Mains Daily Question
Feb. 27, 2024

Q3. The adoption of electric vehicles is rapidly growing worldwide. How do electric vehicles contribute to reducing carbon emissions and what are the key benefits they offer compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles?(10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach:  Break down the question into sub-parts and then answer each part individually.

Introduction: Introduce with data on increasing adoption of electric vehicles


Sub-Heading 1: How electric vehicles reduce carbon emissions

Sub-Heading 2: Key benefits of electric vehicles over traditional combustion engines

Sub-Heading 3: India’s e-vehicle policy and its challenges

Conclusion: The road ahead for e-vehicles in India


Electric vehicles are said to be the future of mobility with the Indian government setting a target of 30% of electric vehicle penetration in the automobile market by 2030. 


Key benefits of Electric Vehicles over traditional combustion engines:

  • Environmental Impact: EVs produce zero tailpipe emissions, reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles.
  • Reduced Dependence on Fossil Fuels: EVs can be charged using electricity from a variety of sources, including renewable energy. This helps decrease reliance on fossil fuels. A shift to electric vehicles can contribute to reducing dependence on oil imports, enhancing energy security for countries.
  • Higher Energy Efficiency: Electric motors are generally more efficient than internal combustion engines, converting a higher percentage of stored energy from the grid to power at the wheels.
  • Operating Costs: Electricity is often cheaper than petrol or diesel on a per-mile basis, leading to lower fueling costs for EV owners. EVs have fewer moving parts than traditional vehicles, resulting in lower maintenance costs. There's no need for oil changes, and the braking systems in EVs often last longer due to regenerative braking.
  • Performance: Electric motors provide instant torque, leading to quick acceleration and a responsive driving experience. EVs are typically quieter than traditional vehicles, providing a smoother and more comfortable driving experience.
  • Government Incentives:  Many governments around the world offer incentives, such as tax credits or rebates, to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles, while plying of vehicles running on petrol/diesel is often restricted in areas of poor air quality.


 Challenges for Electric Vehicle Adoption:

  • High Initial Cost: Electric vehicles often have a higher upfront cost compared to traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. This cost can be a significant barrier for many consumers, despite potential long-term savings on fuel and maintenance.
  • Limited Range Availability : Concerns about the limited driving range of electric vehicles and the availability of charging infrastructure lead to worry about the possibility of running out of battery power before reaching a charging station.
  • Charging Infrastructure: The availability and convenience of charging infrastructure remain a significant challenge. While efforts are underway to expand charging networks, the density of charging stations is not yet sufficient, particularly in rural or less populated areas.
  • Battery Technology: Although advancements in battery technology have been significant, there is still room for improvement in terms of energy density, charging speed, and overall cost. Battery degradation over time is another concern.
  • Consumer Awareness: Many consumers still lack awareness of the benefits of electric vehicles, including reduced operating costs, environmental impact, and government incentives. Education and awareness campaigns are crucial for overcoming this challenge.
  • Supply Chain Challenges: The supply chain for key components, especially batteries, may face challenges in meeting the growing demand for electric vehicles. This could lead to supply constraints and potential cost increases.
  • Policy and Regulatory Uncertainty: Rapid changes in policies and regulations can create uncertainty for both consumers and manufacturers. Clear, consistent, and supportive policies are essential for fostering confidence in the electric vehicle market.


Addressing these challenges requires a collaborative effort from governments, manufacturers, and other stakeholders to create a supportive ecosystem for electric vehicles. Electric mobility will be a big contributor to India achieving its target of net zero emissions by 2070.

Subjects : Current Affairs
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