment for the appointment of Election Commissioners. The collegium includes the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition in Lok Sabha and the Chief Justice of India (similar to the appointment of the Director of the Central Bureau of Investigation). 

This has been a longstanding demand by various commissions like NCRWC and 2nd ARC. However, the court has restricted itself to only appointment process. 

Issues still existing in EC 

  • Removal Process: Currently, only the Chief Election Commissioner can be removed through impeachment whereas the other two Election Commissioners can be removed as per CEC’s recommendations. 
  • Financial Dependence: Currently, the Election Commission’s expense is voted and approved by the Parliament thereby making it financially dependent on the Parliament. 
  • Secretariat: The Election Commission does not have a separate and independent secretariat of its own. It relies on the human resources which are provided by the government. 
  • Power to Deregister: The Election Commission has the power of registration under Section 29A of RPA 1951. However, it does not have power to deregister a political party. 
  • Security of Tenure: The Constitution has not specified any fixed tenure for the Election Commissioners. 


Reforms in EC 

  • Removal Process: The election commissioners should be extended the same level of protection against removal as that of Chief Election Commissioner. (Dinesh Goswamy Committee) 
  • Financial Independence: The expenses of the Election Commission should be charged on Consolidated Fund of India as it is done for other Constitutional Bodies. (NCRWC) 
  • Independent Secretariat: The Election Commission should be provided with a permanent and independent secretariat of its own. All India Election Service can be formed to supply high grade officers to the commission.  
  • Power to Deregister: The Election Commission must have power to deregister political parties as suggested by Law Commission in its 255th report on electoral reforms. 

A strong and independent election commission is essential for safeguarding the integrity of the electoral process, protecting democratic principles, and ensuring the will of the people is reflected through free and fair elections. 

Additional information: 

Other election reforms - 

  • Internal Democracy: The National Commission on Review of Working of Indian Constitution (NCRWC) recommended to provide for transparent and timely elections for the election of executive body in the party which will further distribute the tickets to the candidates through internal elections. 
  • Political Finance: The RPA should be amended to introduce a cap on the expenditure of political parties as well. (2nd ARC) 
  • Paid News: The definitions of “paying for news”, “receiving payment for news” and “political advertisement” should be inserted in the Representation of the People Act, 1951. Making paid news an electoral offence will lead to disqualification. (Law Commission) 
  • Criminalization of Politics: The Law Commission 255th Report recommended to disqualify the candidate at the framing of chargesheet rather than conviction. 
Subjects : Polity

Jan. 22, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 22, 2024

Q2. Highlight the role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in promoting decentralized governance in India. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly introduce India's Panchayati Raj system, you can also write about  its constitutional empowerment through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment.


Heading 1: Detail the instrumental role of PRIs

Conclusion: Conclude by emphasizing the transformative role of Panchayati Raj Institutions in governance.



India's Panchayati Raj, born from Article 40 and empowered by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment, grants villages self-governance through elected councils. These Gram Panchayats plan local development, allocate resources, and empower marginalized groups, fostering grassroots democracy with accountability and transparency.


Key aspects of their role:

  • Local Development and Planning: PRIs, particularly Gram Panchayats, are instrumental in local-level development planning empowered by Article 243G of the constitution. They formulate and implement plans related to infrastructure, education, healthcare, and other essential services, reflecting the specific needs and priorities of the community.
    • For example, Sirohi Adarsh Gram of Rajasthan thrives on a community led rainwater system.
  • Resource Allocation: PRIs are involved in the allocation and utilization of local resources, including finances. This ensures that local needs and aspirations are considered in budgeting processes, leading to more targeted and effective utilization of funds for local development.
    • For example, The Kerala government mandated Panchayat-led budgeting, allowing local bodies to directly allocate funds based on community priorities. This resulted in increased spending on healthcare and education in rural areas.
  • Empowerment of Marginalized Groups: PRIs provide a platform for the participation of marginalized groups, including women and Scheduled Castes/Tribes, in decision-making processes. This empowerment enhances social inclusivity and contributes to more equitable and just governance.
    • For example, A 2022 study by the Centre for Social and Governance Research found that women's participation in Gram Panchayats has risen to 54%.
  • Accountability and Transparency: Article 243A encourages Accountability and Transparency by mandating Panchayats to hold regular meetings and maintain accounts open to public scrutiny.
    • Best practices: In Karnataka, community scorecards assess the performance of Gram Panchayats
  • Enhanced Civic Engagement: PRIs encourage civic engagement by involving the local population in decision-making. This engagement leads to a more informed and participatory democracy, as citizens actively contribute to shaping policies and programs that affect their daily lives.


Panchayati Raj Institutions emerge as catalysts for transformative and inclusive governance, fostering the principles of decentralization and community participation. As PRIs continue to evolve, the prospects for decentralized governance in India appear promising, with local bodies becoming engines of sustainable development, social equity, and democratic resilience at the grassroots level.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 22, 2024

Q3. Discuss the factors that hinders effective grassroots democracy while suggesting the measures for a more robust local self governance system at village level.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Provide a concise definition or overview of Local Self Governance (LSG), emphasizing its decentralization of powers to grassroots-level local bodies.


Heading 1: Discuss key challenges hindering the effectiveness of grassroots democracy in India.

Heading 2:  Propose specific measures to address each challenge.

Conclusion: Emphasize the need to address challenges and implement constructive measures to empower them as effective instruments of decentralized governance.


Answer: Local Self Governance (LSG) refers to the decentralization of powers and functions to local bodies at the grassroots level. Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Governments, as units of local government were granted constitutional status as the third tier of India’s federal democracy through the 73rd & 74th Amendment Act.


It aimed at fostering participatory democracy, empowering local communities, and addressing their specific needs but there are many issues which have rendered the 3rd tier of government in a state where it has more responsibility but less power and resources.  


Challenges hinder effective grassroots democracy in India:

  • Limited Financial Autonomy: Many PRIs face financial constraints, with limited revenue-generation capabilities. Dependence on higher levels of government for funds can compromise their autonomy, affecting their ability to address local needs independently.
  • Political Interference: Local elections often witness interference from higher political authorities, impacting their independence. This interference can lead to decisions that prioritize political considerations over the welfare of the local population.
  • Capacity and Skill Gaps: These institutions may lack the necessary human and technical resources for effective governance. Insufficient capacity and skill gaps among elected representatives and administrative staff can hinder the implementation of development plans and programs.
  • Social and Cultural Barriers: Deep-rooted social and cultural norms may limit the participation of certain groups, particularly women, in the decision-making process. Overcoming these barriers is crucial for ensuring inclusive and representative governance.


Measures to Overcome Challenges:

  • Financial Empowerment: Provide them with greater financial autonomy by enhancing revenue-generation mechanisms and ensuring a fair share of centrally allocated funds. This will enable them to implement development projects more effectively.
    • For example, Karnataka's devolution of land rights to Panchayats for revenue generation.
  • Capacity Building: Invest in capacity-building programs for their elected representatives and administrative staff. This includes training in governance, financial management, and the use of technology to enhance their effectiveness in local administration. 
    • For Example, Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Panchayat Raj 
  • Legal and Institutional Reforms: Strengthen legal frameworks governing the PRIs to protect them from undue political interference. Establish mechanisms for transparent and accountable decision-making, ensuring that decisions are made in the best interest of the local community.
  • Community Awareness Programs: Conduct community awareness programs to educate the local population about the importance of their active involvement in local governance. This can enhance civic engagement and foster a sense of ownership and responsibility among citizens.

By addressing these challenges and implementing constructive measures, the PRIs can fulfill their potential as effective instruments of decentralized governance, promoting grassroots democracy and contributing to local development.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 22, 2024

Q.1 "In an increasingly urbanized India, empowering ULBs holds the key to sustainable development." Discuss this statement, highlighting the potential of strong ULBs and the steps needed to empower them. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Start with quoting the facts of Urbanisation and link with ULBs


Heading 1: Unleashing the potential of ULBs

Heading 2(in the form of mind map): Challenges in transformation from potential to reality

Heading 3: Steps to bridge the gap and tap the potential of ULBs

Conclusion Highlight any successful model of ULBs and conclude the answer with that trajectory



As India's urban landscape expands, with over 50% of the population projected to live in cities by 2050, the quest for sustainable development hinges on one crucial factor: empowering Urban Local Bodies (ULBs). ULBs hold immense potential as the architects of livable, thriving, and environmentally responsible cities.


Empowered ULBs, free from financial shackles and bureaucratic hurdles could become:

  • Engines of Economic Growth: Think of Pune's "Make in India" initiative or Surat's textile industry boom, both driven by strong ULBs fostering business-friendly environments and attracting investment.
  • Masters of Infrastructure: Picture Indore's transformation from "garbage city" to "cleanest city" thanks to efficient waste management and infrastructure development led by its empowered ULB.
  • Protectors of the Environment: Witness Chennai's "Green Drive" planting thousands of trees or Bengaluru's focus on renewable energy, showcasing the role of ULBs in building environmentally sustainable cities.
  • Pillars of Participatory Democracy: Imagine residents actively involved in budget allocation or project planning, fostering accountability and responsive governance.


Challenges in Transformation from Potential to Reality: (in the form of mind map)

  • Financial Dependence: ULBs rely heavily on state grants, often subject to political influence, limiting their autonomy and resource allocation for critical projects.
  • Decentralization Deficit: Complex bureaucratic structures and limited decision-making power at the local level hinder responsiveness and innovative solutions.
  • Capacity Building Gap: ULB officials often lack the skills and knowledge required to effectively manage complex urban challenges and implement sustainable development strategies.
  • Transparency and Accountability Concerns: Lack of transparency in ULB operations and weak accountability mechanisms erode public trust and hinder efficient resource utilisation.
  • Technological Disconnect: Failure to leverage technology for service delivery, data analysis, and citizen engagement limits efficiency and responsiveness.


Crucial Steps to bridge this gap and unlock the potential of ULBs

  • Financial Autonomy: Grant ULBs independent taxation powers and access to alternative funding mechanisms like public-private partnerships or bonds, allowing them to plan and execute projects based on local needs and priorities.
  • Decentralization 2.0: Streamline bureaucratic processes, devolve more decision-making power to ULBs, and promote interdepartmental collaboration for efficient and responsive governance.
  • Investing in People: Invest in training and development programs for ULB officials, equipping them with the skills and knowledge needed for urban planning, project management, and sustainable development strategies.
  • Transparency and Accountability Imperative: Implement robust mechanisms like public audits, citizen feedback channels, and performance evaluations to ensure transparency in ULB operations and hold officials accountable.
  • Smart City Solutions: Integrate technology into ULB functions for improved service delivery, data-driven decision-making, and citizen engagement, paving the way for smart and sustainable city development.


Thiruvananthapuram's "Haritha Keralam" mission, led by its empowered ULB, transformed the city into a green haven through waste management, urban agriculture, and public awareness campaigns. By addressing the challenges of ULBs, unlocking their potential, and equipping them with the necessary tools, we can transform ULBs from mere administrative bodies into the driving forces of livable, prosperous, and environmentally responsible cities.

Subjects : Polity

Jan. 19, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 19, 2024

Q.1 Discuss the various factors that have contributed to increased inter-state water disputes? Suggest some potential measures to resolve underlying conflicts, and ensure equitable and sustainable water use for all stakeholders. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by mentioning the meaning of Interstate River Water Disputes and related background.

Body: Mention various factors contributing to increased inter-state water disputes and measures to address Inter-State River Water Disputes separately.

Conclusion: Conclude by keeping an optimistic view mentioning the need for effective communication and negotiation between states to resolve underlying issues.



Interstate River Water Disputes refer to disputes between two or more states regarding use, distribution and control of rivers flowing through them. In recent years, increasing water scarcity, a rapid rise in urban and rural demands for freshwater, and contentious political dynamics have further exacerbated the problem. Article 262 of the Constitution provides for adjudication of Interstate River Water Disputes. Parliament has passed two laws, the River Boards Act (1956) and the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956.

Factors contributing to increased inter-state water disputes-

  • Conflicting Jurisdiction: The Indian Constitution grants water management rights to individual states, but inter-state rivers fall under the Centre's purview. This ambiguity creates uncertainty and opportunities for disputes to arise.
  • Mismanaged Demand: Inefficient practices like water-intensive agriculture in arid regions, neglect of traditional water harvesting methods, and subsidized power for flood irrigation contribute to water scarcity and strained supplies.
  • Seasonal Scarcity: India's rainfall is heavily dependent on monsoon, changing climate patterns, including irregular rainfall and prolonged droughts, complicates the water management. The recurring water crisis in regions like Marathwada in Maharashtra are  prime examples of climate-induced challenges.
  • Ineffective Resolution Mechanisms: Article 262 limits the judiciary's role in water disputes, while dedicated tribunals have historically proven slow and ineffective, hindering timely and sustainable solutions.
  • Political Exploitation: Politicians often exploit river disputes for their own gain, using them as rallying points to secure votes and stoking regional rivalries, as seen in the Cauvery dispute.
  • Increased population and urbanization- Rapid population growth and urbanization place increased stress on water resources. In cities like Chennai, mismanagement, pollution, and over-extraction of groundwater have led to severe water scarcity issues.

Measures to Address Inter-State River Water Disputes:

  • Streamlining Dispute Resolution: The Lok Sabha in 2017 passed the InterState River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill. It included a single permanent river-water disputes tribunal and a mediation committee. The implementation mechanism is still to be worked out, which should be done in priority. It will help in faster rulings, and comprehensive data management. This will address outdated limitations of the 1956 Act.
  • Shared Governance: Consider shifting water to the concurrent list, as recommended by the Mihir Shah report, allowing for a central water authority to manage river basins collaboratively with states.
  • Demand-Side Management: There is a need for promoting water-saving irrigation practices like drip irrigation. Also, Basin-specific crop choices require less water, which should also be promoted.
  • Supply-Side Augmentation: Water availability can be increased through mandatory rainwater harvesting, building check dams to boost groundwater, creating additional reservoirs for efficient monsoon water storage.
  • Urban Planning Integration: There is a need to integrate urban and water planning to address urbanization's impact on water resources. For example, increased focus on sewage treatment, mandatory rain water harvesting in buildings etc. should be promoted.
  • Leverage Legal Frameworks: Parliament should actively utilize its powers under Entry 56 of the Union List to establish river boards as outlined in the National Water Policy. The Supreme Court's original jurisdiction for inter-state water disputes should be maintained, as demonstrated in the Cauvery Tribunal ruling.
  • Borrow International Models: Adoption of  France's "water parliament" system can be considered. This model involves non-governmental and environmental organizations in river management decisions.
  • Depoliticize and Collaborate: There is a need to Shift away from politicizing water disputes and emotional regional arguments. Various federal platforms like the Inter-State Council and Zonal Councils should be utilized effectively, to facilitate dialogue and resolve conflicts.


India, home to 18% of the world's population but blessed with only 4% of its renewable freshwater, stands precariously on the brink of water conflict. The glaring disparity between population size and water availability, coupled with uneven distribution, could ignite a tinderbox of water disputes if left unaddressed. Effective communication and negotiation whilst avoiding any potential political opportunism can quench thirst and prevent future conflicts.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 19, 2024

Q.2 The emergence of cooperative federalism as a dominant discourse in India reflects a shift towards greater collaboration between the Centre and the States. Discuss the key drivers of this shift and its potential benefits. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer

Here the keyword is cooperative federalism between the centre and state relations. We need to present the drivers leading towards cooperative federalism along with potential benefits. 


Briefly define cooperative federalism in the present Indian scenario.


Heading 1: Drivers of Cooperative Federalism

Heading 2: Potential Benefits of Cooperative Federalism



Type 1: Briefly highlight some obstacles in effective cooperative federalism and give solutions with positive projection.

Type 2: A successful model of cooperative federalism can be sighted that India can imitate. 



The Indian federal landscape is witnessing a fascinating shift towards cooperative federalism, a discourse emphasizing collaborative problem-solving and shared responsibilities between the Centre and the States. This move away from the traditional, often adversarial, relationship holds immense promise for India's future. Understanding the key drivers of this shift and its potential benefits is crucial for navigating the complex dynamics of Indian federalism.


Drivers of Cooperative Federalism:

  • Economic Integration: The rise of a dynamic national market, fueled by factors like the Goods and Services Tax (GST), has necessitated closer Centre-State cooperation. Interconnected economies demand coordinated policy frameworks, infrastructure development, and fiscal management, pushing the Centre and States to collaborate for mutual benefit.
  • Emergence of Regional Powerhouses: The rise of economically and politically powerful states like Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Gujarat has altered the power balance within the federation. These states are now key stakeholders in national policy formulation, demanding greater say and influencing the agenda towards collaborative approaches.
  • Common Challenges: Issues like climate change, disaster management, and public health emergencies transcend state boundaries, requiring concerted national action. This necessitates a shift from top-down directives to collaborative planning and implementation, where the Centre and States pool resources and expertise.
  • Political Landscape: The changing political landscape, with no single party holding absolute power at the Centre, has led to a greater need for consensus building and accommodation of regional interests. This has fostered a spirit of cooperation and negotiation, paving the way for collaborative problem-solving.
  • Institutional Reforms: Initiatives like the NITI Aayog, replacing the Planning Commission, and the Inter-State Council's increased role in policy formulation, have created platforms for constructive dialogue and joint decision-making, fostering a sense of shared ownership and responsibility.


Potential Benefits of Cooperative Federalism:

  • Effective Policy Implementation: Collaborative approaches lead to more nuanced and context-specific policies, better suited to local needs and realities. This enhances policy effectiveness and benefits citizens directly.
  • Improved Resource Utilization: Shared resources and expertise can be used more efficiently and strategically, leading to better infrastructure development, disaster preparedness, and public service delivery across the nation.
  • Enhanced Innovation and Competition: Cooperative federalism encourages states to experiment and learn from each other's best practices, fostering innovation and healthy competition in areas like education, healthcare, and economic development.
  • Strengthened National Unity: When states feel empowered and consulted, it fosters a sense of national unity and belonging. This is crucial for a diverse and complex country like India.
  • Resilience to Challenges: Collaborative approaches equip the nation to better handle complex challenges like climate change and pandemics by combining national resources with local knowledge and adaptability. The recent joint effort by the Centre and States to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic showcases the effectiveness of cooperative federalism.



Despite its potential, cooperative federalism faces challenges like trust deficit, political rivalries, and bureaucratic hurdles. Overcoming these requires a sustained commitment to transparency, mutual respect, and institutional reforms that ensure smooth implementation and dispute-resolution mechanisms. By leveraging its potential and addressing the challenges, India can unlock the true promise of its federal structure and build a stronger, more united nation.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 19, 2024

Q.3 Conflict resolution is the most important aspect of cooperative federalism. Discuss the composition, functions & issues affecting the efficient working of the Inter-State Council and the Zonal Councils.  (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by highlighting the meaning of cooperative federalism and importance of Inter-State Council & Zonal Council. 

Body: Elaborate upon the composition, functions & issues affecting the functioning of Inter-State council & Zonal Councils. 

Conclusion: Conclude by stating the wayforward for proper functioning of these institutions. 


Cooperative federalism in India emphasizes collaboration between the central and state governments to address common challenges. The institutions like the Inter-State Council and Zonal Councils play crucial roles in facilitating conflict resolution and strengthened cooperation.



Inter-State Council

Zonal Councils


The Inter-State Council is a Constitutional body established under Article 263 of the Constitution of India.

The Zonal councils are the statutory bodies established by the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.


  1. Chaired by the Prime Minister.
  2. Comprises all Chief Ministers and Union Cabinet Ministers.
  1. Northern, Western, Southern, Eastern, and Central Zonal Councils.
  2. Comprise the Union Home Minister, Chief Ministers, and other designated officials


  1. Facilitates coordination between states and the center.
  2. Addresses disputes and promotes a cohesive approach.
  3. Advises on policy matters of national and regional importance.
  1. Promote inter-state cooperation within specific zones.
  2. Address regional issues, enhance economic and social development.
  3. Serve as platforms for dispute resolution and policy coordination.

Issues affecting efficiency:

  1. Infrequent Meetings: Limited sessions affect timely conflict resolution.
  2. Advisory Nature: Lacks enforceable decisions, limiting its impact.
  3. Political Considerations: Issues may be influenced by political dynamics, hindering impartial resolution.
  1. Unequal Participation: Varying levels of commitment and participation among states.
  2. Limited Enforcement Powers: Lack authority to enforce decisions, affecting compliance.
  3. Resource Constraints: Inadequate resources hinder effective implementation

Conflict resolution is vital for the success of cooperative federalism, and the Interstate Council and Zonal Councils serve as mechanisms to address issues between the center and states. However, challenges such as infrequent meetings, advisory nature, unequal participation, and limited enforcement powers impact their efficiency. Addressing these issues through regular interactions, enhanced mandates, and resource allocations can strengthen these institutions, fostering a more effective cooperative federal structure in India.

Subjects : Polity

Jan. 18, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 18, 2024

Q.3 Discuss the key features of scheduled areas under fifth schedule. What are the issues pertaining to the Scheduled Areas?  (10 Marks, 150 Words)

Model Answer



Introduction: Introduce the topic by writing precisely about scheduled area under fifth schedule with relevant data.


Heading 1: Mention the key features of schedule areas under fifth schedule.

Heading 2: Explain the issues and challenges pertaining to scheduled areas.

Conclusion: Add committee and conclude optimistically by providing solution



Scheduled Areas represent regions covering 11.3% of India's land area, inhabited by various Schedule Tribe communities comprising 8.6% of the country's population. They are designated in 10 states under the Fifth schedule: Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha, etc.


Key Features of scheduled areas under fifth schedule

  • Article 244(1): The provisions of the Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration and control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State other than the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
  • Declaration of Scheduled Areas The President of India is empowered to declare an area as Scheduled Area. He can direct that the whole or any specified part of a Scheduled Area shall cease to be a Scheduled Area. The President can increase or decrease the area of any Scheduled Area in a State after consultation with the Governor of that State and also alter its boundary lines but only by way of rectification of boundaries.
  • Executive power of State and Centre: The executive power of a State extends to the Scheduled Areas therein. The Governor of each State having Scheduled Areas shall make a report to the President regarding the administration of the Scheduled Areas in that State. The executive power of the centre extends to giving directions to the State regarding the administration of such Areas.
  • Tribes Advisory Council (TAC): A Tribes Advisory Council has to be established in each State, having Scheduled Areas to deal with the welfare and advancement of Scheduled tribes in states.
  • Law applicable to Scheduled Areas: The Governor is empowered to direct that any particular act of Parliament or of the State legislature does not apply to a Scheduled Area or any part or shall apply with specified modifications and exceptions.
  • PESA-Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996: The Fifth Schedule Areas are exempt from the Panchayat-related requirements of Part IX of the constitution. The Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996, was passed by Parliament to extend the provisions of Part IX to the fifth Scheduled area with certain modifications.


 Issues pertaining to scheduled areas

  • Tribes Advisory Councils do not have much powers as Autonomous District Councils (provided under the Sixth Schedule).
  • There is no clarity on the composition of TAC, especially the remaining one-fourth of the membership.
  • Discretionary power of the Governor under the provisions of the Fifth Schedule: There is no clarity on whether the Governor can make any referral on his own discretion or only on the advice of the Council of Ministers.
  • Encroachment of tribal lands: It does not provide adequate protection against the encroachment of tribal lands by non-tribals.
  • 59% of India’s STs remain outside the purview of Article 244-They are denied rights under the laws applicable to Scheduled Areas, including the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act 2013 and the Biological Diversity Act 2002.


Way Forward

  • Recommendation of Xaxa committee and Bhuria committee needs to be incorporated
  • Moreover, all habitations or groups of habitations outside Scheduled Areas in all States and Union Territories where STs are the largest social group need to be notified as Scheduled Areas irrespective of their contiguity.
  • The geographical limits of the revenue village, panchayat, taluka, and district will need to be redrawn so that these are fully Scheduled Areas.
Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 18, 2024

Q.2 The emergency provisions in the Constitution of India seek to establish a totalitarian state, where the rights and liberties of millions of innocent men and women will be in continuous jeopardy. Critically analyze.   (10 Marks, 150 Words)

Model Answer



Introduction: Acknowledge the concerns raised about the potential establishment of a totalitarian state and the continuous jeopardy of rights and liberties during emergencies.


Body: Discuss specific provisions allowing the suspension of fundamental rights, potential for authoritarianism, historical instances, and impact on the federal structure. Give arguments in favor and against as the directive word is “critically analyze“


Conclusion: Conclude by proposing measures for maintaining a balance between national security and individual rights.



The emergency provisions in the Constitution of India (Articles 352 to 360) provide a framework for dealing with extraordinary situations, threatening the security of the country.


While these provisions are essential for maintaining order and responding to crises, there are legitimate concerns regarding the potential establishment of a totalitarian state and the continuous jeopardy of the rights and liberties of citizens.


Arguments in favor of the statement:

  • Suspension of Fundamental Rights: One major criticism is the power vested in the executive to suspend fundamental rights (Articles 358 & 359) during a state of emergency. This provision allows the government to curtail individual liberties, leading to concerns about the potential abuse of power and infringement upon civil rights.
  • Potential for Authoritarianism: The concentration of emergency powers in the hands of the executive raises fears of authoritarianism. The centralization of authority during emergencies undermines the principles of checks and balances, posing a threat to democratic governance.
  • Misuse for Political Ends: Critics argue that emergency provisions could be exploited for political purposes rather than responding to genuine threats to national security. For example, the declaration of the Emergency in 1975, have fueled concerns about the use of emergency powers to suppress political opposition.
  • Impact on Federal Structure: The imposition of President's Rule under Article 356 in states has been criticized for its potential impact on the federal structure. The provision allows the central government to dismiss state governments, raising questions about states' autonomy and the democratic functioning of local governance.


Arguments against the statement:

  • National Security and Sovereignty: Emergency provisions enable the government to respond promptly to situations( times of war, external aggression, or armed rebellion) posing a threat to national security and sovereignty.
  • Prevention of Disintegration: In situations where there is a threat to the integrity and unity of the nation, emergency powers can be used to prevent disintegration and maintain the territorial integrity of India.
  • Efficient Governance in Crisis: Emergencies often require quick and decisive actions that may not be feasible under regular constitutional provisions. They provide the government with the ability to streamline decision-making processes for efficient governance during critical times.
  • Parliamentary Oversight: The declaration of emergencies requires parliamentary approval. This provides a system of checks and balances, ensuring that the decision is subjected to democratic scrutiny. The Parliament also has the authority to revoke or modify emergency provisions at any time.



While emergency provisions are necessary to address existential threats, they carry the inherent risk of undermining democratic principles. Thus, a delicate balance between the need for extraordinary powers in times of crisis and safeguarding individual liberties is imperative. Constitutional amendments and judicial scrutiny should be explored to ensure that emergency provisions are used judiciously, transparently, and only in the face of genuine threats to the nation's security.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Jan. 18, 2024

Q.1 Elaborate different types of emergency provisions provided by the constitution of India. State wide ranging effects these provisions have on fundamental rights, federalism and finances. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Introduce by mentioning meaning and some constitutional provisions related to Emergency.

Body: Mention various types of emergencies, related constitutional Articles and briefly elaborate their effects on  fundamental rights, federalism and finances.

Conclusion: Conclude by mentioning the need for maintaining a balance between safeguarding national security and individual freedom.



Articles 352 to 360 of Part XVIII of the Indian constitution provides for emergency related provisions. When an extraordinary situation arises, and that situation cannot be handled with the existing administrative mechanisms, the constitution provides for the imposition of an emergency to handle the situation effectively. The purpose of these provisions is to protect the Constitution, the democratic political system, financial stability, sovereignty, unity, integrity, and security of the nation.


Types of Emergencies:

  1. National Emergency (Article 352): Under Article 352, when war, external aggression, or armed rebellion threatens the security of India or a part of it, the president can declare a national emergency. The President may declare a national emergency, even before the occurrence of the actual threat, if he is satisfied that the safety of India or a part of it is threatened.
  2. State Emergency (Article 356): The centre has a responsibility to make sure that each state government operates in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. If the constitutional machinery fails in the state, the centre can assume control of the state. This is famously known as President’s rule.
  3. Financial Emergency (Article 360): Article 360 empowers the President to proclaim a financial emergency if he/she is satisfied that a situation has arisen due to which the financial stability or credit of India or any part of its territory is threatened.


Effects of Emergency on fundamental rights, federalism and finances:

1.Effect on Fundamental rights: 

The impact of a National emergency on Fundamental rights is described in Articles 358 and 359 of the constitution.

  • The six fundamental rights under Article 19 are immediately suspended when a proclamation of national emergency is made, under Article 358. Their suspension does not require a separate court order.
  • According to Article 359, during a national emergency, the president is authorized to suspend the right to petition any court for the enforcement of fundamental rights. In other words, only their enforcement is delayed rather than the fundamental rights themselves.

2.Effect on Federalism:

  • National and State emergencies disturb the federal balance. National emergencies empower the Centre to encroach upon state legislative and executive domains, while State emergencies suspend state legislatures and centralize power in the Governor.
  • Under The President’s Rule, the Governor carries on with the administration of the state on behalf of the President.  He/she takes the help of the state's Chief Secretary and other advisors/administrators whom he or she can appoint. Also, the President has the power to declare that the state legislature's powers would be exercised by the Parliament.

3.Effect on Finances: 

  • Financial emergency under Article 360 Expands the Union's executive power over the States' financial affairs. After being approved by the state legislature, all money bills and other financial bills are reserved for the President's approval. The Supreme Court and High Court judges, as well as any other class of employees who serve the Union, are to have their salaries and benefits reduced, according to a directive from the President.


Emergency provisions are necessary for unforeseen crises but require careful application to prevent undermining the core values of the Constitution. They should be used judiciously for safeguarding both national security and individual freedoms.

Subjects : Polity
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