Mains Daily Question
Feb. 28, 2024

Q3.  Enumerate the contributions of Indian scientists in the field of space technology. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

A simple and straightforward question. Mention the achievements of Indian scientists in the field of space technology.


Type 1: Mention ISRO and its objectives.

Type 2: Define space technology.


Some key achievements of Indian scientists in the field of space technology.


Summarise your answer by writing down the role of space technology in inclusive development.


Answer: India’s pioneer space exploration agency ISRO was set up in 1969. Its vision is to develop and harness space technology for national development, while pursuing planetary exploration and space science research. From India’s first satellite Aryabhatta (1975) to Chandrayaan 3 space mission, India has made significant advances in space technology with multi-dimensional applications.


Some key achievements of Indian scientists in field of space technology are:


  • General satellite programs: ISRO has developed and launched a series of satellites providing different services such as remote sensing, telecommunication, navigation etc across the country.
  • Earth Observation satellites such as the IRS series have been instrumental in monitoring and managing natural resources, agriculture, forestry, and disaster management. These satellites contribute to sustainable development and resource planning.
  • Series of communication satellites like INSAT and GSAT, providing telecommunication services across the country.
  • The development of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) or NavIC enhanced accurate positioning and timing information.
  • Launch vehicles: Developed and operationalized a series of indigenous satellite launch vehicles. These vehicles have been extensively used for launching satellites into various orbits, both for domestic and international clients.
  • E.g.: PSLV, GSLV-mk3, LVM3 etc.
  • Planetary science and astronomy: ISRO has been actively involved in studying celestial bodies and deep space.
  • E.g.: discovering extremophile bacteria in the upper stratosphere.
  • India's first multi-wavelength space observatory Astrosat launched in 2015 has allowed astronomers to observe and study active galactic nuclei, binary star systems, and various celestial phenomena.
  • Space Explorations by ISRO: Various missions have expanded our knowledge, contributing to global scientific advancements in space exploration.
  • Chandrayaan mission: For detailed lunar surface maps, laying the groundwork for future exploration.
  • Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM): Develop interplanetary technology and explore Mars' surface, features, minerals, and atmosphere with indigenous instruments.
  • Solar probe Aditya L1: Main objective of the mission is to study coronal mass ejections , their properties, and other parameters that affect space weather.
  • Human space programs: The establishment of the Human Space Flight Centre and the development of necessary technologies for crewed missions boosts ISRO's commitment to human space exploration, Gaganyaan. ISRO's advance into human space programs represents a significant leap in India's space capabilities.



These achievements underscore India's commitment to space exploration, technological innovation, and the peaceful use of outer space for socio-economic development. The collaborative efforts of scientists, engineers, and support staff within ISRO have been critical to these accomplishments. Thus, space technology fosters inclusive development through connectivity, resource monitoring, disaster response, healthcare access, education, and environmental sustainability for all.


Value addition:

  • AVATAR Scramjet: This is a long-term project to develop a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) restricted to the launch of satellites.
  • ASAT: In 2019, India conducted its first successful Anti-Satellite (ASAT) test, demonstrating the capability to shoot down satellites in low Earth orbit.

Subjects : Current Affairs
Only Students can submit Answer.