Dec. 11, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 11, 2019

Q. Recent international trend has been averse to the use of nuclear energy. In this light, discuss the reason inhibiting use of nuclear use energy. Also bring out the positive externalities arising from use of nuclear energy.

Structure of the answer:  

  • Introduction

  • Reason for averseness to the use of nuclear energy

  • Positive things in relation to use of nuclear energy

  • Conclusion

The Model Answer will be displayed at Dec. 12, 2019, midnight

Dec. 9, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 9, 2019

Q. Considering the controversial nature of the position of the Governor, many experts have suggested abolishment of the Governor’s post. In this light discuss the arguments for and against such decision.

  • Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction

  • Controversial position of the Governor

  • Arguments for abolishing the post

  • Arguments against abolishing the post

  • Final analysis

Model Answer

The Position of the Governor is controversial in light of emergence of concept of cooperative federalism. The issue has recently cropped up over controversial role of Governor in post-election scenario in Maharashtra and Karnataka. These events reflected that Governor’s interference with the democratic process is both real and continuing.

Therefore, in light of ensuing controversy many experts have put forth following arguments to abolish the post of Governor:

  • The position of Governor seems to have colonial imprint.

  • The Governor continue to remains affiliated to Political Party that appoints them. This raise question mark over neutrality of the office of the Governor.

  • The role of the Governor has been substantially changed from that of upholder of Constitution to a position used for destabilising the State government.

  • The post has become a retirement package for politicians who are politically faithful to the government of the day.

  • Further, it is undemocratic to have a nominated person as the head of the State.

  • Lastly, the issue of misuse of the discretionary power of the Governor has become a recurrent phenomenon.

However, many have advocated to uphold the current status quo on following grounds:

  • At the outset, it can be safely be said that post of governor is a vital link between the Centre and the States.

  • For maintenance of national interests, integrity and internal security advocates need for central supervision in form of Governor.

  • The office of Governor manage many things in transition phase like election period and Presidential rule

  • Further, Governor looks into the legal validity of the laws passed by state legislature.

  • Lastly, special responsibility have been conferred upon by the Governor in some states in respect of autonomous regions. For ex- 6th schedule area of Assam.

Thus, misuse of a position of Governor should not serve as a justification for removing the office altogether. The need of the hour is to implement the recommendation of the Sarkaria Committee to reform the office of Governor.

Subjects : Polity

Dec. 6, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 6, 2019

Q. In recent years there has been number of farmer protest around India demanding increase in Minimum support price (MSP). In this light discuss the effectiveness of MSP and need for replacing it with Price deficiency payment system.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction

  • Deficiencies in the MSP system

  • Importance of price deficiency payment system

  • Final analysis

Model Answer

MSP is the base price set by the Government and whenever the market prices fall below the announced MSPs, procurement agencies step in to procure the crop at the support price. In India, the MSP are recommended by the Commission for Agricultural Cost and Prices (CACP) for 23 crops based on A2+FL formula i.e. actual cost paid plus imputed value of the family labour.

However, the use of MSP as a method of agricultural pricing is criticized on various grounds such as:

  • NITI Aayog evaluation report (2016) on MSP noted that 79% farmers are not satisfied with MSP regime due to reasons such as delay in payments, distance to the procurement centers, delayed announcement of MSP rates

  • Farmers have also claimed that the prices in wholesale markets are often lower than the MSP. In such a scenario, whatever MSP the government declares might not matter much.

  • Further, only 6% of farmers are able to sell their produce at MSP. Moreover, the MSP operation is limited only to few states.

  • Lastly, the procurement is limited to few crops such as rice and wheat leading to cropping pattern distortion.

    Various PDPS schemes of states:

    • Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana (BBY) by MP: It applies to eight kharif crops such as soybean, til, maize, urad, tur

    • Rythu Bandhu scheme of Telangana: To relieve farmers from taking loans from moneylenders the scheme provides farmers Rs 4,000 per acre for the kharif and rabi seasons.

This system will address the issue of price crash after the bumper harvest.Therefore, the states such as Madhya Pradesh and Telangana have moved to price deficiency payment system (PDPS). Under it the government simply pays the difference between the MSP and the market-determined price. This system has many advantages such as follows:

  • It will also resolve the issues involved with MSP mechanism such as lack of awareness, procurement confined to selected crops that too from selected states, distortion of the agricultural market and cropping pattern.

  • It will also resolve the issue of needless accumulation of the food stock by FCI involving maintenance cost and storage losses.

  • Such a mechanism is also needed as other risk management instrument such as crop insurance and future trading have not made much headway.

In light of the above, it will be effective and efficient to shift to the new mechanism of PDPS.

Subjects : Economy

Dec. 4, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 4, 2019

Q. India is currently facing the issue of rising tsunami of e-waste. In this light discuss the challenges being posed by increasing e-waste and also suggest the suitable measures to tackle these challenges. 

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction

  • Rise of e-waste and issues relating to it

  • Challenges posed by it

  • Measures to handle such an issue

  • Final analysis

Model Answer

Electronic waste/ e-waste is a term used for electronic products that have become unwanted, obsolete and have reached the end of their useful life. India generates near about 2 million metric tonne of e-waste annually and it would reach 5.2 mmt per annum by 2020. The main sources of e-waste in India are the government, public and private sectors, which account for almost 70% of total e-waste generation.

The rising e-waste pose multitude challenges in various forms such as:

  • E-waste also impact human health as dismantling and shredding of it releases dust, toxins, dioxins

  • There is huge gap between present recycling and collection facilities. According to ASSOCHAM study only 5% of the e-waste is formally recycled.

  • Cross-border flow of waste equipment into India is another major issue. For ex- uncontrolled asbestos imports from Canada, used batteries from European nations

  • Further, as per ASSOCHAM report (2014), about 5 lakh child labourers are engaged in e-waste activities and that too without adequate protection and safeguards.

  • Unscientific method of recycling and lack of proper safety gear in handling e-waste leads to occupational health hazards.

  • Finally, e-waste rules are blatantly violated and the informal sector remains unregulated.

To resolve the above issues, there is a need to adopt multiprong approach in following form:

  • There is a need to strengthen the domestic legal framework to address the issue of unregulated imports of e-waste.

  • Further, steps must be taken to formalize the informal sector by using strategy of incentivization.

  • Governments must also encourage research for development of better environmentally sustainable e-waste recycling techniques.

  • There is also a need of an effective take-back program for e-waste handling and collection.

Thus, in light of the above there is a need for creating a mass awareness programme to encourage consumers to reuse/ recycle electronic products. For ex- 'Take-back' and ‘Planet ke Rakwale’ campaign by Nokia.

Subjects : Environment

Dec. 2, 2019

Mains Daily Question
Dec. 2, 2019

Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction

  • Various peasant movement in British era

  • Impact of peasant movement on freedom struggle

  • Conclusion

Model Answer

Peasant movement in India arose due to Britishers economic policies that resulted in the change of ownership of agrarian land, massive debt burden and impoverishment of peasantry.

Thus, the peasants rose in revolt against this injustice on many occasions. Some of these are as follows:

  • Indigo revolt of 1859-1860 was result of European planters persuading the peasants to plant indigo. Further, they provided loans at a very high interest. This led to not only debt burden but also severe exploitation.

  • Similarly, in Pabna movementSome landlords forcefully collected rents and land taxes that triggered the rebellion.

  • Deccan Riots (1875) peasants of Maharashtra revolted against increasing agrarian distress.

  • Further, in Champaran Satyagraha (1917), European planters resorted to all sorts of illegal and inhuman methods of indigo cultivation. That led Gandhiji took up their cause.

  • Other significant movements were Moplah Rebellion, Kheda Peasant Struggle, Bardoli Movement (Gujarat), Tebhaga Movement in Bengal

Considering the collective effort to fight the oppressive system, some of the noteworthy impact of the peasant movement were as follows:

  • The movement helped creating awareness among the Indians about exploitative nature of British rule.

  • It also helped developing a strong awareness among peasants about their legal rights.

  • These localised revolts also prepared the ground for various other uprisings such as Sikh Wars in Punjab, Revolt of 1857

  • These movement had given much strength to the peasants who participated in the movement. Moreover, the movement also contributed to the growth of nationalism.

  • The positive impact was also seen in form of various steps taken by the government following peasant movements. For ex- appointment of indigo, passing of Deccan Agriculturists Relief Act, 1879

In light of spectrum of above-mentioned arguments, it can be said that these movements created an atmosphere for post-independence agrarian reforms, for instance, abolition of Zamindari etc. and also added to the transformation of the agrarian structure.

Subjects : Modern History
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