Mains Daily Question
Sept. 19, 2023

Q2. Analyse the impact of the various government policies and schemes for the development of tribal communities in India. Suggest measures to make these policies more inclusive and responsive to the needs of tribal communities. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction:   Start with the introduction of Tribal development in India.    

Body: Address the answer by highlighting some key policies and schemes for tribal development and their impact. Then you must highlight measures to make these policies more inclusive and responsive to the needs of tribal communities.

Conclusion: Conclude with way forward to improve socio-economic conditions of tribals.  


Answer: Tribal development in India is a complex and multifaceted process that seeks to address the socio-economic challenges faced by indigenous tribal communities. These communities have historically experienced marginalization, discrimination, and limited access to basic services. In recent years, the Indian government has implemented various policies and schemes to uplift tribal communities and promote their overall well-being.



Issues in government policies and schemes for the development of tribal communities:


  • Lack of Targeted Approach: Government policies often fail to address the specific needs and challenges faced by tribal communities, resulting in ineffective implementation.
  • Limited Participation: Lack of meaningful participation of tribal communities in policy formulation and decision-making processes undermines the inclusiveness and effectiveness of the initiatives.
  • Cultural Insensitivity: Policies often overlook the unique cultural aspects and traditions of tribal communities, leading to a disconnect and ineffective outcomes.
  • Social Exclusion and Discrimination: Tribal communities often face social exclusion, discrimination, and stigma, affecting their overall development and well-being.
  • Weak Monitoring and Evaluation: Insufficient monitoring and evaluation mechanisms hinder effective implementation, accountability, and assessment of the impact of tribal development policies and schemes.


Measures to make these policies more inclusive and responsive to the needs of tribal communities:

  • Collaborative Partnerships: Promote collaboration between government, NGOs, and civil society for comprehensive and sustainable tribal development, leveraging diverse expertise and resources.
  • Contextual Understanding: Conduct research to understand tribal communities' needs, tailor policies to their unique contexts, and address socio-economic, cultural, and geographical challenges.
  • Strengthen Implementation Mechanisms: Strengthen government agencies implementing tribal development policies with resources, training, and support for effective implementation of initiatives.
  • Empower Local Institutions: Empower local self-governance institutions with authority, resources, and technical assistance to address tribal communities' developmental needs effectively.
  • Access to Justice: Ensure the implementation of laws protecting tribal rights, establish specialized courts for cases of violations and land disputes.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation: Establish effective monitoring and evaluation systems, regularly review policies, and update them based on feedback, performance indicators, and implementation lessons.


These measures are inspired by Tribal Panchsheel policy, which ensures that the policies become more inclusive, responsive, and effective in addressing the specific needs and aspirations of tribal communities, ultimately leading to their holistic development and empowerment.


Subjects : Social Issues
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