Feb. 28, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 28, 2022

Briefly explain the difference between Representation of People Act, 1950 and Representation of People Act, 1951.

Model Answer

Free and fair election is the sine qua non of democracy. To ensure the conduct of elections in free, fair and impartial manner, articles 324–329 empower Parliament to make laws to regulate electoral process.

In this context, the Parliament has enacted the Representation of People Act, 1950 (RPA,1950) and Representation of People Act, 1951 (RPA,1951). The key difference between the two is that while RPA, 1950 provide for preparations before the actual elections, RPA, 1951 makes provisions for the actual conduct of elections.

  1. RPA, 1950

  • While articles 80, 170 and 171 fixed maximum and minimum number of seats in Parliament, legislative assemblies of states and legislative councils respectively, RPA,1950 provides for actual allocation of seats in these house.

  • Lays down the qualification of voters

  • Lays down procedures for the preparation of electoral rolls and the manner of filling seats.

  • Procedures for delimitation of constituencies.

2. RP act, 1951.

  • Regulates the actual conduct of elections and by-elections.

  • Provides administrative machinery for conducting elections.

  • Deals with the registration of political parties.

  • Specifies the qualifications and disqualifications for membership of the houses.

  • Provisions to curb corrupt practises and other electoral offences.

  • Procedures for settling doubts and disputes arising out of elections.

Thus both the acts support and complement each other. They uphold direct and participatory democracy, accountability and transparency and ensure clean election process the outcome of which is acceptable to all ensuring peaceful transfer of power.

Subjects : Polity

Feb. 24, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 24, 2022

Distinguish between revivalist and reformist movements in the context of 18th century reform movements in colonial India.

Model Answer

18th century reform movements aimed at all round regeneration of society on the basis of modern ideas like humanism, rationalism etc.

Revivalist reform movements-

  • These movements relied to a greater degree on the lost purity of religion they sought to reform.

  • Revivalist movements appealed more to tradition than reason and conscience.

  • These movements aimed to demonstrate that ancient Indian socio-cultural ideas were progressive and rationalist.

  • Examples- Arya Samaj movement, Deoband movement, Wahabi Movement etc.

Reformist movements-

  • These movements relied more on reason and rationalism in accepting or rejecting a social custom or religious tradition.

  • Reformist movements were influenced by the modern Western ideas in the socio-cultural sphere like equality among genders, freedom of choosing life partner etc.

  • Leaders of these movements, though accepting modern western ideas, refused to model the society blindly on western lines. They aimed at modernization not westernization.

  • Example- Brahmo Samaj, Aligarh movement etc.

Both revivalist and reformist movements helped in furthering socio-religious reforms in the society, which ultimately led to the rise of a modern and progressive society.

Subjects : Modern History

Feb. 21, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 21, 2022

Give a brief account of different types of Drainage system which has evolved through time.

Model Answer

Drainage system refers to the origin and development of streams through time. In a region, evolution of drainage system is determined by two factors- nature of slope and geological structure.

Based on adjustment of streams to the geological structure of region, drainage system is divided into two categories.

  1. Sequent streams: Those streams which follow the regional slope and are well adjusted to the local geological structure.

They may be divided into-

  • Consequent rivers: They are the ones that follow the general direction of the slope. For example- Godadvari, Krishna, Kaveri, etc.

  • Subsequent streams: Are those streams which originate on the flank of anticlines and joins the master stream at right angle. For example- River Asan (tributary of Yamuna river), River Son.

  • Obsequent Streams: The stream flowing in opposite direction to its master consequent stream is called so.

  • Resequent Streams: They originate at much later date in comparison to master stream and flow in the same direction as of master consequent stream.


2. Insequent Streams: Those streams which do not follow the regional slope and are not adjusted to geological structure are called Insequent stream.

They are of two types-

  • Antecedent Stream: These are those streams which are originated before the upliftment of land surface. They have maintained their present course through continuous downcutting of their valleys. E.g. Indus, Ganga, Satluj, etc.

  • Superimposed Stream: Are those streams that have been established on an earlier surface (perhaps conformable with the immediately underlying strata, and standing well above the present landscape). Subsequently the pattern was lowered by river incision so it now lies across geologic structures to which it bears no relation. E.g. Damodar, Chambal, Banas, etc.


Thus the drainage system determined by the geographical structures and slope of the region contributes to the further development of the drainage pattern which is witnessed in form of rectangular, trellis, annular, radial etc.

Subjects : Geography

Feb. 17, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 17, 2022

What do you understand by the look-east policy of India? What role can it play in the development of North East India?

Model Answer

The Look East Policy of India was framed by the Narasimha Rao government in the early nineties. It is a substantial manifestation of India's focused foreign policy orientation towards an immensely resourceful and flourishing region, i.e., South East Asia. 

  • It becomes a tool for greater economic engagement with the eastern neighbours and forging strategic partnerships and security cooperation with Southeast Asia and Far East countries – such as Vietnam and Japan.

  • It focused on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries for greater economic integration.

  • The "northeast development concern" was included in the policy in 1997, and it became a role model for the development of the Northeast.

Given the geographical significance, the Northeast assumes the role of bridging the space between mainland India and other Southeast Asian nations. The Look East Policy contains in it the development mantra of the northeast region of India implicitly. It can be seen as follows-

  • Improved Connectivity: Due to geographically connected areas, the emphasis on developing the infrastructure by widening the roads, expanding the air connectivity and railway networks, opening the new trade routes and transit points came into the focus. E.g. the Multimodal Kaladan Project.

  • Market and labour mobility: Better access to the market is linearly equated to peace, prosperity and development. It can also aid in further connectivity and labour mobility in the Border States like Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Internal Security: For the internal security of India related to the Northeast, external factors like China, Myanmar and Bangladesh are important. Good ties with eastern neighbours can help reduce extremist tendencies that take help from the neighbours—E.g. hot pursuit in Myanmar in 2016.

Only looking at the east is not enough for the development of northeast India; that's why since 2014, the government of India has developed this policy further in Acting with the east. Many other regional organizations like SAARC, BIIMSTEC, and ASEAN aid in the further development of the northeast region.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Feb. 14, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 14, 2022

Genetic diseases are becoming a significant health burden today. Discuss. Also elaborate on the step taken by India to manage genetic disorder.

Model Answer

Genetic disease is any of the diseases and disorder caused by mutation in one or more genes. With the increasing ability to control infectious and nutritional diseases, there has come the realization that genetic diseases are a major cause of disability, death, and human tragedy.

In developed nations it is rare to find a family that is entirely free from any known genetic disorder. Furthermore, genetic defects are the major known cause of pregnancy loss in developed nations, and almost half of all spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) involve a chromosomally abnormal foetus. About 30 percent of all postnatal infant mortality in developed countries is due to genetic disease.

Moreover, even in developing countries genetic disease are becoming more visible and significant. For example, In India’s urban areas, congenital malformations and genetic disorders are the third most common cause of mortality in new-borns.

With a very large population and high birth rate, and consanguineous marriage favoured in many communities, prevalence of genetic disorders is high in India.

India’s response: the UMMID initiative: -

Taking into account that it is becoming a significant health burden, India has started the UMMID Initiative which is designed on the concept of ‘Prevention is better than Cure’.

UMMID initiative aims to

  • Establish NIDAN Kendras to provide counselling, prenatal testing and diagnosis, management, and multidisciplinary care in Government Hospitals wherein the influx of patients is more.

  • Produce skilled clinicians in Human Genetics.

  • Undertake screening of pregnant women and new born babies for inherited genetic diseases in hospitals at aspirational districts.

For most of the time, genetic diseases were considered as rare disease and thus not more attention was given to them. But now scientists and nations have started to take it more seriously.  For example, India has launched the National Health Policy, 2017 aiming to shift focus from “sick-care” to “wellness” and UMMID initiative will help in achieving wellness by promoting prevention of genetic diseases.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Feb. 10, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 10, 2022

What are the major impacts of climate change on India? Discuss the mitigation and adaptation strategy employed by the country to tackle it.

Model Answer

Climate change refers to long-term shifts in average temperatures and weather patterns and their impacts on the planet. Human activities like the burning of fossil fuels have been the main driver of climate change.India is more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to its diverse terrain, rapid use of natural resources, industrial development and urbanization.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), India can face the following impacts of climate change:

  • Glacial retreat in the Himalayas:Rising temperature and rain can cause glacial lake outburst floods. It could be evident from the February 2021 incidence of glacial burst from Uttarakhand.

  • Flooding, Landslides and Cyclones: Compounding effects of sea-level rise and intense tropical cyclones lead to flooding in India's various regions. e.g., Mumbai and Konkan region (2021 flood) is prone to sea-level rise and flooding. Increasing cyclones (in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Odisha and West Bengal) in the last 3-4 years are the cause of concern.

  • Draughts: Droughts are expected to be more frequent in some areas, especially northwestern India, Jharkhand, Orissa, and Chhattisgarh. Agricultural production will be affected by 2040.

  • Erratic monsoon: Monsoon rain will be dominated by aerosols and internal variability shortly, but in the long term, it will increase.Erratic monsoon rain caused a devastating loss in the 2021 flood in Maharashtra, Uttarakhand and Kerala.

  • Intense heat stress:Heat extremes are increasing, and marine heatwaves will continue to increase. These are likely to impact India in recent years as it currently affecting the Andhra and Telangana region.

Most of these impacts are irreversible and hence cannot be remediated even if GHG emissions decline dramatically. Therefore, India employed the following strategies to mitigate the climate change impact and adapt to it.


  • NAPCC: It includes reducing the emission of greenhouse gases that cause the temperature rise. In 2008, the (Government of India) GoI initiated the NAPCC outlining existing and future policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation.

  • Paris Agreement: Under this, India committed to a) reduce GHG emission intensity of its GDP by 33-35% below 2005 level by 2030, b) 40% of power capacity will be generated through clean energy sources, and c) it will create an additional carbon sink of 2.5-3 bn tonnes of CO2 through additional forest and tree cover.

  • National Clean Energy Fund:In 2010, the GoI created the National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) to finance and promote clean energy initiatives and fund research in clean energy in the country. 


  • It includes building the capacity of the community through financial, technical and other infrastructural support to minimize the losses due to climate change.

  • Interlinking of rivers project to avoid the problem of scarcity of water

  • Adopting climate-smart agriculture to produce more in less input with avoiding impacts of climate change.

According to the World Bank, climate change could push more than 100 million people into extreme poverty by 2030 by disrupting agriculture and fuelling the spread of malaria and other diseases. Therefore, implementing global and individual country's efforts under the Paris agreement is the urgent need of time.

Subjects : Environment

Feb. 7, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 7, 2022

What do you understand by the term dryland farming? Discuss the significance and measures to enhance dryland farming regions.

Model Answer

Dryland farming is farming in the regions with less than 75 cm annual rainfall. It is characterized by-

  1. Low rainfall with high variability.

  2. Lack of assured irrigation and dependence on monsoon.

  3. Subsistence farming mainly.

Significance of region:

  1. Around 60% of total arable land is rainfed and out of it one-fourth is dry land.

  2. The region contributes to majority of production of nutritional crops like pulses, oilseed, millet, jowar, etc.

  3. Helps in reducing nutritional deficiency especially among poor.

  4. Saves forex reserve by not allowing import of these crops.

  5. Majority of farmers in this region are poor and without uplifting them we can achieve our goal of doubling farmer’s income.

In order to achieve complete food security, remove nutritional deficiency, generate rural employment productivity of dryland region must be increased. For this adoption of better agronomic practices and research is needed. Government has taken various right step in this direction like Integrated Watershed Management Programme, PM Fasal Bima Yojna, KUSUM, etc.

Subjects : Economy

Feb. 3, 2022

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 3, 2022

What are the principles on which the cabinet system of government functions?

Model Answer

The cabinet is the smaller inner body of the Council of ministers. It is the core executive body in Parliamentary system of government.


  • Collective responsibility

 It is the fundamental principle underlying the working of Parliamentary system of government. According to article 75(3), all the ministers own joint responsibility to the Lok Sabha for all their acts of omission and commission. They work as a team and swim and sink together.

Thus, the council of ministers has to resign if Lok Sabha passes vote of no confidence. Alternatively, the council of ministers can advise the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha on the grounds that it doesn’t represent the views of the electorate.

The principle of collective responsibility also means that the Cabinet decisions bind all the ministers even if they differed in the cabinet meeting. In case of disagreement the minister has to resign. E.g. Harsimrat Kaur resigned in 2020 over three farm laws. Dr BR Ambedkar resigned because of difference over the Hindu code Bill in 1953.

  • Individual responsibility.

Article 75(2) states that the President can remove a minister on the advice of the Prime Minister in case of difference of opinion or dissatisfaction with the performance of minister. By exercising this power, the Prime Minister insures the realization of the principle of collective responsibility.

  • No legal responsibility

Unlike in Britain, in India, it is not required that an order of the President should be countersigned by a Minister. Moreover, the courts are barred from enquiring into the nature of advice rendered by the minister to the President.

Thus, these three principles establish responsibility and accountability of the executive and uphold the Parliamentary form of government in India.

Subjects : Polity
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