Mains Daily Question
Oct. 23, 2020
- What were the factors responsible for American revolution? Examine the effects of the revolution.
- Briefly introduce American Revolution
- Explain the various factors responsible for American Revolution
- Mention the effects/outcomes of the American Revolution
- Conclude appropriately
The American Revolution or the U.S. war of Independence was a revolt waged by the American colonies to get independence from Great Britain during 1775. For more than a decade before the outbreak of American Revolution, tension had been building between colonists and the British authorities due to various reasons.
The reasons include:
- British Mercantilist Policy: The basis of England mercantile policy was that the State’s power depends on its wealth and colonies existed to serve the mother country. In fulfilment of these ideology, British started imposing many restrictions on colonies through Navigation Act, Trade Acts, and Industry Acts.
- Navigation Law of 1651 – It was compulsory for American ships to visit British ports before leaving for other parts of the world.
- Colonies were not allowed to use on-British ships in their trade.
- Certain products such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton could be exported only to England.
- Colonies were also forbidden to start certain industries. E.g., Iron works, Textile etc/
- Role Of Seven Years War: After the end of Seven Years War in 1763 (British and Allies vs French and Allies), Britain faced severe economic crisis. In this situation, British Parliament's policy to impose various taxes on American colonies like sugar duty 1964, stamp duty 1965 etc. These resulted in stormy protest and emergence of slogans like “No Taxation without Representation’ etc.
- Townshend Act 1767 And Boston Massacre 1770: The act levied custom duty on five goods which were imported by America from England and it included tea. The colonists refused to pay and there was firing on mob; the incident famously known as Boston Massacre.
- Boston Tea Party: Under pressure, after Boston Massacre, the duty on all, except the tea, was removed. In response to which Samuel Adams along with his supporters threw away the tea containers into Atlantic Ocean. This was Boston Tea Party of 1773.
All these reasons culminated into the war of independence from 1776 in which various important battles were fought like Concord, Lexington, etc. Later France also supported American fighters by sending its army under Lafayette.
Outcomes of the Revolution
- By signing of Treaty of Paris, 1783, Britain left all its claims on American colonies. It led to political and economic upheaval in Britain.
- The original face of Mercantilism became evident and hence it was denounced in other colonies. E.g., Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Central and South America
- Effect on French Revolution: It inspired French people to rise against despotic rule in France.
- Democracy was established and republic replaced monarchy.
- The 13 colonies became independent and determined to be loosely connected under the 1781 Articles of Confederation.
After the American Revolution, America emerged as a political and economic superpower. The revolution also inspired revolutionaries and freedom fighters across the world, most notably inspiring the French Revolution.