Nov. 30, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 30, 2020

  1. Discuss the various anthropogenic reasons due to which Sunderbans is losing its mangroves. Why is conservation of Indian Sunderbans vital? (250 words)


  • Introduce with sunderbans and its importance.

  • Discuss the various reasons which are leading to its depletion.

  • Discuss why it is necessary to conserve them.

  • Conclude appropriately

Model Answer

The Sunderbans is a cluster of low-lying islands in Bay of Bengal, spread across India and Bangladesh. It is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world with great biodiversity of both flora and fauna.

Reasons for Its Depletion

Increasing anthropogenic activities along with natural stresses have led to massive degradation of one of India’s World Heritage Site — the Sunderbans. Some anthropogenic causes for its depletion are:

  • Over exploitation of forest to meet the growing requirement and illegal removal of Sundri trees for timber and pulp.

  • Commercialisation of Golpata tree in order to produce oil and alcohol for human consumption.

  • The rapidly expanding shrimp farming industry is deteriorating the mangrove forests in the Sunderbans.

  • Mining and Industrial development, agriculture, and aquaculture has led to huge amount of garbage, waste water, pollutants and other effluents discharged into the wetland making it vulnerable.

  • Oil pollution due to spillages has become a serious threat in the Sunderban and is damaging aquatic fauna and seabirds.

  • Conversion for urbanization, dam and road constructions, and Tourism are other reasons. Artificial Plantation is being done for aesthetic purposes, especially at the tourist spots. These plants are competitive and pose a threat to the mangrove.

Mangrove Conservation Is Vital Because

  • They are the breeding and nursery grounds for more than 35 species of reptiles, 270 species of birds, and 42 species of mammals.

  • They are home to around 400 tigers, which is largest in the world.

  • They are a good source of timber, fuel and fodder to coastal communities.

  • They provide coastal protection against wave and wind erosion as well as moderate the impact of storms and cyclones.

Way forward

Anthropogenic exploitation of resources in Sunderbans can be mitigated by strengthening them with endemic plant and tree species that can thrive in changing salinity conditions and can provide co-benefits to local communities, and providing sustainable alternatives to forest-based livelihoods. Government of India has also taken up many initiatives such as TEEB, Mangroves for the Future etc. to save the mangroves.


Subjects : Environment

Nov. 27, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 27, 2020

  1. What is the significance of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC)? Discuss the need for reforms in the UNSC. (15 marks)


  • Briefly introduce about the UN Security Council

  • Explain the significance of the UNSC 

  • Discuss the need for various reforms

  • Conclude appropriately

Model Answer

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC), one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. All members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. It has 15 Members (5 permanent - US, China, Russia, France and UK; and 10 non-permanent members).

Significance of UN Security Council

  • Peace Through Peaceful Means: The security council is tasked to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles of United Nations. The Council aims to peacefully resolve international disputes under Chapter VI of the UN Charter, which authorizes the council to call on parties to seek solutions via negotiation, arbitration, or other peaceful means. It determines the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken.

  • Assertive Actions: Failing peaceful means, Chapter VII empowers the Security Council to take more assertive actions such as imposing sanctions or authorizing the use of force “to maintain or restore international peace and security.” The council is empowered to impose binding obligations on the 193 UN member states to maintain peace.

  • Miscellaneous: It also formulates plans to regulate armaments, recommends Secretary-General of the UNGA etc.

Factors That Call For Reforms In UNSC

Structurally, the body remains largely unchanged since its founding in 1946, stirring debate among many members about its efficacy and authority as a mediator on matters of international security.

  • Membership: The emerging nations like India now play a larger role in both the international economy and politics but their role (except China) in the UNSC remains limited.

  • Regional Underrepresentation: Major regional powers like Japan & India (Asia) and Brazil (South America) and some other global south nations are not yet a part of UNSC thus creating regional imbalance in the Council.

  • Question of Veto Held by 5 Permanent Members: The five permanent members enjoy the "right to veto" meaning that, if any of these members cast a negative vote in the 15-member Council, the resolution or decision would not be approved. Thus, important world issues are left at the mercy of the five permanent members. For example, China’s veto on declaring a Masood Azhar as terrorist.

  • Changing Global Issues: Issues such as transnational migration, deepening economic interdependence, terrorism and organized crime etc. need a global consensus rather than just a few select nations.

Other international organisations like the IMF and the World Bank recently underwent reforms to increase developing countries representation in their governance structures but UNSC was last reformed in 1963 despite manifold increase in the UN’s membership. Thus, in the backdrop of these issues faced by members of the United Nations, there is an urgent need to look into reforms of UNSC, so as to uphold the organisation’s legitimacy.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Nov. 25, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 25, 2020

  1. What are ocean currents? Discuss the factors that influence the movement of ocean currents. (10 marks)


  • Define ocean currents (may add a line or two about cold and warm currents) - extra points for a rough diagram showing currents (no need to name them all)

  • Explain the factors influencing ocean currents like planetary winds, density difference, earth's rotation etc.

  • Conclude by briefly noting the impact of ocean currents, like on temperature

Model Answer

Ocean currents are horizontal flow of a mass of waters in a fairly defined direction over great distances. They are like stream of water (like rivers) flowing through the main body of the ocean in a regular pattern. Ocean currents (Avg speed 3.2 km to 10 kmph) with higher speed are called streams and currents with lower speed are called drifts.

Ocean currents are categorized as warm or cold on the basis of relative temperature w.r.t the surrounding water:

  • Warm currents generally flow from equatorial regions towards poles. Eg. Kuroshio current, Gulf stream

  • Cold currents generally flow from polar regions towards equator. Eg. Oyashio Current, Labrador current.


The circulation of the ocean currents depends on the following factors:

  • Planetary Winds: A major role in ocean currents is played by frictional drag of surface water by planetary winds. Most of the currents of the world tends to follow the direction of planetary winds. For example, within the tropics, the trade winds blow from the east and hence, north equatorial and south equatorial currents flow east to west.

  • Differences in Density: Differences in water density affect vertical mobility of ocean currents. The less dense water of the equator rises and moves towards the poles (warm current) while the cold and dense waters of the poles sink and move towards the equator (cold current). Similarly, water with lower salinity (lower density) flows on the surface while an undercurrent of high salinity flows towards the less dense water - eg. the current between the Mediterranean Sea with higher salinity and Atlantic Ocean with lower salinity.

  • Earth’s Rotation: The earth’s rotation deflects air to its right in the northern hemisphere and to its left in the southern hemisphere. Similarly, ocean water is also affected by Coriolis force and follows the Ferrel’s Law. So, all the ocean currents follow clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and anticlockwise direction in the southern hemisphere.

  • Coastlines and Bottom Reliefs also affect the direction of currents. Eg. The Equatorial current after being obstructed by Brazilian coast bifurcates into two branches.

  • Heating by the Sun: Heating by solar energy causes the water to expand. That is why, near the equator the ocean water is higher in level than in the middle latitudes. This causes a very slight gradient and water tends to flow down the slope.

Ocean currents and mixing by winds and waves can transport and redistribute heat to deeper ocean layers. Ocean currents acts to neutralize the temperature difference between different areas in the oceans just like the winds do on land. Currents are also important in marine ecosystems because they redistribute water, heat, nutrients, and oxygen about the ocean.



Subjects : Geography

Nov. 23, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 23, 2020

Q "The Maurayans made a remarkable contribution to Indian art and architecture." Elaborate.



  • Introduce by briefly mentioning the significance of Mauryan rule in India.

  • Point out the contribution of Mauryans in the different forms of Art and Architecture.

  • Conclude your arguments.

Model Answer

The Mauryan kings were great patrons of art due to which this period saw remarkable progress made in the art and architecture. The influence of Buddhism and Jainism can be easily seen in the art and architecture of the Mauryan period. On the other hand, the individual initiatives also contributed to the development of art and architecture in this period. Thus, we can see that Mauryan art was the summation of court art and popular art.

 Contributions During Mauryan Period

  1. Court Art:

  • Palaces: Some of the magnificent structures of Mauryan times are the palaces. The palace of Chandragupta Maurya was inspired from the Achaemenid palaces. The three-storied palace of Ashoka at Kumhrar is another magnificent example. Mauryans used wood as principle building material due to which the remains of these building are in deteriorating condition.

  • Pillars: Mauryans introduced stone masonry to a large scale, the engineering in the erection of monolithic stone pillars is remarkable. Only the capitals in form of beautiful sculptures were joined atop of a pillar. These pillars are erected throughout the country. The Sarnath Lion Capitol pillar is a remarkable masterpiece among them.

  • Stupas: The art of making stupa reached a high during the time of Ashoka. These structures, which were used to keep holy relics of Buddha, display remarkable sculptures and architectural designs. For e.g. most famous of them, the Sanchi Stupa is a world heritage site.


  1. Popular Art:

  • Caves: The Mauryan artisans started the practice of hewing out caves from rocks for the monks to live in.They were marked by highly polished finish and decorated gateways. The Barabar Caves are the prime examples of cave architecture form. Later on, this inspired the development of cave architecture in western and southern India.

  • Pottery: Black paint and lustrous finish were features of pottery in Mauryan times, they are generally referred as Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) and Painted Grey Ware (PGW).

  • Sculptures: The sculptures in Mauryan times were widely used for religious expression. They were used in stupas and making stone figurines of Yaksha and Yakshini. Also, terracotta figures were made by the general public at large scale.

It is befitting to say that the Mauryans gave a great contribution to the art and architecture as it also contributed significantly to the evolution of the Indian art and architecture. The contributions of Maurayans were duly recognised by Indian government as the national emblem and the chakra in the national flag are taken from Mauryan art forms.



Subjects : Art and Culture

Nov. 20, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 20, 2020

  1. Explain how the New Development Bank (NDB) represents a shift in the paradigm of development financing. (10 marks)


  • Introduce with the New Development Bank

  • Explain how NDB represents a paradigm shift - alternative financial architecture, friendly lending, focus on sustainable development etc.

  • Conclude appropriately

Model Answer

To better represent emerging-market and developing countries in global financial architecture, the BRICS nations decided to set up a development bank of their own. In 2015, the BRICS nations established the New Development Bank (NDB) with a capital of $50 billion to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in BRICS and other emerging economies, as well as in developing countries.

How NDB Is Changing the Paradigm of Development Financing

  1. Alternative Financial Architecture: The bank augments the international financial architecture that is dominated by 20th century institutions of World Bank and IMF. Thus, it reduces the dependence on World Bank group and dilutes their hegemony in the financial system. The BRICS nations are also considering a credit rating agency of their own to counter the dominance of USA in this area.

  2. No Harsh Conditions Imposed: There is a growing concern among developing countries in South America, Africa and Asia that IMF and World Bank impose harsh conditions to be eligible for loans, like reforming their economies or governance structures even if they are unpopular with their own people. Hence, these countries are looking to NDB for financing.

  3. Democratic: The NDB's equal-share voting basis reflects greater democracy in NDB vis-à-vis World Bank group institutions which are dominated by the western powers

  4. Precedence for sustainable development: The projects of renewable energy, sustainable development and infrastructure development are given precedence. Green Bonds in local currency are being issued by NDB.

  5. Shift in global power center:The NDB indicates the rise in the collective financial power of developing nations.

In the past five years since it began actively investing, the NDB has recorded a number of successes and has cemented its place as a preeminent multilateral development bank focused on sustainable infrastructure. As of November 2020, it has approved 65 sustainable development and infrastructure projects across all BRICS economies worth $21 billion, spanning clean energy, transport infrastructure, water resource management, urban development, environmental efficiency and social infrastructure. NDB is playing a key role in changing the development financing paradigm, and its successful start can be seen by the fact that the International credit ratings agency Fitch Ratings has awarded a top investment-grade rating to it recently.

At the same time, the NDB must also learn from the omissions and lessons of the past five years. As of December 31, 2019, the NDB had committed capital of $15 billion in aggregate, but of this committed capital, only $1.5 billion (or 10%) had been disbursed as cash to projects by the end of 2019. Increasing the rate of utilization of its committed capital must remain a major focus of the Bank in the coming years.

Moreover, even though the NDB has stated its support for sustainable and green infrastructure, its funding for a Trans-Amazonian highway project (Para Sustainable Municipalities Project) in Brazil has come under scrutiny from environmentalists, who have highlighted the disproportionately negative effects of deforestation in the Amazon as a result of urban development projects in the region.

Finally, a large part of the NDB’s portfolio of infrastructure projects thus far consist of financing for government-sponsored or government-backed public sector firms in the borrowing countries, with 80% of approvals in 2019 concentrated on “sovereign and sovereign-guaranteed operations”. As the NDB diversifies towards making equity investments and attempts to crowd-in private investments to complement its efforts, it should begin to pivot towards investing in private sector firms and projects in its borrowing countries.



Subjects : Economy

Nov. 18, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 18, 2020

  1. Critically examine the success of the Right to Education Act in India.


  • Briefly introduce RTE

  • Highlight its objectives

  • Then discuss its success with shortcomings

  • Conclude with some suggestions

Model Answer

The Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, provides a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards. The four most important provisions of India’s RTE law are: (i) government schools must be completely free for all children aged 6–14, (ii) no student can be expelled or held back before the completion of primary school (grade 8), (iii) 25% of private school seats must be held for disadvantaged students in the local area, and (iv) infrastructure and minimum quality standards (such as the provision of libraries and girls’ toilets), minimum teacher qualifications, and pupil-teacher ratios must be implemented.

The Act is a remarkable step forward in the field of education in India. However, some of the provisions of the Act, although included with noble intentions, have produced unintended consequences which is discussed next-

Success of The Act

  • There is a significant increase in the enrollments rates and at the same time reduction in drop-out rates in primary schools.

  • Considerable progress in education inputs over the last decade due to efforts like SSA and RTE - pupil-teacher ratios have fallen over 20 percent (from 47.4 to 39.8).

  • Also, there have been significant improvements in the physical infrastructure of schools in India. For example-fractions of schools with toilets and electricity has more than doubled.

Shortcomings of The Act

  • One flaw is the “no failure” policy. Children are constantly passed to higher grade levels, regardless of whether or not they are prepared for that higher level of work. While it is true that failing a child may well cause the child to intensely doubt his or her abilities, the Government fails to appreciate that failing a child also serves as a protective mechanism. The term “fail” has always worked as a deterrent for a child to study seriously and perform well.

  • There are no special audit mechanisms like in the case of NREGA.

  • There is shortage of teaching staff in primary schools and the primary issue is of teacher absenteeism.

  • Most private schools don't reserve 25% quota for EWS category even after the government directive.

  • Section 28 of the RTE Act mandates that no teacher should engage himself or herself in private tuition activity. The primary reason why teachers under perform in the classroom and then require their students to attend private tuitions is the want of additional income, unfettered by a loose monitoring and punitive system. Banning teachers from taking private tuitions does not do away with the cause of the problem.

  • Section 17(1) of the Act prohibits physical punishment or mental harassment of students. While a ban on physical punishment is laudable, the one on mental harassment is incompletely defined. What, after all, is ‘mental harassment’? It could be anything from a light admonition for not completing homework to vile abuses meant to strip the student of all self-respect. The Act sheds no further light.

  • The other shortfalls aside, the availability of funds and teachers remain significant roadblocks in the implementation of the Act. The Act, which has made education a fundamental right of every child, will require an investment of Rs 1.71 lakh crore for the next five years for implementation.

Way Forward:

The government needs to take various steps like strict enforcement of 25% quota, timely reimbursement to schools, use of advanced technology like biometrics to check teacher absenteeism, more focus on school infrastructure etc. for effective implementation of RTE.



Subjects : Current Affairs

Nov. 16, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 16, 2020

  1. Discuss the significance of Bolshevik Revolution of Russia on the history of the world. (15 marks)


  • In the introduction, write briefly about the Bolshevik Revolution

  • Then write its significance like-the emergence of the first communist state, inspired workers and peasants, impact on international relations etc

  • Conclude appropriately

Model Answer

In the history of mankind, a number of revolutionary transformations have been witnessed during different periods. However, the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 enjoys a place of great significance. In 1917 two revolutions took place in Russia - in reality both of these revolutions were the two phases of a single revolution.

Taking advantage of prevailing widespread discontent in Russia, Lenin overthrew Kerensky’s government with the help of his revolutionary Red Guard on the night of 6th and 7th November 1917 and declared Russia as a communist nation.

Significance of Bolshevik Revolution

  • Overthrow of power: The overthrow of autocracy and the destruction of aristocracy and the power of church were first achievement of Bolshevik Revolution.

  • First Communist state: The Bolshevik revolution resulted in establishment of the first communist state in world. It transformed communism from an idea to reality.

  • Inspired workers and peasants: The success of Bolshevik Revolution inspired workers and peasants throughout the world. Leftist ideas gained popularity everywhere. Socialist-communist party emerged in Europe as well as in other countries.

  • Emergence of an alternative model: The success of communism in Russia presented an alternative to capitalist model of political, social and economic life. As a result, an intense competition in the world to capture the heart and mind of the people.

  • Impact on international relations: The emergence of communism in Russia terrified the western capitalist world. Western democracies were forced to pursue a softer policy towards Germany and Italy because the revival of Germany and Italy was considered necessary to counter the spread of communism.

  • Prepared background for the Cold War: The Bolshevik Revolution prepared the background for the Cold War between the capitalist and the communist bloc from 1946-1991.

  • Inspired other countries: The Bolshevik Revolution inspired similar communist movements in many parts of the world. The Chinese communist revolution, and the revolution in Cuba can be cited as examples.

The growing popularity of socialism and many achievements made by the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik revolution helped to recognize that for democracy to be real political rights without social and economic rights were not enough. The idea of the state playing an active role in regulating the economy and planning the economy to improve the condition of the people was accepted. The popularity of socialism also helped to mitigate discrimination based on race, colour and sex.


Subjects : World History

Nov. 13, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 13, 2020

  1. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the unique intersection of the heart and head, which is very important in the current working environment of civil servants. Explain. (10 marks)



  • Introduce EI as the unique intersection of the heart and head

  • Discuss the factors due to which EI is very important in the current working environment of civil servants

  • Conclude appropriately

Model Answer

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the capability of a person to manage and control his or her emotions and possess the ability to control the emotions of others as well. In other words, they can influence the emotions of other people also. It is a very important skill in leadership. It is said to have five main elements such as - self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills.

The current work environment of the civil servant is very complex and to achieve maximum public welfare, these elements of emotional intelligence is very crucial for achieving efficiency and economy in administration. This can be illustrated as follows -

  • A civil servant is required to adhere to rules & regulations and be sensitive to people’s requirements at the same time. Often there is a conflict between rules and public requirement and it requires good emotional intelligence to resolve this.

  • The developmental gaps have led to a different set of aspirations and requirements for different socio-economic segments. Good EI is necessary to perceive this and deliver on the aspirations of people.

  • Upholding the rule of law is a key task for civil servants, sometimes the ground situation gets extremely difficult to manage, like during riots, mob violence etc. where a small incident can provoke people. Resolving these issues needs emotional intelligence.

  • Day to day administration is riddled with problems like political pressure, corruption, less flexible rule etc. These can be only tackled with EI.

  • The grass-root level empowerment, especially after the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment, has changed the fundamentals of governance. A civil servant should be mindful of the decentralization of power and his role in the governance model.

  • The workplace of civil servants is also an important area where good EI is essential. An officer has to motivate his subordinate to perform, keep the requirements of his superior in mind and maintain a healthy relationship with his peers.

EI is rightly considered as the unique intersection of head (i.e., cognition) and heart (i.e., emotion). In today's tech-driven environment with declining social skills, the role of EI for a civil servant has become more important than ever.


Subjects : Ethics

Nov. 11, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 11, 2020

  1. Compare the origin and weather conditions associated with the tropical and temperate cyclones. (10 marks)


  • Introduce with cyclones

  • Compare the origin of the cyclones - in terms of causes, location, mechanism etc.

  • Compare the weather conditions associated with each of them.

  • Conclude appropriately

Model Answer

A cyclone is a low-pressure area in the atmosphere in which winds spiral inward. On the basis of their area of origin, they are classified as: Temperate cyclones and Topical cyclones.

Tropical Cyclones

Cyclones developed in tropics region (majority confined to 100– 300 N and S of equator) are called tropical cyclones.

  • The tropical cyclones have a thermal origin, and they develop over tropical seas during certain seasons. Pre-existing low pressure, large sea surface with temperature higher than 27° C, and presence of the Coriolis force are a must for tropical cyclone formation.

  • At these locations, the local convectional currents acquire a whirling motion because of the Coriolis force generated by the earth’s rotation. After developing, these cyclones advance till they find a weak spot in the trade wind belt.

  • Tropical cyclones always origin in large water bodies.


Temperate Cyclone

Temperate cyclones (Mid-Latitude cyclones), also known as Extratropical cyclones, are active over mid-latitudinal region between 35° latitude and 65° latitude in both hemispheres.

  • They have a dynamic origin and cyclone formation is due to frontogenesis (interaction of cold and warm fronts). When the warm-humid air masses from the tropics meet the dry-cold air masses from the poles and thus a polar front is formed as a surface of discontinuity. The cold air pushes the warm air upwards from underneath. Thus, a void is created because of lessening of pressure. The surrounding air rushed in to occupy this void and coupled with the earth’s rotation, a temperate cyclone is formed. 

  • Temperate cyclones can origin on both landmass or water.

Weather Conditions

  • Tropical Cyclones: The tropical cyclones are associated with heavy rain fall and high velocity of winds for short duration at small area. So, here greater destruction is due to winds, storm surges and torrential rains.

  • Temperate Cyclones: On the other hand, temperate cyclone associated weather conditions are mild and overcast sky in initial stage and followed by moderate to heavy rain for long period of time on large area.  So, here less destruction is due to winds but more destruction is due to flooding.


Because of India's tropical location, it mostly gets effected by Tropical cyclones along a large part of its coast. Temperate cyclones are also of significance as they play a major role in bringing rain to the North-west India popularly known as Western Disturbances.



Subjects : Geography

Nov. 9, 2020

Mains Daily Question
Nov. 9, 2020

  1. What do you understand by “basic structure" doctrine? Explain the evolution of this doctrine in India.


  • Explain about basic structure.

  • Write about evolution of it, with concerned SC verdicts

  • Conclude accordingly.

Model Answer

"Basic Structure" consists of those essential pillars of the constitution which are considered as vital to its very existence, and which Parliament cannot amend or take away even by a constitutional amendment. The word "Basic Structure" is not mentioned in constitution, but was recognized for the first time in the historic Kesavananda Bharati case of 1973.  The list of Basic structure includes supremacy of the constitution, judicial review, federalism, independence of judiciary etc.

           The constitution under Article 368 empowers the Parliament to amend the constitution, but this power is not absolute.  With the intention of preserving the original ideals envisioned by the constitution makers, the Supreme Court pronounced that Parliament could not distort or alter the basic features of the Constitution under the pretext of amending it.  If the Supreme Court finds any law made by the Parliament inconsistent with the constitution, it has the power to declare that law to be invalid (Article 13 and 14). Ever since the Kesavananda Bharati case, Supreme Court has been the interpreter of the Constitution and the arbiter of all amendments made by Parliament.

Evolution of the Basic Structure

The evolution of Basic Structure doctrine can be traced from issue of right to property and first constitutional amendment bill 1951 itself.

  • The First Constitution Amendment Act, 1951 was challenged in the Shankari Prasad vs. Union of India. But the Supreme Court held that the Parliament, under Article 368, has the power to amend any part of the constitution including fundamental rights.

  • In Golak Nath vs State of Punjab case in 1967, the Supreme Court overturned Shankari Prasad judgement and ruled that Article 368 only lays down the procedure to amend the constitution and does not give absolute powers to the Parliament to amend any part of the constitution.

  • To nullify Golak Nath judgement, the Parliament, in 1971, passed the 24th Constitution Amendment Act and gave the absolute power to Parliament to make any changes in the constitution including the fundamental rights.

  • In 1973, in Kesavananda Bharti vs. State of Kerala case, the Supreme Court held that the Parliament has power to amend any provision of the constitution, but doing so, the basic structure of the constitution is to be maintained.

  • Further in Minerva mills and Waman Rao cases, SC reaffirmed its position of Kesavananda Bharti judgment and mentioned that the basic structure doctrine is applicable post 1973.

Despite the larger number of amendments made to the Indian Constitution, the hopes and ideas of its framers remain intact and identifiable as the Constitution adopted in 1949. This is principally due to the Supreme Court’s decision in Kesavananda Bharati.


Subjects : Polity
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