Mains Daily Question
Feb. 27, 2024

Q2. Highlight the potential applications of 5G in various sectors of daily life. (10M/ 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

The main heading in the answer is that of ‘potential applications’ of 5G. Along with it, basic features of 5G and challenges in its implementation can be added.


 Type- 1 : Define 5G along with its features.

 Type- 2 : Give data on usage and implementation of 5G since its launch.


Heading-1 : Potential applications of 5G in various sectors

Heading-2 : Challenges and limitations in its adoption


 Type- 1 : Conclude with a futuristic vision on how to overcome the existing challenges

 Type- 2 : Conclude with any recommendations of a committee on 5G  


5G is the fifth-generation technology standard for cellular networks and it is the latest upgrade in the long-term evolution (LTE) mobile broadband networks. It is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra-low latency, more reliability, increased availability and a more uniform user experience to more users.

Potential applications of 5G in various sectors:


  • Improvement in education delivery : Due to the pandemic, remote learning became a norm for people. With the advent of the 5G, the increased speed, better connectivity, and higher reliability will help boost remote education for students.
  • 5G will also provide a major impetus to digital universities.
  •  Vocational training programmes, delivered in the ‘phygital’ mode, can improve the employability of youth and women.




  • Advancements in the healthcare sector: From patient monitoring, robot-assisted surgery to remote diagnostics, 5G can prove to be crucial in several ways.


    • For example: Telemedicine and remote consultations in real time



  • Improvements in manufacturing operations: With 5G, the automated manufacturing operations can be reconfigured and this can help to meet the changing needs of the market.


    • For example : Remote monitoring of warehouses or use of 5G enabled automatic guided vehicles on assembly lines.



  • Enhancement in agricultural productivity : With the help of 5G’s high-capacity connectivity, smart agriculture can reach the rural farming regions and this will also help lower costs. This will enhance the overall agricultural productivity.


    • For example : 5G powered sensors can help measure crop and soil characteristics in real time.



  • An enabler for futuristic technology:  Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality along with the Internet of Things can work on the back of 5G networks to drive economic growth.


    • Government of India in Union Budget 2023-24 has announced to set up 100 5G labs to explore use cases in futuristic technologies.


Challenges in implementation of 5G:


  • Infrastructural Issues : The higher frequency bands used in 5G, such as millimeter waves or mmWaves, have a limited range and are more easily obstructed by buildings and trees. This means that to achieve comprehensive coverage, many more small cell towers are required, often positioned much closer together. 
  • Telecom sector woes : Cut throat tariff wars, revenue losses for telecom companies and high spectrum licensing fee has resulted in very few companies bidding for high frequency spectrum bands.
  • Digital divide : Rural and remote regions may experience limited 5G access due to these range limitations, exacerbating the digital divide.
  • Expensive for the end consumer : 5G will not be as affordable as 4G. Also, many existing mobile devices don’t support the new technology, hence many users will require to change their devices. It will result in a financial burden on some users and thus will contribute to challenges in its rollout.


  • Dependence on import for telecom equipment: India is greatly dependent on the import of telecom equipment.  5G presents an opportunity for the promotion of domestic manufacturing as well as indigenous technology due to the changed nature of network components as compared to 3G and 4G. 


5G represents a breakthrough in wireless communication technology and is expected to add over 1 trillion dollars to global GDP by 2030. India should work on resolving challenges related to 5G as recommended by the AJ Paulraj Committee.

Subjects : Current Affairs
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