Dec. 30, 2022

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Recently, U.S. drugmaker Pfizer Inc said that its experimental gene therapy for the treatment of haemophilia B, met its main goal in a late-stage study.


  • Data from the study showed that a single dose of the therapy was superior to the current standard of care in helping reduce the bleeding rate in patients with moderately severe to severe forms of hemophilia B.

What is Haemophilia?

  • It is a medical condition, mostly inherited, in which the ability of blood to clot is severely reduced. 
  • This disease is caused by a mutation in one of the genes, that provides instructions for making the clotting factor proteins needed to form a blood clot.
  • This change or mutation can prevent the clotting protein from working properly or to be missing altogether. These genes are located on the X chromosome.
  • Men are more vulnerable to haemophilia than women. It is a rare disease where in about 1 in 10,000 people are born with it.

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Omega Centauri
Astronomers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), while studying the Omega Centauri found that hot stars and white dwarfs emitted less ultraviolet radiation than expected.


  • A team of Scientists at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics detected strange hot stars in the Globular clusters using the Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) images on AstroSat (India’s first dedicated space observatory, which has been operating since 2015).

What are Globular clusters?

  • Globular clusters are spherical aggregates of several thousand to millions of stars bound by gravity. These systems are thought to have formed early on in the Universe and can serve as perfect astrophysical laboratories for astronomers to understand how stars evolve through various phases.
  • Omega Centauri is a globular cluster in the constellation of Centaurus that was first identified as a non-stellar object by Edmond Halley in 1677.
  • Located at a distance of 17,090 light-years, it is the largest-known globular cluster in the Milky Way at a diameter of roughly 150 light-years.

What is Galaxy?

  • A galaxy is a huge collection of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems bound together by gravity.
  • Milky Way, is stuffed with between 100 billion and 400 billion other stars, many of them with planets of their own. The Milky Way got its name from the way it looks from the ground: like a streak of spilt milk across the sky  
Science & Tech

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Congress Foundation Day
The Indian National Congress (INC), India’s largest opposition party, marked its 138th foundation day on December 28.


How the Congress was founded?

  • The English bureaucrat Allan Octavian Hume or AO Hume is credited as the founder of the organisation.
  • On December 28, 1885, 72 social reformers, journalists and lawyers congregated for the first session of the INC at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Bombay.
  • At that point, the aim of this group was not to demand independence from the ongoing colonial rule but to influence the policies of the British government in favour of Indians.

Transformation towards the demand for independence

  • Over the next few years, the party’s work continued, to shift the colonial administrators’ attitudes and policies on the rights and powers allowed to Indians.
  • The party largely consisted of educated, upper-class people who were likely to have studied abroad. But with time, this grouping became more diverse, as the organisation began setting up provincial organisations.
  • At its Eleventh Session in 1895, there was an increase in the number of delegates from 1,163 the previous year to 1,584. President Surendranath Banerjea congratulated the Congress for bringing together “the scattered element of a vast and diversified population.”

Splits and reconvening

  • In Surat in 1906, the divisions between the ‘moderates’ led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Surendranath Banerjea, and the ‘extremists’ led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak came to the fore and there was a split. While Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai wanted the Congress to boycott the visit of the Prince of Wales in protest against the Bengal Partition a year prior, the moderates opposed any such move.
  • But by 1915, the Bombay session saw these two groups coming together again as one.
History & Culture

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Pralay Missile
In a major boost to the striking capabilities of the Indian armed forces, the defense ministry has recently cleared a proposal to purchase 120 Pralay missiles for the Indian Air Force and Army.


  • Pralay is an indigenous short-range ballistic surface-to-surface missile. The missile will be India’s first tactical quasi-ballistic missile and will give the armed forces the capability to hit enemy positions and key installations in actual battlefield areas.
  • Developed by: The solid-fuel, battlefield missile developed by the Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) is based on Prithvi Defence Vehicle from the Indian ballistic missile programme.
  • Features:
    • Pralay’ is powered with a solid propellant rocket motor and other new technologies. The missile guidance system includes state-of-the-art navigation and integrated avionics, according to the DRDO.
    • The advanced missile has been developed in a way to be able to defeat interceptor missiles. It has the ability to change its path after covering a certain range mid-air.
    • It is capable of carrying a conventional warhead of about 350 kg to 700 kg, which gives it a deadly punitive capability.
  • Range: The canisterised Pralay missile, has a range of 150-500 kilometres.
  • Ballistic missiles: They are initially powered by a rocket or series of rockets in stages, but then follow an unpowered trajectory that arches upwards before descending to reach its intended target at high speed. Unlike intercontinental ballistic missiles that exit the Earth’s atmosphere, short-range ballistic missiles stay within it.
Defence & Security

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Ethylene glycol
Uzbekistan’s health ministry has recently claimed India-made cough syrups contained ethylene glycol which led to the death of at least 18 children


What is ethylene glycol?

  • Ethylene glycol is a colourless and odourless alcoholic compound that can be fatal if consumed.
  • The sweet-tasting ethylene glycol is a syrupy or viscous liquid at room temperature.
  • It is mostly used as an automotive antifreeze and as a raw material for manufacturing polyester fibres.
  • It is also found in several products such as hydraulic brake fluids, stamp pad inks, ballpoint pens, solvents, paints, cosmetics and plastics.
  • Diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol are adulterants that are sometimes illegally used as solvents in liquid drugs.
    • Diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol may be used by pharma companies as an alternative to non-toxic solvents such as glycerine or propylene glycol to cut costs.
  • The ingestion of ethylene glycol can cause severe health effects. Central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, intoxication, euphoria, stupor, respiratory depression, and reduced excretion of urine can occur due to ethylene glycol intoxication.

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Invasive mussel species
Fishermen of Pulicat and Ennore are raised concerns over the spread of an invasive species of mussel that is a threat to the prawns of both waterbodies.


  • The marine biologists identified these species as Mytella strigata or Charru mussels which are Native to South America.
  • These mussels have invaded tidal wetlands in several parts of the world, including Vembanad in Kerala. This is spreading due to the discharge of ballast waters from ships visiting the ports of Kattupalli.
  • After Cyclone Vardah in December 2016, the mussels began to intensify and spread far north towards the Pulicat waters.
  • Human interference in the wetlands, pollution and nature’s actions have triggered the rapid spread of the species.
  • Threats: These mussels spread like a carpet over the river bottoms and thus preventing prawns from grazing or burying themselves in the sediment.
  • Its spread is wiping out the locally prevalent yellow clams and green mussels.
Environment & Ecology

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Recently, The Indian Air Force (IAF) successfully test-fired the extended Range Version of Brahmos missile.


  • The missile achieved the desired mission objectives in the Bay of Bengal region. With this, IAF has achieved a significant capability boost to carry out precision strikes from SU-30MKI aircraft against land or sea targets over very long ranges.
  • The capability of striking the targets located at around 350 kilometres compared to around 290 kilometres for the initial version.
  • The first test of the initial version of the Brahmos Air Launched Cruise Missile was conducted in 2017.

What are Brahmos missiles?

  • Brahmos is a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation of India and NPOM of Russia. It is named after the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva.
  • It is a two-stage, solid propellant engine in the first stage and a liquid ramjet in the second.
  • It can be launched from land, air, and sea and multi a capability missile with pinpoint accuracy that works both day and night irrespective of the weather conditions.
  • It operates on the "Fire and Forgets" principlee it does not require further guidance after launch.
  • These are called “standoff range weapons”,e fired from a range far enough to allow the attacker to evade defensive counter-fire.
  • Brahmos is one of the fastest cruise missiles currently operationally deployed with the speed of Mach 2.8, which is nearly 3 times more than the speed of sound.
Defence & Security

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Ahilyabai Holkar
Maharashtra state government is planning to rename the city of Ahmednagar as ‘Punyashlok Ahilyadevi Nagar’, after the 18th century Malwa queen.


Who is Ahilyabai Holkar?

  • Ahilyabai (1725 -1795) was one of the women rulers of Medieval India who belongs to the Holkar dynasty of the Maratha Empire.
  • She was married Khanderao Holkar in 1733 at the tender age of 8. Her husband was killed in the battle of Kumbher in 1754.
  • Ahilyabai is famous for having built numerous forts and roads in the Malwa region, sponsoring festivals and offering donations to many Hindu temples. Her philanthropy was reflected in the construction of several temples, ghats, wells, tanks and rest houses stretching across the length of the country.
  • She welcomed stalwarts such as Marathi poet Moropant, Shahir Ananta Gandhi, and Sanskrit scholar Khushali Ram into her capital.
  • John Keay, the British historian, gave the queen the title of ‘The Philosopher Queen’. She had been an acute observer of the wider political scene.
History & Culture

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Triple test survey
The Allahabad HC recently ordered the Uttar Pradesh government to hold urban local body elections without reservation for OBCs as the 'triple test' requirement for it had not been met.


  • The five-member commission will conduct a survey to ensure that the OBCs are provided reservation on the basis of the triple test, as mandated by the Supreme Court. This is the first time that the triple test exercise will be carried out in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Rapid survey:
    • The Urban Development Department of the UP government had on April 7, 2017 issued orders to conduct a rapid survey for determining the population of OBCs.
    • Based on such a rapid survey in each constituency of a municipality, seats were reserved in proportion to the population of the backward class of citizens in the constituency/ward concerned.

What is triple test?

  • The triple test requires the government to complete three tasks for finalisation of reservation to OBCs in the local bodies. These include:
  • To set up a dedicated commission to conduct a rigorous empirical inquiry into the nature and implications of the backwardness in local bodies;
  • To specify the proportion of reservation required in local bodies in light of recommendations of the commission, so as not to fall foul of overbreadth;
  • To ensure reservation for SCs/STs/OBCs taken together does not exceed an aggregate of 50 per cent of the total seats.
  • These triple test/conditions were outlined by the Supreme Court in the case of Vikas Kishanrao Gawali vs. State of Maharashtra and others, decided on March 4, 2021.

Why triple test instead of rapid survey?

  • The Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court said that any inquiry or study into the nature and implications of the backwardness with respect to local bodies involves ascertainment of representation in such bodies.
  • The court said such an exercise cannot be confined to counting of heads alone, as is being done through the rapid survey.
  • The court said simply granting reservation on the basis of population misses a very crucial factor for determination of backwardness, and that factor is political representation of the class or group concerned.
  • The High Court quoted the Supreme Court’s observation in the K Krishna Murthy case, which pointed out that the nature of disadvantages which restrict access to education and employment cannot be readily equated with disadvantages in the realm of political representation.


Polity & Governance

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 30, 2022

Prahari App
Recently Union Home Minister launched ‘Prahari’ app for Border Security Force (BSF) Jawans.


  • BSF ‘Prahari’ app is a great example of Proactive Governance, now Jawans can get personal and service related information, housing, Ayushman-CAPF and leave related information on their mobile.
  • Other features of the app include:
    • Availability of Bio Data
    • Grievance redressal on “Centralized Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System” (CP-GRAMS)
    • information on various welfare schemes.
  • The app will also connect the Jawans with the portal of the Ministry of Home Affairs.

The Border Security Force (BSF)

  • It is India's border guarding organisation on its border with Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • It is one of the seven Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) of India, and was raised in the wake of the 1965 war on 1 December 1965.
  • It comes under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • BSF contributes its personnel every year for UN Missions.
Government Schemes and Initiatives

Dec. 29, 2022

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

National Capital Region Transport Corporation (NCRTC)
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has recently released recommendations on ‘Spectrum Requirements of National Capital Region Transport Corporation (NCRTC) for Train Control System for RRTS Corridors’


What is NCRTC ?

  • The NCRTC is a joint partnership institution between the Central Government and the participating states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and the NCT of Delhi.
  • It works under the administrative control of Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
  • Objective: It is mandated for implementing the Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) project across the NCR of India, ensuring a balanced and sustainable urban development through better connectivity and access.
  • Institutional Setup:
    • NCRTC was formally incorporated on 21st August, 2013 as a Company under the Company Act, 1956.
    • As a joint partnership project between the Center and the States, NCRTC would have one nominated Director each from the participating States, and four nominee Directors from the Government of India.
    • The Secretary (UD) is the ex-officio Chairman of the Board of Directors and the Managing Director, a nominee of MoUD. NCRTC also has the flexibility of forming separate subsidiary companies for implementing specific projects.

Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS)

  • National capital region (NCR) is a multi-state region with the National Capital as its centre. This region, spread over an area of about 55,083 sq. kms. , comprises the entire National Capital territory of Delhi and some parts of the neighbouring states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • The National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB), in order to enhance the connectivity within the NCR, has proposed to connect urban, industrial (SEZs/industrial parks), regional and sub-regional centers through a fast rail based Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS).
  • The objective of this system is to reduce dependence of commuters on road based transportation.
Polity & Governance

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

Ramappa Temple
President of India lays the Foundation Stone for the Development of Pilgrimage Infrastructure at Ramappa Temple.


  • Ramappa Temple, also known as the Rudreshwara temple, is a Kakatiya style Hindu temple dedicated to the god Shiva, located in Telangana.
  • The medieval Deccan Ramappa Temple which dates back to 1213 AD, was built by the patronage of the Kakatiya ruler Kakati Ganapathi Deva under the authority of his Chief Commander Rudra Samani.
  • The temple got its name Ramappa because of its chief sculptor Ramappa. Ramappa Temple is probably the only temple in India that is named after the architect.
  • In 2021, the temple was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as "Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple, Telangana".
  • Architectural features:
    • Earthquake-proof: Made out of clay mixed with acacia wood, chaff and myrobalan fruit (a family of amla), the bricks used in building the gopuram of the temple are light enough to float on water. Using this technique has made the temple light, meaning, in case of a natural event like an earthquake, the probability of it collapsing would be very low.
    • Sandbox technique: The temple construction was done using the sandbox technique. This is a technique where the foundation pit is filled with a mixture of sand-lime, jaggery and black myrobalan fruit. This mix acts as a cushion in case of earthquakes. 
    • The temple’s many carved pillars are positioned in such a way that when the sunlight hits these pillars. One of the pillars has a Lord Krishna carved into it. When gently hit, the pillar produces musical notes.
History & Culture

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

Coking coal
Coal Ministry has recently Identified more Blocks to Enhance Coking Coal Production.


  • Coal is a fossil fuel and is the altered remains of prehistoric vegetation that originally accumulated in swamps and peat bogs.
  • The quality of each coal deposit is determined by: varying types of vegetation from which the coal originated; depths of burial; temperatures and pressures at those depths; and length of time the coal has been forming in the deposit.
  • Coking coal is a high-quality coal that is low in impurities and has a high carbon content, which makes it ideal for use in the metallurgical process.
  • Coking coal is used to produce coke, which is a porous, solid carbon material that is used as a fuel and a reducing agent in the production of iron and steel.
  • Largest coal-producing countries in the world: China (3.7 billion tonnes), India (783 million tonnes), United States (640 million tonnes), Indonesia (616 million tonnes).

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

Dhanu Yatra
The ‘Dhanu Yatra’ festival began after a gap of two years, in Bargarh at the Odisha.


  • Dhanu Yatra is an annual drama-based open-air theatrical performance celebrated in Bargarh, Odisha.
  • It is considered the largest open-air theatre in the world. Spread over five square km, the entire town of Bargarh turns into a stage for the yatra.
  • The ‘Dhanu Yatra’ which marks the victory of good over evil, came into existence in Bargarh in 1947-48 as part of the celebration of the country’s Independence and is held annually.
  • Theme: The plays in the festival start with the dethroning of Emperor Ugrasen of Mathura by angry Kansa over the marriage of his sister Devaki with Vasudev. The festival will conclude with the death of demon king Kansa and restoration of the throne to Ugrasen.


History & Culture

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer
The European Space Agency has announced that the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (Juice) mission will be celebrated at an event in Toulouse, France, on 20 January next year.


  • Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (Juice) will be Europe’s first dedicated robotic mission to Jupiter. Juice is due to reach the planet in July 2031 after performing an incredible flight path through the Solar System.
  • The mission will enter into orbit around Jupiter and perform numerous flybys of its large icy moons: Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.
  • After four years of moon flybys, Juice will then enter into orbit around Ganymede, the largest moon in the Solar System — becoming the first spacecraft ever to reach orbit around the moon of another planet.
  • The icy moons of Jupiter are interesting as they are all believed to host oceans of liquid water beneath their frozen surfaces. Europa, in particular, is regarded as one of the most likely abodes in the Solar System for extra-terrestrial life.
  • Juice will be equipped with ten scientific instruments including ice-penetrating radar to study the internal oceans. This use of radar is a practical first step in mapping the sub-surface oceans, paving the way for more exotic future missions involving submersible vehicles — some of which have already been put forward


Science & Tech

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

Delimitation Commission
Recently, the Election Commission of India said that it has begun the process of delimitation of Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies in Assam.


  • The Delimitation process in Assam will be based on Census data from 2001. The last delimitation of constituencies in Assam was done in 1976 based on the 1971 Census.

Who carries out delimitation?

  • Delimitation is carried out by an independent Delimitation Commission, appointed by the Government of India under provisions of the Delimitation Commission Act.
  • Under Article 82, Parliament is to enact a Delimitation Act after every Census. Once the Act is in force, the Union government sets up the Delimitation Commission.
  • The Commission is supposed to determine the number and boundaries of constituencies in a way that the population of all seats, so far as practicable, is the same. The Commission is also tasked with identifying seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
  • It works in collaboration with the Election Commission of India.
  • The commission is composed of: a retired Supreme Court judge, the Chief Election Commissioner of India and respective State Election Commissioners.
  • In the history of the Indian republic, Delimitation Commissions have been set up four times:1952, 1963, 1973 and 2002 under the Acts of 1952, 1962, 1972 and 2002.
Polity & Governance

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

Integrated Road Accident Database (iRAD) system
Recently, the Ministry of Road Transport &Highways (MoRTH) released the Annual report ‘Road accidents in India 2021’


  • As per the report, there were 4,12,432 unfortunate incidences of road accidents during 2021 which claimed 1, 53,972 lives and caused injuries to 3, 84,448 persons.
  • This report has been developed by reporting, management, claim processing and analysis of road accident data by using the Integrated Road Accident Database (iRAD) system.

What is iRAD?

  • It is an initiative of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) and is funded by World Bank, to improve road safety in the country. 
  • This will facilitate road accident data collection by 4 stakeholder departments; Police, Transport, Highways and Health Departments.
  • Through a collection of road accident data from all over the country, a road accident database will be developed. The collected data will be analysed using different data analytics techniques for the identification of accident-prone areas and the causes of the accidents.
  • The analysis output will be represented in appropriate dashboards, access to higher authorities of stakeholder departments and MoRTH. And accordingly, a strategy will be formed for the reduction of the number of road accidents in India and to enhance road safety.
Polity & Governance

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO)
Recently, the Securities and Exchange of India proposed a framework for index providers to improve transparency and accountability in the domestic securities market.


  • The index provider shall be a legal entity incorporated under the Companies Act in the country of origin and should have a minimum net worth of Rs 25 crore.
  • The proposed regulation shall apply to index providers of both domestic and foreign.
  • The index providers must be assessed by independent external auditors to evaluate adherence to International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) principles once in two years.

What is IOSCO?

  • Established in 1983, it is the international body that brings together the world's securities regulators and is recognized as the global standard-setter for the securities sector.
  • It works intensively with the G20 and the Financial Stability Board (FSB) on the global regulatory reform agenda.
  • There are three categories of members: Ordinary, Associate and Affiliate.
  • Recently, the International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA)has become an associate member of this organisation.

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

G20 Digital Innovation Alliance (G20-DIA)
Recently, the Minister for Electronics & Information Technology launched G20-DIA as a part of India's G20 presidency.


  • Objective: To identify, recognize, and enable the adoption of innovative and impactful digital technologies developed by start-ups, from G20 nations as well as the invited non-member nations,
  • It can address the needs of humanity in the six critically important sectors i.e Agri-tech, Health-tech, Ed-tech, Fin-tech, Secured Digital Infrastructure, and Circular Economy.
    • Startup products in these six sectors enabled through Digital Public Goods Infrastructure can create a global population-scale impact and reduce the digital divide and enable sustainable, and inclusive techno-socio-economic development.
  • This summit which will be held in Bangalore on the sidelines of the Digital Economy Working Group (DEWG) meeting will be a multi-day program where top nominated startups from each of the theme areas from all of the G20 countries and the non-member invited countries will showcase their solutions to the global community of investors, mentors, corporates, and other government stakeholders.
  • This will create cutting-edge digital solutions in the six themes that bridge the digital divide between different segments of humanity and advance the world economy.
International Relations

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 29, 2022

City Finance Rankings, 2022
Recently, the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs launched this City Finance Rankings, 2022 to evaluate, recognize and reward India’s Urban Local Bodies.


  • The rankings aim to motivate city/state officials and decision-makers, to implement municipal finance reforms.
  • The participating ULBs will be evaluated on 15 indicators across three key municipal finance assessment parameters, namely:
    • Resource Mobilization
    • Expenditure Performance
    • Fiscal Governance.
  • The cities will be ranked at the national level based on their scores under any one of the following four population categories:
    • Above 4 million
    • Between 1-4 million
    • 100K to 1 million
    • Less than 100,000
  • The top 3 cities in each population category will be recognized and rewarded at the national level as well as within each state/state cluster.

Significance of the ranking:

  • City Finance Rankings are an effort to analyse and help the ULBs in identifying areas in their financial performance where they can make further improvements, to be able to deliver quality infrastructure and services to its citizens.
  • The rankings will serve as a constant motivation for city/state officials to continue to implement municipal finance reforms.
  • At a state- and national level, the rankings will highlight the outcomes achieved by municipalities and provide critical insights to key policymakers into the state of finances of urban local bodies. 
Government Schemes and Initiatives

Dec. 28, 2022

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Recently, India has officially recognised Esports as a part of 'multisport event'.


  • The President of India, amended the regulations governing eSports in accordance with the authority "conferred by clause (3) of Article 77 of the Constitution" and requested the Sports Ministry and the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology to include "Esports as part of multi-sports events."
  • According to a gazette notification, E-Sports will now be a part of the “multisports event” category in India. E-Sports will be taken care of by Department of Sports under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports. Meanwhile, 'Online Gaming' will be under MEITY (Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology).
  • E-Sports, short for electronic sports, is a form of competition using video games.
Polity & Governance

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Amrit Bharat Station scheme
Ministry of Railways has recently formulated a new policy for modernization of stations named “Amrit Bharat Station” scheme.


  • Amrit Bharat Station scheme envisages development of stations on a continuous basis with a long term vision.
  • The scheme will subsume all previous redevelopment projects where work is yet to begin.
  • The scheme aims at preparation of Master Plans of the Railway stations and implementation of the Master Plan in phases to enhance the facilities including and beyond the Minimum Essential Amenities.
  • However, plans and consequent budgets will only be approved on the basis of factors such as footfall and inputs from stakeholders. Zonal railways have been given the responsibility of selecting stations, which will then be approved by a committee of senior railway officials.
  • The model envisages low-cost redevelopment of stations which can be executed timely.
  • The scheme also aims to relocate redundant/old buildings in a cost efficient manner so that space is released for higher priority passenger related activities and future development may be carried out smoothly.

Facilities Planned under Amrit Bharat Station Scheme

  • Provision for Roof Plaza to be created in future
  • Free Wi-Fi, space for 5G mobile towers
  • Smooth access by widening of roads, removal of unwanted structures, properly designed signages, dedicated pedestrian pathways, well planned parking areas, improved lighting etc.
  • High level platforms (760-840 mm) at all stations with a length of 600 metres
  • Special amenities for the disabled

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Social Stock Exchange(SSE)
National Stock Exchange of India (NSE India) recently received an in-principle approval from the Securities Exchange Board of India (Sebi) to set-up SSE as a separate segment


What is SSE?

  • SSE is a novel idea in India, and a stock exchange of this kind is intended to benefit the private and non-profit sectors by directing more capital to them.
  • During her Budget speech for the fiscal year 2019–20, Finance Minister first proposed the concept of SSE. The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 was then invoked by the government, which subsequently published a gazette notification announcing a new security as "zero coupon zero principal".
  • The SSE will function as a distinct division of the current stock exchanges under the new regulations.

Who can list on SSE?

  • Not-for-profit organisations (NPOs) and for-profit social enterprises with social intent and impact as their primary goal will be eligible to participate in the SSE.
  • The social enterprises will have to engage in a social activity out of 16 broad activities listed by the regulator.
  • The eligible activities include-
    • eradicating hunger poverty, malnutrition and inequality
    • promoting healthcare, supporting education, employability and livelihoods
    • gender equality empowerment of women and LGBTQIA communities
    • supporting incubators of social enterprise.
  • Corporate foundations, political or religious organisations or activities, professional or trade associations, infrastructure companies, and housing companies, with the exception of affordable housing, will not be eligible to be identified as social enterprises.
  • According to Sebi's framework, minimum issue size of ₹1 crore and a minimum application size for subscription of ₹2 lakh are currently required for SSE.



Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Recently, new research clarifies that Sepsis is one of the most expensive medical conditions in the world, and can lead to cell death.


  • Despite dramatic improvements in understanding the immunological mechanisms behind sepsis, it remains a major medical concern, affecting nearly 50 million people globally each year.
  • Sepsis is a life-threatening condition arising from the body’s over-reactive response against infection, leading it to injure its tissues and organs.
  • Researchers have studied how certain types of bacteria interact with cells during infections to discover the cells and molecules that potentially trigger death from sepsis.

Autoimmunity and sepsis

  • The body’s response to infection starts when immune cells recognise components of the invading pathogen. These cells then release molecules like cytokines that help eliminate the infection.
  • Among the hundreds of cytokines that exist, tumour necrosis factor, or TNF stands tall as the most potent and the most studied for nearly the past 50 years.

What is Tumour Necrosis Factor?

  • It is a cytokine which is produced when the immune system is stimulated by a bacterial extract called Coley’s toxin.
  • Blood cells made in the bone marrow (myeloid cells) are the major producers of TNF.
  • In normal conditions, TNF promotes beneficial processes such as cell survival and tissue regeneration.
  • Uncontrolled TNF production can lead to a dangerous cytokine storm and to the development of rheumatoid arthritis and similar inflammatory conditions.
  • Blocking and neutralising TNF activity can effectively treat numerous autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.

What are Cytokines?

  • These are a broad group of small proteins released by the immune cells in response to a pathogen.
  • Cytokines play an essential role in the immune response, excessive and uncontrolled cytokine production can lead to a dangerous cytokine storm.

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Green methanol
State-owned power generation company NTPC has recently partnered with Tecnimont to explore green methanol production at a commercial scale.


  • The green methanol project involves capturing carbon from NTPC power plants and converting it into a green fuel.
  • The objective of the partnership was to demonstrate technologies for firing a higher percentage of Torrefied Biomass in NTPC’s coal fired units, Methanol Firing and Ammonia Firing.

What is Green methanol?

  • Green methanol is methanol that is produced renewably and without polluting emissions, one of its variants being generated from green hydrogen.
  • It is a low-carbon fuel that can be made from either biomass gasification or renewable electricity and captured carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • This chemical compound can be used as a low-carbon liquid fuel and is a promising alternative to fossil fuels in areas where decarbonisation is a major challenge, such as maritime transport.

Other classifications:

Grey methanol

  • It is obtained by synthesis reaction from methane present in natural gas (or in some cases, as in China, still from coal). It is therefore not a renewable or clean energy.

 Blue methanol

  • It is also obtained by synthesis derived from natural gas, but includes as part of the process the capture and storage of the carbon generated during its production, converting it into a less polluting product.
Environment & Ecology

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Rules of Origin
With the India-Australia interim trade deal set to kick off, the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs has recently notified the Rules of Origin.


  • The notification, which relates to the eligibility requirement to claim the preferential customs duty on trade in goods, under the economic cooperation and trade agreement (ECTA), will come into effect from December 29. This is when the ECTA will also come into effect.
  • India and Australia had in April this year signed the ECTA, which is expected to cover 90% of the bilateral trade between the two.

What is Rules of Origin?

  • Rules of origin are the criteria needed to determine the national source of a product. Their importance is derived from the fact that duties and restrictions in several cases depend upon the source of imports.

Where are rules of origin used?

Rules of origin are used:

  • to implement measures and instruments of commercial policy such as anti-dumping duties and safeguard measures;
  • to determine whether imported products shall receive most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment or preferential treatment;
  • for the purpose of trade statistics;
  • for the application of labelling and marking requirements; and
  • for government procurement.

No specific provision in GATT

  • GATT has no specific rules governing the determination of the country of origin of goods in international commerce.
  • Each contracting party was free to determine its own origin rules, and could even maintain several different rules of origin depending on the purpose of the particular regulation.

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)
CDSCO has recently started conducting joint inspections of identified Drug Manufacturing Units along with the State Drugs Control Administration.


  • A committee of two Joint Drugs Controllers has been constituted at CDSCO (HQ) to monitor the process of inspection, reporting & subsequent action. 

What is CDSCO?

  • It is the Central Drug Authority for discharging functions assigned to the Central Government under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940.
  • It works under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) of India.
  • Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, CDSCO is responsible for -
  • Approval of Drugs.
  • Conduct Clinical Trials.
  • Laying down the standards for Drugs.
  • Control over the quality of imported Drugs in the country.
  • Coordination of the activities of State Drug Control Organizations.
  • Further CDSCO along with state regulators, is jointly responsible for the grant of licences to certain specialised categories of critical Drugs such as vaccines and sera, etc.
  • The Indian government has announced plans to subject all medical devices, including implants and contraception, to CDSCO scrutiny.
  • Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI): DCGI is the head of the department of the CDSCO of the Government of India responsible for approval of licences of specified categories of drugs such as blood and blood products, IV fluids, vaccines and sera in India.
  • DCGI also sets standards for the manufacturing, sales, import, and distribution of drugs in India.
Polity & Governance

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Recently, India and ADB sign a $125 million loan to improve Urban Services in Tamil Nadu.


  • The Government of India and the ADB signed a $125 million loan to develop climate-resilient sewage collection and treatment, and drainage and water supply systems in three cities in the state of Tamil Nadu.
  • The financing is the third and the last tranche of the $500 million multi-tranche financing facility (MFF) for the Program approved by ADB in 2018 to build priority water supply, sewerage, and drainage infrastructure in strategic industrial corridors across 10 cities in the state. The tranche 3 loan covers Coimbatore, Madurai, and Thoothukudi.
  • This financing will help ensure universal access to basic water and sanitation services and improve resilience against floods in the project target areas which are also the industrial hubs of Tamil Nadu

What is ADB?

  • It is a regional development bank established on 19th December 1966.
  • It envisions a prosperous, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable Asia and the Pacific while sustaining its efforts to eradicate extreme poverty in the region.
  • Headquarters: Manila, Philippines.
  • Members: 68 members, 49 from within Asia.
  • Japan holds the largest proportion of shares in ADB followed by the USA, because Japan is one of the largest shareholders of the bank, and the president has always been Japanese.
  • ADB is an official United Nations Observer.
International Relations

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Urban Local Body
Recently, the Allahabad High Court quashed the Uttar Pradesh government’s draft notification on urban local body elections and ordered it to hold the polls without reservation for the Other Backward Classes (OBC).


Provisions of the Urban Local Body

  • The Urban Local Bodies were constitutionalized through the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992.
  • This Act added a new Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution and it contains 18 functional items of municipalities.
  • Reservation:
  • The Act provides not less than one-third of the total number of seats for women (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the SCs and the STs).
  • It also provides for the reservation of seats for the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes in every municipality in the proportion of their population.
  • There will be no bar on State Legislatures from making provisions for the reservation of seats in any municipality or office of Chairperson in the municipalities in favour of the backward class of citizens.
  • Term: The municipality has a fixed term of 5 years from the date appointed for its first meeting.
  • Elections:
  • To constitute a municipality, are required to be completed before the expiration of the duration of the municipality.
  • If the municipality is dissolved before the expiry of 5 years, the elections for constituting a new municipality are required to be completed within 6 months from the date of its dissolution.
  • If a municipality is elected after it has been dissolved, it will remain in existence for the remainder of the time that it would have remained in existence had it not been dissolved.
Polity & Governance

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 28, 2022

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM)
Recently, South Korea reported its first case of the rare yet fatal infection - Naegleria fowleri or “brain-eating amoeba”.


What is Naegleria fowleri?

  • It is a single-celled organism which can infect humans. It was first discovered in Australia in 1965 and is commonly found in warm freshwater bodies, such as hot springs, rivers and lakes.
  • According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with the rising global temperatures. The organism best grows in high temperatures up to 46°C and sometimes can survive at even higher temperatures.

How does it infect humans?

  • The amoeba enters the human body through the nose and then travels up to the brain. In some cases, it was found that people got infected when they cleaned their nostrils with contaminated water.
  • Scientists haven’t found any evidence of the spreading of Naegleria fowleri through water vapour or aerosol droplets.
  • Once Naegleria fowleri goes to the brain, it destroys brain tissues and causes a dangerous infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

Symptoms of PAM:

  • The first signs of PAM start showing within one to 12 days after the infection. In the initial stages, they might be similar to symptoms of meningitis, which are headache, nausea and fever.
  • In the later stages, one can suffer from a stiff neck, seizures, hallucinations, and even coma.

Treatment for the infection:

  • As the Naegleria fowleri infection is rare and progresses quickly, scientists haven’t been able to identify any effective treatments yet.
  • At present, doctors treat it with a combination of drugs, including amphotericin B, azithromycin, fluconazole, rifampin, miltefosine, and dexamethasone.

Dec. 27, 2022

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

What is a Trademark?
On December 21, 2022 the Delhi High Court, in the case of Hamdard National Foundation (India) vs Sadar Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., restrained Sadar Laboratories from manufacturing and selling beverages under the impugned trademark ‘Dil Afza’. The court observed that the trademark ‘Rooh Afza’ is prima facie a strong mark requiring a high degree of protection as it has acquired immense goodwill.


  • A trademark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by a business organisation to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities.
  • It serves as a badge of origin exclusively identifying a particular business as a source of goods or services.
  • Trademark infringement is the unauthorised usage of a sign that is identical or deceptively similar to a registered trademark.

What is a strong trademark?

  • A mark is said to be strong when it is well-known and has acquired a high degree of goodwill.
  • The degree of the protection of any trademark changes with the strength of the mark; the stronger the mark, the higher the requirement to protect it.

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

Good Governance Day
In 2014, the then newly-elected Narendra Modi government announced that December 25 would be celebrated as “Good Governance Day”.


  • It is observed on the occasion of former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s birth anniversary.
  • It aims to increase awareness of government services and accountability among people and inculcate “good governance” as a habit for civil servants.
  • The day is celebrated to ensure that the country’s residents are treated fairly by the government and they receive advantages of various government services.
  • In 2019, the government launched the Good Governance Index on this occasion.
  • The GGI is a scientifically prepared tool based on various parameters of good governance which assess the level of any state at a given point of time and help in shaping future development.
Polity & Governance

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

Animation, Visual Effects, Gaming and Comic (AVGC) Sector
The Government has recently said that the Animation, Visual Effects, Gaming and Comic (AVGC) sector has the potential to provide employment to over 20 lakh people in the coming 10 years. It is expected that the sector will witness 16 to 17 percent growth rate in the next decade.


  • The AVGC sector in the country has witnessed an unprecedented growth rate in recent times, with many global players entering the Indian talent pool to avail of offshore delivery of services.
  • India today contributes about 2.5 to 3 billion dollars out of the estimated 260 to 275 billion dollars worldwide in the AVGC market.
  • Task Force recently submitted report on ‘Realising AVGC-XR (Animation, Visual Effects, Gaming and Comics - Extended Reality) Sector Potential in India’ on the 22nd of December, 2022 by the Chairman of the Task Force, Apurva Chandra.


  • To make India a global content hub and create job opportunities in the AVGC sector, the Task Force has laid emphasis on establishing a National Centre of Excellence for the sector.
  • The Regional Centre of Excellence will be instituted in collaboration with the State Governments to provide access to local industries and to promote local talent and content.
  • It has been recommended by the Task Force to leverage National Education Policy to develop creative thinking with dedicated AVGC course content at school levels to build foundational skills and to create awareness about AVGC as a career choice.
  • It has also been recommended to establish AVGC accelerators and innovation hubs in academic institutions, on the lines of Atal Tinkering Labs.
  • The Task Force has recommended establishing a dedicated production fund for domestic content creation from the country to promote Indian culture and heritage globally.
Science & Tech

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

Cold Wave
India Meteorological Department (IMD) has recently said, the Cold wave conditions will continue in Northern India till December 29, 2022.

What is a cold wave?

  • The IMD records a cold wave when the minimum temperature is equal to or less than 10 degree Celsius at a weather station in the plains, and is 5 degrees to 6.4 degrees below the normal temperature for that period.
  • A cold wave may also be recorded at a station in the plains when the minimum temperature is less than or equal to 4 degree Celsius.
  • For hilly regions, a cold wave is declared when the minimum temperature is less than or equal to 0 degree Celsius and the minimum temperature is 4.5 degrees to 6.4 degrees below the normal.
  • The ‘normal’ temperature is calculated for every five days by taking the average temperature for these days over the past 30 years.

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

Third Largest Economy
The Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR), a British consultancy, has said India will become third largest economy by 2035 from the current fifth spot.


  • In its annual World Economic League Table, the Centre for Economics and Business Research said that over the next five years, India's annual rate of GDP growth is expected to average 6.4 percent after which growth is expected to average 6.5 percent in the subsequent nine years.
  • CEBR also adds that by 2037, world gross domestic product will be doubled as developing economies will catch up with the richer ones.
  • The shifting balance of power will see the East Asia and Pacific region account for over a third of global output by 2037, while Europe's share shrinks to less than a fifth.
  • The global economy will face recession in 2023 mainly due to rises in interest rates by the central banks to arrest higher inflation.
  • The global economy surpassed 100 trillion Dollar for the first time in 2022, but will stall in 2023 as policy makers continue their fight against soaring prices.

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

The National Mobile Monitoring System (NMMS)
Recently, the central government has ordered that digitally capturing attendance is now mandatory for all workers employed under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGREGS) and will be applicable from January 1, 2023.

About The National Mobile Monitoring System (NMMS):

  • It was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development.
  • The NMMS App permits taking real-time attendance of workers at Mahatma Gandhi NREGS worksites along with geo-tagged photographs. 
  • This will increase citizen oversight of the programme besides potentially enabling the processing of payments faster
  • This facilitates them to record their findings online along with time-stamped and go-coordinate tagged photographs for all the schemes of the Department of Rural Development. 
  • This would also enable better record keeping of inspections by field and supervisory officials and also facilitate analysis of the findings for better programme implementation.
Government Schemes and Initiatives

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)
Recently, the NCPCR warns NGOs about the depiction of vulnerable children for fundraising. The practice of civil society organisations using representative visuals for fundraising activities concerning development issues such as malnutrition now faces new scrutiny NCPCR.

What is NCPCR? 

  • It is a statutory bodyset up under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
  • It works under the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • Members
  • A chairperson who, is a person of eminence and has done outstanding work for promoting the welfare of children.
  • Six members were appointed by the Central Government out of which at least two are women, who are having experience in Education, Child Health, Juvenile justice Elimination of child labour, Child psychology or sociology Laws relating to children.
  • Mandate:
    • The Commission ensures that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms align with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. 
    • The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.
Source : The Hindu
Social Issues – Children

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

Scheme for Economic Empowerment of DNTs (SEED)
Parliamentary panel on Social Justice and Empowerment recently said the process to categorise over 260 DNTs under SC/ST/OBC / list is very slow.

Who are DNTs?

  • The term ‘De-notified Tribes’ stands for all those communities which were once notified under the Criminal Tribes Acts, enforced by the British Raj between l87l and I947.
  • These Acts were repealed after Independence in 1952, and these communities were “De-Notified”.
  • The DNTs are the most neglected, marginalized, and economically and socially deprived communities.

What is the SEED scheme?

  • It was launched by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.

Components of the scheme:

  • Free Coaching: The objective of this component is to enable them to appear in competitive examinations/ admission to professional courses like medicine, engineering, MBA, etc. for obtaining an appropriate job in the Public/Private Sector.
  • Health Insurance: The primary objective of the scheme is to provide financial assistance to National Health Authority (NHA) in association with State Health Agencies (SHAs). These agencies will provide a health insurance cover of Rs.5 lakhs per family per year for families as per norms of “Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.
  • Livelihood Initiatives: The primary objective of the scheme is to provide financial assistance to National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM). It would enhance productivity growth in key livelihood sectors for employment generation through investments in institutional support, and technical assistance.
  • Financial support for Housing: It is for those who have not taken benefit of the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana as SC, ST, OBC and are living below the poverty line. The admissible support is Rs 1.20 lakhs in plains and 1.30 lakhs in hilly areas (per unit assistance).
Government Schemes and Initiatives

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises
Ministry of Micro, Small And Medium Enterprises (MSME) has taken many steps during the year for technology advancement, skill development and job creation.


 Major achievements of the Ministry in the year 2022 are detailed as follows.


The Prime Minister of India launched 3 key initiatives for the MSME sector in the ‘Udyami Bharat’ programme.

  • Raising and Accelerating MSME Performance (RAMP) scheme: The programme will focus on two result areas: 1) Strengthening Institutions and Governance of the MSME Program and 2) Supporting Market Access, Firm Capabilities and Access to Finance.
  • Capacity Building of First-Time MSME Exporters’ (CBFTE) scheme: To encourage MSMEs to offer products and services of international standards for the global market. 
  • New features of the ‘Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme’ (PMEGP).
    • Firstly, increase the maximum project cost to Rs 50 lakhs (from Rs 25 lakhs) for the manufacturing sector and Rs 20 lakhs (from Rs 10 lakhs) for the service sector.
    • Secondly, the inclusion of applicants from Aspirational districts & Transgenders in the Special Category applicants for availing higher subsidies. 
    • Thirdly, handholding support is being provided to applicants/entrepreneurs through the engagement of banking, technical & marketing experts.


  • The Udyam Registration Portal was launched It is fully online, free of cost, hassle-free, does not require any documentation, and is a step towards Ease of Doing Business for MSMEs.
  • Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI): The scheme supports the establishment of collective manufacturing enterprises of artisans, to increase their production, making them produce value-added products, and enhancing the marketability of products.
  • Public Procurement Policy for Micro and Small Enterprises: Ministry of MSME mandates 25% annual procurement from MSEs by Central Ministries/ Departments/ Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) including 4% from MSEs owned by SC/ST and 3% from MSEs owned by Women entrepreneurs.
  • Procurement and Marketing Support (PMS) Scheme: The scheme promotes new marketaccess initiatives and enhances the marketability of products and services in the MSME sector.
  • International Cooperation Scheme: The Scheme provides financial assistance to Industry Associations to participate in International exhibitions abroad, to organize International conferences in India and to capacity build ‘First Time MSE Exporters’ on a reimbursement basis.
  • Promotion of MSMEs among SC/STs & in NER
  • National SC-ST Hub (NSSH): The scheme is aimed at promoting entrepreneurship among the SC/ST and fulfilling the 4% procurement mandate by the CPSEs as laid down in the Central Government Public Procurement Policy and boosting entrepreneurship among SC/STs.
  • Promotion of MSMEs in NER and Sikkim Scheme: The scheme includes components viz., Setting up of new and modernization of existing Mini Technology Centre, Development of new & existing Industrial Estates and Development of Tourism Sector.
Government Schemes and Initiatives

Prelims Pointers
Dec. 27, 2022

Recently, experts and conservationists have raised concerns over the proposed location for a mega oil refinery in Barsu village of Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra.

About Geoglyphs:

  • Barsu sites in the Konkan region were added to a tentative list of UNESCO’s world heritage sites and protected by the state archaeology department and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

What are geoglyphs?

  • Geoglyphs are a form of prehistoric rock art, created on the surface of laterite plateaus.
  • They are made by removing a part of the rock surface through an incision, picking, carving or abrading.
  • They can be in the form of rock paintings, etchings, cup marks and ring marks.

What is the significance of this prehistoric rock art?

  • Clusters of geoglyphs are spread across the Konkan coastline in Maharashtra and Goa, spanning around 900 km. Porous laterite rock, which lends itself to such carving, is found on a large scale across the entire region.
  • It has more than 1,500 pieces of such art, also called “Katal Shilpa,” spread across 70 sites.
  • This is evidence of the continued existence of human settlements from the Mesolithic (middle Stone Age) to the early historic era.
  • UNESCO’s tentative world heritage list mentions seven sites with petroglyphs in Ratnagiri district — Ukshi, Jambharun, Kasheli, Runde Tali, Devihsol, Barsu and Devache Gothane, one in Sindhudurg district –Kudopi village, and nine sites at Phansamal in Goa.
  • The figures depicted in the geoglyphs include humans and animals such as deer, elephant, tiger, monkey, wild boar, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, cattle, pig, rabbit, and monkey.
  • They also include a high number of reptilian and amphibian creatures such as tortoises and alligators, aquatic animals such as sharks and sting rays, and birds like peacocks.
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