Mains Daily Question
Feb. 22, 2024

Q1. Discuss the green energy initiatives of India as a signatory nation to the Paris Agreement. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer: Start your answer by discussing the objective of the Paris climate agreement then discuss the main part of the answer. Question has 1 main part – green energy initiatives of India.

Introduction: Highlight the objective of the Paris climate agreement and India in line with this objective.


Write down the green energy initiatives of India.

Conclusion: In conclusion, can discuss further steps needed or balancing between growth and environmental concerns. 

Answer:  India is a signatory nation to the Paris climate Agreement which aims to limit global warming to well below 2° Celsius and preferably limit it to 1.5° Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. For the same, India has made substantial efforts to transition toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy system. 

Five nectar elements (Panchamrit) of India’s climate action:

  • To reach 500GW Non-fossil energy capacity by 2030.
  • To ensure 50 per cent of its energy requirements from renewable energy by 2030.
  • Reduction of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to 2030.
  • Reduction of the carbon intensity of the economy by 45 per cent by 2030, over 2005 levels.
  • Achieving the target of net zero emissions by 2070.

Some key aspects of India's green energy initiatives under the Paris Agreement are:

  • Push for Solar energy production:. India has become a global leader in solar energy capacity. 
    • For example, National Solar Mission to promote solar power production.
    • For example, "Solar Parks" program to develop large-scale solar projects to meet energy demand. 
    • For example, Rooftop Solar Scheme, PM-KUSUM, International Solar Alliance to fulfill the aim to source nearly half its energy from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030.
  • Push for wind energy: Currently with an installed capacity of 40 GW, India has 4th largest wind energy installed capacity and is targeting a wind capacity addition of 100 GW by 2030.
    • For example, National Offshore Wind Energy Policy 2015 and National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy 2018.
  • India Renewable Idea Exchange (IRIX) Portal by MNRE: It promotes the exchange of ideas among energy conscious Indians and the global community. 
  • Promotion of Green energy corridors: To synchronize the electricity produced from renewable resources, with the conventional power stations in the grid. 
  • Promotion of Bioenergy: India is exploring bioenergy sources, such as biogas and biofuels, to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and decrease emissions. 
    • For example, biomass-based boiler technology was launched in India (Kurukshetra, Haryana) to promote biomass energy production. 
    • For example, the launch of the Global biofuel alliance on the sidelines of the 2023 G20 summit.
  • Push to Green Hydrogen: 
    • For example, the National Green Hydrogen mission aims to make India a ‘global hub’ for using, producing and exporting green hydrogen. 
  • Promotion of Electrification of mobility: India is promoting electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce emissions from the transportation sector. 
    • For example, FAME scheme, National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, PLI scheme, Vehicle Scrappage Policy,  EV30@30 campaign etc.


While India's green energy initiatives are significant, the country faces challenges such as financing, grid integration, and addressing the energy needs of its growing population. Hence, care should be taken to balance India’s determination to contribute to global climate change mitigation efforts with its energy security and development goals.

Subjects : Environment
Only Students can submit Answer.