Mains Daily Question
Feb. 29, 2024

Q.2 How can robotics, as a multidisciplinary technology, potentially revolutionize various sectors and industries in India? Additionally, Highlight the challenges within the Indian robotics ecosystem that demand immediate attention.(10M/150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main components – 1) Various potential applications of robotics in India. 2) Challenges in the Indian robotics ecosystem.


Type 1: You can briefly mention the development of Robotics in India.    


Heading 1: Scope of Robotics In India: 

Heading 2: Challenges in the Indian robotics ecosystem. 


Type 1: You can conclude with the recommendations.



India has made significant strides in the field of robotics, with a focus on developing and harnessing the potential of cutting-edge technologies to promote innovation that leads to sustainable and inclusive development across the economy. Robotics installations in India have surged by 54% to 4,945 units in 2021, now India ranks 10th in the world for the highest annual installation of industrial robots in the world.


Scope of Robotics In India: 


  • Agriculture: Productivity and operational efficiencies can be enhanced by using robots to execute labor-intensive operations in the field. 
    • For example, operations like, precision sowing of seeds, weed removal, spraying of fertilizers and pesticides, intelligent irrigation of crops and automated sorting and packing of agri-commodities can help reduce the usage of agri-inputs and initial cost. 
  • Education: They can promote active engagement, problem-solving, and collaboration among students as active learning tools. By introducing robotics in the classroom, children can develop their critical thinking and creativity skills. 
    • For example, a school in Hyderabad has introduced robots as teachers.
    • Manufacturing Sector: Automation in electronics, automotive, pharmaceuticals and others can increase efficiency and productivity through quality control and safety. 
      • For example, automate repetitive tasks like material handling and assembly.
    • Bio-technology and Healthcare: Robots can be utilized for precision surgery, rehabilitation, diagnostics, and drug discovery.


  • Military and Security: There is a wide range of usage of artificial intelligence and robotics in the military in India.
  • For example, deployment of robotics surveillance mechanisms in monitoring terrorist activities and also successful transmission of intelligence reports.


    • Space and Aviation:  Space robots are gradually changing the traditional modes of space transportation, on-orbit construction, on-orbit maintenance, and planetary exploration.
      • For example, the ISRO developed a female-looking humanoid robot named Vyommitra for the unmanned Gaganyaan mission.


  • Disaster Response: Robots can be used for searching for survivors in the emergency. This type of robot can have the ability to track earthquakes and tsunamis. 
  • For example, disaster risk mitigation using drones. 



Major Challenges In The Indian Robotics Ecosystem


  • Technological Limitations: Presently, foundational research focusing on breakthroughs in core robotic technologies is in the nascent stages in India. 
  • Investment: The cost of adopting robotics technology is high due to the cost of procuring imported hardware components and training personnel.
  • Skilled Workforce: Lack of skilled resources and technical expertise impedes growth of the robotics ecosystem in India because robotics is a multidisciplinary field.
  • Lack of Standards: Absence of dedicated legislation for robotics or allied technologies such as artificial intelligence adds to the “privacy and security risks”, which also hinders the widespread adoption of robotics.

Way Forward:

  • Strengthening Robotic automation: India must undertake ambitious and groundbreaking exploratory research through mission mode ‘moonshot projects’ through convergence with Artificial Intelligence.
  • Skilling: Dedicated engineering degrees in robotics are required for undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctorate programs across all higher education institutions in India.
  • Scientific approach: Government in collaboration with Private players should nurture a robust R&D to build the foundation of the Indian robotics ecosystem. 
  • Institutional Framework: Independent agencies institutionalized under the Ministry of Electronics and IT should streamline the implementation of the National Strategy on Robotics through a whole ecosystem approach.
Subjects : Current Affairs
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