Mains Daily Question
Feb. 21, 2024

Q1. What is green hydrogen? Discuss the role of the Green Hydrogen Mission in ensuring energy security as well as giving impetus to our battle against climate change.  (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding the demand of the question: 1) Write about the green hydrogen and its advantages, and 2) talk about the potential of the Green Hydrogen Mission in ensuring energy security and giving impetus to our battle against climate change 


Type 1: Begin by defining green hydrogen.

Type 2: Briefly talk about the Green hydrogen mission introduced by the government.


Heading 1: Mention how the Green Hydrogen Mission can secure India’s energy security. 

Heading 2: Mention how the Green hydrogen Mission can help achieve climate change objectives. 


Type 1: Conclude by writing a way forward to maximise the benefits of the hydrogen fuel technology.

Type 2: Give suggestions to make the Green Hydrogen Mission a success.

Answer: Green hydrogen, also referred to as ‘clean hydrogen’ is produced by using electricity from renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, to split water into two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom through a process called electrolysis. 


Significance of Green Hydrogen Mission in securing India’s energy security: 

The Union Government recently cleared India’s Rs 20,000 cr National Green Hydrogen Mission to make the country a global green hydrogen hub. It can help India in achieving its energy security as:

  • Diversification of Energy Sources: By investing in green hydrogen production, India can diversify its energy sources beyond traditional fossil fuels. 
  • Renewable Energy Integration: Green hydrogen production is directly linked to renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. This synergy helps in integrating intermittent renewable energy into the energy mix more effectively, providing a stable and reliable source of energy even when sunlight or wind conditions are variable.
  • Storage and Grid Balancing: Green hydrogen can act as a form of energy storage, helping manage energy supply-demand imbalances. Excess renewable energy can be used to produce hydrogen, which can then be stored and converted back into electricity during peak demand periods, contributing to grid stability.
  • Decentralised Energy Production: The Green Hydrogen Mission can promote localised hydrogen production using renewable resources available across various regions.
  • Import Reduction: As India imports a significant portion of its fossil fuel requirements, adopting green hydrogen can reduce the need for energy imports, thereby enhancing national energy security and reducing exposure to geopolitical uncertainties.


Significance of Green Hydrogen Mission in fighting climate change: 

The Green Hydrogen Mission has the potential to provide a significant impetus to India's battle against climate change in several ways:

  • Carbon Emission Reduction: By replacing fossil fuels in various sectors, including transportation, industry, and power generation, green hydrogen can lead to substantial reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. 
  • Clean Energy Transition: Green hydrogen can act as a versatile clean energy carrier that complements the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. This accelerates the transition away from fossil fuels, which are major contributors to climate change.
  • Decarbonizing Hard-to-Abate Sectors: Certain sectors, such as heavy industries and aviation, are challenging to decarbonize due to technological limitations. Green hydrogen can provide a clean energy solution for these sectors by replacing fossil fuels as a source of energy or feedstock.
  • Air Quality Improvement: The combustion of fossil fuels contributes not only to climate change but also to air pollution. Shifting to green hydrogen can improve air quality by eliminating harmful emissions from combustion processes.
  • International Climate Commitments: The use of green hydrogen aligns with India's commitments under international agreements such as the Paris Agreement. 

As India is scaling up to the target of having 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030, aligning hydrogen production needs with broader electricity demand in the economy would be critical.  The green hydrogen has been anointed the flag-bearer of India’s low-carbon transition but it will take some heavy lifting to get the ecosystem in place.  Enforcing time-bound mid- and long-term policies would inspire the private sector to invest more in green hydrogen. 

Subjects : Environment
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