Mains Daily Question
Jan. 15, 2021

  1. Explain the factors affecting the climate of India.


  • Introduce with climate variations in India

  • List the various factors affecting climate - like latitude, distance from sea etc.

  • Conclude appropriately

Model Answer

The climate of India can be described as "monsoonal" in rhythm and character. India's location, large expanse and great physiographic diversity means a lot of factors affect climate in India.

Factors Affecting Climate Of India

  • Location and Latitudinal extent: The southern parts of India being closer to the Equator experience high temperatures throughout the year. On the other hand, the northern parts lie in the warm temperate zone, hence experience low temperatures, particularly in winter.

  • Distance from the sea:With a long coastline, large coastal areas have an equable climate. Areas in the interior of India are far away from the moderating influence of the sea. Such areas have extremes of climate.

  • The Himalayas: The Himalayan and adjoining mountain ranges act as a climatic divide between Indian Sub-Continent and Central Asia. It protects India from the bitterly cold and dry winds of Central Asia during winter. Furthermore, they act as an effective physical barrier for the rain bearing southwest monsoons winds to cross the northern frontiers of India.

  • Diverse physical features:The physiography or relief of India also affects the temperature, air pressure, direction and speed of wind and the amount and distribution of rainfall.

  • Monsoonal winds: The complete reversal in the direction of monsoon winds in India leads to sudden change in the seasons. During winter season, the North East Monsoon winds blow bring rainfall over Coromandel coast. During summer season, the North-East Monsoon winds are replaced by moisture laden South-West Monsoons which cause widespread rain over most parts of India.

  • Upper Air Circulation: The southern branch of Westerly Jet stream is believed to have a great influence on winter weather conditions in India. This jet stream is responsible for bringing western disturbances from the Mediterranean region into North and North-western regions of India, which causes winter rain, hailstorms and occasional heavy snowfall in hilly regions. During summer season, the western jet stream is replaced by easterly jet stream, which helps in sudden onset of Indian monsoon.

However, due to the various factors explained above, the climate of India has many regional variations expressed in the pattern of winds, temperature and rainfall, rhythm of seasons, the degree of wetness or dryness etc. These regional diversities may be described as sub-types of monsoon climate.


Subjects : Geography
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