Sept. 29, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 29, 2023

Q1. India and Australia are two important partners in the Indo-Pacific and cooperate closely in a wide range of sectors. Examine the areas of cooperation and potential challenges that exist between the two nations. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:
The question has two main headings: 1) Areas of cooperation between India and Australia 2) Challenges that exist between the two nations.

Type 1: Introduce your answer by discussing the importance of India and Australia’s partnership in the Indo-Pacific region or Type 2: You can also provide some context and background information on the relationship between the two nations.


Heading 1: Discuss the different sectors in which India and Australia cooperate including trade, defense, diplomacy, education, and cultural exchanges.

Heading 2: Identify any potential challenges or areas of tension that exist between India and Australia. These could include differences in political or economic interests, cultural differences etc.
Heading 3: Write way forward like what can be done to strengthen relations between India and Australia.

Type 1: You can summarize the key points you have discussed in your answer.
Type 2: Provide some insights into how India and Australia can address any challenges and further strengthen their partnership in the Indo-Pacific region.


Answer: India and Australia share commonalities as vibrant democracies with strong ties in trade, energy, education, science and technology, IT, and defense. The relationship has now gained limelight with increased focus on Indo-Pacific region in the West.


The areas of cooperation in India-Australia Relations:

    • Strategic and Security Cooperation:
      • Quad Alliance: This aims to enhance regional security and promote a free and open Indo-Pacific. Both the nations support a rule-based international order in the Indo-Pacific.
      • Maritime Security: Both countries share concerns about maritime security and actively participate in joint naval exercises to strengthen their capabilities.
        • Example, Malabar Exercise
    • Economic Cooperation: Australia is the 17th largest trading partner of India and India is Australia’s 9th largest trading partner.
      • Aims to boost bilateral trade from $30 billion in 2022 to $100 billion by 2030.
    • Energy cooperation: 
      • India and Australia signed a Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement in 2014 for energy trade.
      • India also pledged AUD 10 million under the International Solar Alliance for Pacific Island Countries.


  • Critical Minerals Investment Partnership: The two countries are dedicated to reducing emissions, ensuring energy security, and expanding the global markets for essential minerals and clean technology.


  • Educational cooperation: The Australia-India education qualification recognition mechanism signed in 2023, recognizes degrees obtained in both countries. 
    • Mutual Recognition of Educational Qualifications (MREQ), 2023
    • Deakin University and University of Wollongong of Australia are planning to open campuses in Gujarat’s GIFT City.
  • Science and Technology: Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (AISRF) promotes collaboration on Science & Technology.
    • For instance, Australia is supporting India’s Gaganyaan Space Program.
  • People-to-people Ties: India is one of the top sources of skilled immigrants to Australia.


Challenges in India-Australia Relations:

  • India’s stand on the Russia-Ukraine crisis: Australia’s stance on the Russian invasion of Ukraine differs from that of India, which could impact bilateral relations and the functioning of QUAD.
  • Adani coal mine controversy: The Adani coal mine project in Australia created tensions between the two countries due to some activists protesting against it.
  • Violence with Indian Diaspora: The recent attacks on Indian Diaspora and Hindu temples by Khalistan supporters have strained relations.


Way Forward:

India and Australia have strengthened their relations due to shared values, interests, and objectives in the Indo-Pacific region. There is a need to further strengthen ties and ensure a mutually effective relation between the two nations.


Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 29, 2023

Q3. ”Achieving a sustainable transition to renewable energy sources requires not only technological advancements but also policy innovations." Discuss.(10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: you can write -India's notable position in global renewable energy capacity. Emphasize the need for India to transition to renewable energy

Body: It  have 3 headings 

Heading 1: Need for Transitioning to Renewable Energy.

Heading 2: Technological Advancements Required  

Heading 3: Policy Innovations


Type 1: Emphasize that a comprehensive approach, encompassing both technological and policy advancemwillents, is vital to secure a sustainable and resilient energy future for India. Or 

Type 2: give some initiatives name which complement the same.


Answer: India stands 4th globally in Renewable Energy Installed Capacity as per REN21 Renewables 2022 Global Status Report. To combat climate change as well as to fulfill the energy demands of 1.3 billion population of India, it is imperative to pursue transition to renewable energy from the current energy mix with 57% share of fossil fuels.


Need For Transitioning To Renewable Energy Sources

    • Energy Security: Because of geopolitical tensions and supply chain disruptions, dependence on imported fossil fuels leave the countries in a vulnerable state. 
      • For example, energy security was affected due to coal crisis when Indian Utilities struggled to secure coal supplies due to record global prices in 2021.


  • Pollution: Burning of fossil fuel releases pollutants like SO2, NOx etc contributing to respiratory and heart diseases. 
  • As per WHO report, globally , over 4 million deaths occur annualy due to outdoor air pollution.
  • Combat Climate Change: Burning of fossil fuel accounts for nearly two-third of total GHG emissions globally. 
  • IPCC report warns about global warming to be limited to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels to avoid catastrophic impacts. 



Technological Advancements required


  • Green hydrogen: It helps in storage and transportation of renewable energy while also decarbonising a range of sectors including transport, iron and steel etc. 
  • Under, Green Hydrogen Mission, India aims to produce five million tonnes of green hydrogen by 2030 giving 125 GW of renewable energy capacity.


    • Smart grids: These grids involves the usage of digital technologies to transport electricity from multiple generation sources to meet varying demands of end users. It will help in efficient transmission and lower power costs for consumers.


  • Battery technology: Batteries helps in storage of renewable energy to tackle the issue of variable output by renewable energy sources. 
  • Development of solid-state batteries for EVs as an alternative to Lithium batteries are needed as it makes them safer, more efficient, and more durable.



Policy innovations


  • Policies on Green Transport: Schemes like FAME, Battery swapping policy , Green Urban Transport Scheme as well as ethanol blending programe will help in ensuring transition towards more energy efficient transportation systems.


    • Green Energy Corridor: Aims at synchronizing the electricity produced from renewable resources, such as wind and solar, with the conventional power stations in the grid.


  • Financing mechanism: In 2023 budget, the Indian government decided to invest $4.3 billion in green technology. However, as per RBI report, it will need new investments in the range of $7.2 trillion to $12.1 trillion by 2050. 


  • Diversifying financing sources: Along with existing financing sources like Central PSUs, Banks and NBFCs, government should focus on financing from diverse sources like green bonds, the Adaptation Fund, Green Climate Fund etc. 
    • In this regard, European Investment Bank (EIB) plans to invest about €1 billion in India's renewable energy sector. 
  • Domestic Value chain production: Focus on unique selling proposition (USP) of states. It can be done with different states playing to their strengths. NITI Aayog and DHI can help the states in preparing the customised policies.
    • For instance, if Orissa can become the hub for cell manufacturing, then west Bengal can target the battery assembly. Maharashtra can provide the IT related support for R&D for EV development.


The establishment of initiatives like the Global Biofuels Alliance, the International Solar Alliance (ISA), and the Green Development Pact are steps in the right direction to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070.


Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 29, 2023

Q2. Successful Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief (HADR) automatically feed into diplomatic capital. In this context, how do successful HADR efforts contribute to building diplomatic capital for a country. Elaborate with suitable examples. (10M/150M)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:      

Understanding and structuring the answer:      

The question has two main headings: 1) Understanding HADR efforts’ contribution for India in improving its diplomatic relations and 2) Examples of India’s successful HADR efforts. Additionally, provide a way forward for suggestions.       


Type 1: Briefly explain the significance of HADR in building diplomatic relations. A recent example would help in explaining the meaning.   

Type 2: Mention in short, the ways of providing HADR support. Quote a report finding to show its significance.       


Heading 1: Understanding HADR efforts’ contribution for India in improving its diplomatic relations: Highlight the ways in which HADR efforts build diplomatic capital for a country.      

Heading 2: Examples of India’s successful HADR efforts: Mention examples of different HADR efforts and their impacts.      

For value addition, use institutional data and a way forward.      

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking conclusion –      

Type 1: Mention the significance of HADR efforts in building good diplomatic relations all around the world, particularly in the neighbourhood.      

Type 2: Suggestions under way forward could be used to form a conclusion.   


Answer: India’s growing presence in the domain of humanitarian assistance coincides with its rise as an economic power over the last few decades and its inclination to assume a position of regional and global leadership. Recently, in 2022, India conducted an HADR Samanvay exercise with its ASEAN counterparts. 


Understanding HADR efforts’ contribution for India in improving its diplomatic relations 

  • Taking lead during emergencies in its neighbourhood, India has earned the label of “first responder”.   
  • Generating a positive image and reputation in the eyes of affected population and international communities, by providing effective and timely assistance. 
  • Gaining enhanced regional influence by exhibiting leadership in disaster and non-traditional crises management. 
  • Future prospects of economic and social activities like trade, investment, knowledge and cultural sharing are enhanced because of improved diplomatic ties. 

Under SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region) initiative, India is cooperating with neighbours to ensure economic growth & security in the region while tackling threats such as natural disasters


Examples of India’s successful HADR efforts

  • India has provided HADR to countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia as well as Eastern and Southern Africa
  • During 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, India provided extensive HADR assistance to Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia, strengthening India's diplomatic ties with these countries. 
    • For example: Good diplomatic relations between India and Indonesia contributed to an increase in bilateral trade from US$ 6.9 billion in 2007 to US$ 21.01 billion in 2021. 
  • Despite having uneven relationship with Turkey, India provided overwhelming assistance in different dimensions post 2023 Earthquake
  • Support in terms of providing relief material, NDRF personnel with immense capabilities and accessories, has put India on a global leaders-list
  • India emerged as the pharmacy of the world during the COVID pandemic, supplying medicines and vaccines, particularly to the Global South. 
  • Also, food was distributed by naval ships in the Horn of Africa
  • During Fukushima nuclear disaster 2011, NDRF’s independent and effective actions gathered respect and admiration from the local administration and the world. 
  • Since then, India’s diplomatic ties with Japan strengthened effectively, evident from Japan’s minimal interest loans for bullet train project and Western Dedicated Freight Corridor Project.  
  • Other HADR efforts of India include Operation Sahayta in 2018 in Madagascar and Mozambique, Coast Guard ships' pollution-control capabilities, etc. 


Way forward 

  • Ensuring establishment of an international body for coordinating HADR efforts of different nations. 
  • Increasing private sector participation to decrease cost of operation and induce innovation 
  • Building strategic partnerships with neighbouring countries and regional organizations to enhance its HADR efforts. 
  • Promoting capacity building and skill development of disaster management personnel and community volunteers 

Successful humanitarian aid and disaster relief efforts can significantly contribute to building diplomatic capital for a country. For India, enhancing its HADR capabilities, fostering regional cooperation and promoting capacity building can help bolster its diplomatic relations in the region and beyond. 

Subjects : Current Affairs

Sept. 28, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 28, 2023

Q3.Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) is the bedrock of a digitally empowered society, narrowing the citizen-technology gap. In this context, discuss the significance and challenges of DPI? (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Define DPI

Body: Mention significance and challenges

Conclusion: Way ahead



DPI is an open-source identity platform that can be used to access a wide variety of government and private services by building applications and products on a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) like India Stack. It includes digital forms of ID and verification, civil registration, payment (digital transactions and money transfers), data exchange, and information systems. DPI was introduced in India in 2009 when Aadhaar was first launched.

For ex:  Multiple large-scale DPIs like JAM trinity which links Aadhaar, mobiles and bank accounts, Digi Locker, Bharat Bill Pay, UPI, Aadhaar Enabled Payment Systems (AePS) and Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), CoWin (for vaccination), etc.


Significance of DPI: 


  • Economic Growth: By providing a platform for digital commerce and entrepreneurship, DPIs stimulate economic activity, create jobs, and boost GDP.
    • For ex: Enhancing the ease of doing business. According to the World Bank, India ranked 63rd in 2022 in ease of doing business across the world among 190 countries
    • Formalisation of business transactions with help of GSTN. It may be noted that the GST collection was over Rs 1.59 lakh crore in August 2023.The number of GST taxpayers has doubled from 2017 to 2022.
    • The UDYAM Portal, which relies on digital identity, has successfully registered over one crore MSMEs (Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises).
  • Education: Inclusive DPIs support online learning, enhancing educational opportunities for students across India, regardless of their location or background.
    • For ex: National Knowledge Network (NKN): NKN is a high-speed network linking universities, research centers, libraries, and various knowledge centers throughout India. 
  • Government Services: DPIs enable efficient and accessible e-governance, reducing bureaucracy and corruption while delivering services to citizens more swiftly.
    • For ex: UMANG (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance) is a mobile application initiated by the Indian government, designed to offer convenient access to a wide range of government services and schemes.
  • Healthcare: Telemedicine and health information dissemination become more accessible, improving healthcare outcomes, especially in rural areas.
    • For ex: National Health Stack: The National Health Stack is a prospective digital framework with the objective of establishing a unified platform for the exchange and compatibility of health data
  • Financial Inclusion: Through digital banking and payment services, DPIs help bring financial services to the unbanked and underbanked populations, fostering financial stability.
    • For ex: The proportion of the population with bank accounts rose from 53% in 2015-16 to 78% in 2019-21, according to NFHS data
    • Over 30 lakh vendors have been granted loans of Rs 10,000 each under the PMSVANIDHI scheme, which operates on digital identity.
    • According to industry estimates, cost for bank of onboarding customers in India decreased from USD 23 to USD 0.1 with the use of DPI
  • Agriculture: Inclusive DPIs have the capacity to furnish farmers with up-to-the-minute weather updates, market prices, and optimal agricultural methods. 
    • For ex: Agri Stack aims to make it easier for farmers to get easier access to cheaper credit, higher-quality farm inputs, localized and specific advice, and more informed and convenient access to markets.

Challenges of DPI:


  • Digital Divide: Despite progress, a significant portion of the population still lacks access to basic digital resources and services, exacerbating the digital divide, particularly in rural and remote areas. People with disabilities may encounter digital accessibility challenges due to limited features and design in digital platforms.
    • For ex: As per Oxfam India Inequality Report 2022, among the poorest 20% of Indian households, only 2.7% have access to a computer, while 8.9% have access to the internet.
  • Cybersecurity Concerns: As DPI expands, it faces increased cybersecurity threats, including data breaches and cyberattacks, which can compromise sensitive information and public trust.
    • For ex: According to a report by cybersecurity firm CloudSEK, cyberattacks on Indian government agencies more than doubled in 2022. India’s share in total cyberattacks on government agencies rose to 13.7% in 2022 from 6.3% in 2021
  • Privacy Issues: The collection and use of personal data for DPI purposes raise privacy concerns. Striking the right balance between data utility and privacy protection is a complex challenge.
    • For ex: In June 2023, reports indicated that a Telegram bot might be sharing personal data of Indian citizens registered on the CoWIN portal for COVID-19 vaccinations.
  • Infrastructure Gaps: Inadequate digital infrastructure, including broadband connectivity and reliable electricity supply, hinders the effectiveness of DPI in reaching all corners of the country.
    • For ex: In 2022, only around 52% or 759 million people, became regular internet users, as per an IAMAI and Kantar report.
  • Interoperability: Achieving seamless interoperability between various government systems and databases is a complex task, often resulting in data silos that limit the full potential of DPI.
  • Data Quality: Maintaining accurate and up-to-date data within DPI systems is crucial for informed decision-making and addressing data quality issues remains a constant challenge.


Therefore, there is a need to prioritize digital inclusion while ensuring data protection and equal digital access. Public-private partnerships can aid this. Increased investment in rural digital infrastructure is vital for improved connectivity and affordable internet services. Promoting regional language content enhances accessibility. Tailored digital services like healthcare and education platforms can significantly benefit underserved communities.


Digital Public Infrastructure is vital for modern governance, and India has made substantial progress.It has evolved into our new economic engine that will propel India to a $25 trillion GDP by the 100th anniversary of our political independence.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 28, 2023

Q2. Critically analyze the contemporary significance of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in light of its perceived failure to address the escalating trade tensions across the world. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction:  Introduce by providing a brief overview of the purpose and functions of the WTO or    


Heading 1: Analyze the current significance of the WTO and its relevance in the present-day context.  

Heading 2: Discuss the various challenges faced by the WTO 

Heading 3: Provide potential reforms that could strengthen the organization's ability to promote free and fair trade. 

Conclusion: Conclude with final thoughts or recommendations on how the WTO and its member countries could work together to address trade tensions and promote more open and fair international trade. 


Answer: The (WTO) was established in 1995 under the Marrakesh Treaty (1994) with the aim of promoting free and fair trade among its member countries. However, in recent years, the organization has come under scrutiny for its perceived failure to address escalating trade tensions between nations. 


Significance of the WTO in the present-day context: 

  • Open and Fair International Trade: The WTO guarantees that global trade is governed by universally accepted rules that are applicable worldwide. 
  • For example, Agreement on Agriculture an agreement to reform the agriculture sector and to address the subsidies and high trade barriers that distort agricultural trade.  
  • Stimulates Global Growth: Through the elimination of trade barriers, the WTO creates new markets for the world's resources, thereby promoting global economic growth
  • For example, WTO's elimination of trade barriers, like tariffs on IT products, has boosted global tech sector growth by creating new markets. 
  • Promotes Standardization: The WTO and its members set trade standards for goods, services, and intellectual property governance to reduce quality gaps between production and demand. 
  • For example, the WTO's TRIPS agreement sets global IP standards for patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. 
  • Global Arbitrator: The WTO acts as an impartial arbitrator between conflicting nations and endeavors to establish uniformity in policies and practices. 
  • It settles disputes among its members through its Dispute Settlement Mechanism and prevents trade wars. 


Challenges faced by the WTO on various issues in recent years: 

  • Lack of Transparency: The WTO lacks an agreed definition of developed vs developing countries, which allows members to self-designate and receive preferential treatment, creating controversy. 
  • For instance, there have been instances where major decisions were made by a small group of powerful countries, limiting the participation and influence of smaller and developing nations, including India. 
  • Trade War Between China and USA: The rise of trade disputes/trade war between China and the USA is threatening the very existence of the WTO. 
  • Agriculture Issue: The Agreement on Agriculture is encountering challenges concerning the food security and development needs of developing nations, such as India. 
  • For example, India is concerned about agricultural subsidies from developed countries like the US and EU, which distort global markets and hurt Indian farmers in sectors like cotton and dairy. 
  • E-commerce & Digital Trade: The WTO has not kept up with global demands and failed to adapt accordingly. 
  • For instance, there is no agreement within the WTO to address the issue of e-commerce. 


Reforms Required in Functioning of WTO: 

  • The appointment process for the dispute settlement body should be free from political influence and made independent
  • To modernize the WTO, new rules need to be developed to address the challenges posed by digital trade and e-commerce. 
  • Reforms must empower developing countries in the WTO through equitable representation and decision-making. This involves their active involvement in key bodies and support for capacity-building initiatives. 

The WTO remains a vital institution in global trade despite criticisms of its handling of trade tensions. It has been successful in resolving disputes but requires reforms for promoting free and fair trade. Member countries' willingness to cooperate and adhere to the WTO's rules will determine its success. 

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 28, 2023

Q1. SAARC is often termed a "jammed vehicle". Comment. In light of its perceived shortcomings, is it feasible for BIMSTEC to replace SAARC as a more effective regional organization in South Asia? (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly introduce SAARC and its aims and objectives. 


Heading 1: Discuss the limitations of SAARC, including political differences between member countries, the lack of trust, and an inability to achieve tangible results.  

Heading 2: Write the potential for BIMSTEC to replace SAARC as a more effective regional organization, highlighting the success of BIMSTEC in promoting regional cooperation and addressing shared challenges. 

Conclusion: Emphasize the need for greater cooperation and collaboration among South Asian nations to address common challenges, and regional organizations can play a crucial role in this regard. 



Answer: SAARC is a regional organization of 8 South Asian states formed in 1985 to promote economic and social cooperation. However, it has faced challenges and is often criticized as a "jammed vehicle" due to its perceived shortcomings in achieving its goals.


SAARC a jammed vehicle: shortcomings of SAARC 

Despite being in existence for over three decades, SAARC has failed to achieve its objectives. The major limitations on its working are: 

  • India-Pakistan relations: Pakistan's use of terror as a state policy remains a major challenge for India's diplomacy and security and it has severely hampered the prospects of SAARC. 
  • Trade issues: The member countries compete more than complement each other, with low levels of intra-regional trade hindering the organization's objective. 
  • Similar trade and economic structures in South Asia, with cheap labor and low-value commodities, hinder intra-regional trade  
  • Lack of connectivity: The region is mountainous and has a number of rivers and other natural barriers. This makes it difficult to build and maintain transportation infrastructure. 
  • For example, despite India backing the SAARC–MVA during the 18th summit of SAARC, the agreement was stalled following Pakistan’s reluctance. 
  • Limitation in SAFTA: SAARC agreed on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) in 2004 at the SAARC Summit in Kathmandu. Under this each country was supposed to accord national treatment to the products of other countries. But it has remained non-functional. 
  • For instance, SAFTA's implementation has been unsatisfactory as it is limited to goods and does not include services such as IT
  • Lack of consensus: SAARC's decision-making process is hampered by political differences and historical rivalries among its member countries, leading to a lack of consensus on critical issues. 
  • For example, SAARC does not have any arrangement for resolving disputes or mediating conflicts. 

Importance of  BIMSTEC: 

  • Economic stability: BIMSTEC member states have maintained a steady economic growth rate of 6.5% on average in the past five years, despite the global financial slowdown. 
  • Natural resources: The region possesses abundant untapped natural, water, and human resources, ranging from potential hydropower in the Himalayan basin to hydrocarbons in the Bay of Bengal. 
  • Connectivity: BIMSTEC has three major ongoing projects that could significantly improve the movement of goods and vehicles among member countries. For example, Kaladan Multimodal project that seeks to link India and Myanmar.  
  • Bridging South and South-East Asia: BIMSTEC supports India's Neighborhood First and Act East policies, connecting South Asia with Southeast Asia.  
  • Important for India’s northeast: It promotes economic development in India's northeastern states and provides a separate platform for engaging with neighboring countries. For example, development of IMT trilateral highway 


Feasibility of BIMSTEC replacing SAARC: 


  • While BIMSTEC has emerged as a more effective regional organization in South Asia, it cannot fully replace SAARC due to their different objectives and membership
  • Allowing SAARC to become dysfunctional further limits our ability to address mounting common challenges faced by SAARC nations. For example, poverty, climate change etc.  
  • Failure of South Asian nations to act together in Afghanistan can lead to discord and tensions with jihadi militias, plunging the region into turmoil. For this SAARC has a major role to play.  

It is important to mention that BIMSTEC also faces several challenges such as limited capacity, inadequate funding, and narrow mandate, limiting its ability to address broader regional issues. Thus, while its role and position is promising, it should complement rather than replace SAARC. 

Subjects : Current Affairs

Sept. 27, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 27, 2023

Q1. India’s relationship with West Asia has transformed beyond religion and remittances into a partnership of mutual interests. What are the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead for India in its partnership with West Asia? (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer:  

Understanding and structuring the answer:    

The question has three main headings: 1) Opportunities for India in West Asia 2) Challenges for India in West Asia 


Type 1: Introduce with the topic of India's relationship with West Asia or   

Type 2: Briefly mention the transformation of the India-West Asia relationship beyond religion and remittances.


Heading 1: Discuss the opportunities for India in West Asian countries 

Heading 2: Highlight the challenges for India in West Asia.


Type 1: Reiterate the importance of India's partnership with West Asia for both sides.

Type 2: End with a call to action, urging India to take concrete steps to deepen and broaden its partnership with West Asia.


Answer: India's relationship with West Asia has undergone a transformative shift in recent years, evolving from a historical relationship built on religion and remittances to a partnership based on mutual interests. India's energy security, trade, and security interests have been the key drivers of its growing engagement with the region.


Opportunities for India in West Asia:  

  • Energy Security: The partnership provides India with a reliable and diversified source of energy, ensuring energy security for the country
    • Over 60% of India’s oil imports come from the Middle East.
  • Trade and Investment: India's trade with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) reached USD 154.73Bn in 2021-22, and the FTA signed between India and the GCC has further increased opportunities for bilateral trade and investment.
    • For instance, UAE is India's 3rd largest global trading partner.
  • Security Cooperation: Close cooperation with the region is crucial to prevent the spread of terrorist organizations.
    • For instance, terrorist organisations like ISIS operating from West Asia are spreading radical ideologies into India.
  • Gateway to Central Asia: West Asia serves as a gateway to the energy-rich and landlocked Central Asian region.
    • For example, Chabahar port, situated in the Gulf of Oman acts as India's gateway to Central Asia, facilitating direct sea access and boosting trade and connectivity with the region bypassing Pakistan.
  • Labor Migration: Indian expatriates contribute significantly to the economies of West Asian countries. This labor migration provides remittances to India and strengthens people-to-people ties.


Challenges for India in West Asia: 

  • Political Instability: West Asia's volatility and political instability can impact India's energy security and economic interests in the region.
    • For example, the ongoing conflict in Syria and Yemen and the tensions between Iran and Saudi Arabia pose significant challenges to India's partnership with West Asia.
  • Security of Indian Diaspora: With over 11 million Indians living and working in the region, ensuring their safety and security is a top priority for India.
  • Dependence on oil Imports: India's heavy dependence on oil imports from West Asia makes it vulnerable to global oil price fluctuations.
  • Terrorism: The rise of the Islamic State and other terrorist groups is endangering not just the Indian diaspora in the region but also contributing to radicalization of Indian youth.
  • Regional Conflicts: India's ties with some countries could be hindered due to their involvement in regional conflicts or their relations with Pakistan.


India can strengthen its economic, political, and cultural ties with West Asia, which are the key objectives of the India’s ‘Look West policy’. 


Steps to strengthen India's partnership with West Asia:

  • Economic Engagement: India should continue to deepen economic ties with West Asia by expanding trade, investment, and joint ventures.
    • For example, India and the UAE have set a target of USD 100 billion in bilateral trade by 2025.
  • Engage in Multilateral Forums: Actively participate in regional forums like the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) to promote dialogue, cooperation, and regional stability.
  • Strategic Cooperation: India should continue to engage with West Asian countries on counter-terrorism, maritime security, and cybersecurity.
  • People-to-People Ties: India's diaspora in West Asia should be protected and cultural/educational exchanges should be promoted to strengthen people-to-people ties.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 27, 2023

Q2. The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. In this context, analyze the challenges faced by the UNSC in fulfilling its mandate of addressing contemporary security issues. (10 M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding the structuring of the answer: The question talks about the significance of UNSC in maintaining global peace and security. In the rising times of conflicts, the question also asks us to analyse the efficacy of UNSC by listing challenges faced by it and measures to overcome them.


We can introduce the answer by stating why the question could’ve been asked i.e., inability of UNSC to mediate in Russia-Ukraine War. We can also introduce by stating the origin and primary purpose of UNSC establishment.


Since the directives are to discuss, analyse and suggest, we need to separately address each section. First, we have to state the role of UNSC. This must be followed by listing down the challenges it faces and finally, the measures needed to be adopted to overcome those challenges.
For value addition, you may state examples/facts in your arguments.


Here we can conclude either by summarising the arguments of the body section or by stating a few achievements of UNSC and why institutional reforms are needed.

Answer: The Russian invasion of Ukraine and continuing Russia-Ukraine conflict had brought the role of UNSC under scrutiny. The inability of the UNSC to respond to changing times demands reforms in its structure and functioning.

Role of UNSC in maintaining global peace and security:

  • Maintaining Peace and Security: UNSC maintains international peace and security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations.
  • Peacekeeping Operations: The UNSC mandates and oversees peacekeeping missions in conflict zones to help maintain ceasefires, protect civilians, and facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid.
  • Investigation and Settlement of Disputes: UNSC investigates any dispute or situation which might lead to international conflict and recommends the methods in which the dispute is to be solved.
  • Punitive Actions: UNSC can ask members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression. It can also sanction military action against an aggressor.
  • Appointment Functions: It has power to recommend to the General Assembly for the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

Challenges faced by the UNSC in fulfilling its mandate:

  • Outdated Structure: The Council’s present composition is no longer representative of a world that has seen 142 new countries join the United Nations since 1945. In particular, Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean do not have permanent representation on the Council.
  • Misuse of Veto: Permanent members of UN (P5) misuse veto power i.e., power to strike down resolutions due to political interests. This hinders the functioning of UNSC and has corroded the credibility of the body’s decisions.
    • For instance, China has recently objected to a proposal by India to blacklist senior Pakistan-based Jaish-e Mohammed (JeM) terrorist Abdul Rauf Azhar.
  • Peacekeeper’s Flaws: Allegations of sexual exploitation, lack of resources and mandate to function properly etc. are some of the ills plaguing the functioning of peacekeeping operations.
  • Limited Capacity for Conflict Prevention: The UNSC often becomes involved after conflicts have already erupted, rather than proactively preventing them.
  • Lack of Transparency in Functioning: There is a lack of transparency and efficiency in the Security Council’s decision-making process.
    • For instance, the USA was not sanctioned for invading Iraq on the false pretence of Weapon for Mass destruction and Russia was sanctioned for invading Afghanistan.

Measures for UNSC to addresses Contemporary Security Issues more effectively:

  • Reformed Structure: Regional powers such as India, Brazil, Germany, Japan, Nigeria, and South Africa need to be accommodated in UNSC via permanent seats of their own.
  • Transparency in Functioning: The decision making in UNSC w.r.t., resolutions, sanction etc. must be objective and should not favour one country over another.
  • Veto: The P5 must be devoid from using veto altogether or at least they must be devoid of using veto on matters not concerning their country (this would avoid resolution logjam).
  • Enhanced Peacekeeper’s Mandates: There should be a committee to look into the mandate of peacekeepers and in case of any atrocities, proper legal measures must be initiated.
  • Modern Problems: The modern-day warfare is not traditional in any sense. The use of cyber warfare, space warfare, biological weapons etc. demands reforming UNSC’s mandate to deal with such modern problems.
  • Regional Organizations: Collaborate with regional organizations and encourage them to take a more active role in conflict resolution, as they often have a better understanding of local dynamics.

UNSC, in the last 78 years, has performed decently in terms of avoiding another major war. However, the limitations in its mandate and structure would sooner or later diminish its relevance. Thus, UNSC must reform itself.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 27, 2023

Q3. Highlight the challenges faced by the Production Linked Incentive Scheme that need to be addressed to harness its full potential.(10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer: Start your answer by explaining what is production linked incentive and then discuss the main demand of the question.

Introduction: Describe what is Production linked incentive scheme (PLI)

Body:Question has 2 main part – 1) potential of PLI scheme 2) challenges faced by the Production linked incentive scheme (PLI).

Conclusion: In conclusion, can suggest some way forward to overcome the issues with PLI.


Answer: In 2020, the Government of India launched the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for promoting domestic manufacturing, import substitution and the Make in India initiative. Initially launched for 3 sectors, later, it was extended to 14 sectors in 2021 due to the success and promotion of local production across categories.


Objectives of Production linked incentive scheme: Production Linked Incentives (PLI) scheme is an initiative under the flagship Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan.

  To promote exports and make India an integral part of the global supply chain.

  To promote the competitiveness of Indian Industries like the automotive industry, steel industry, textile industry, and pharmaceuticals industry.

  To promote investments and manufacturing in sectors like white goods, Telecom, solar panels etc.


Potential of PLI scheme

  • Empowering Domestic Manufacturing: By augmenting the domestic manufacturing capacity and competence, the scheme aims at creating more jobs, attracting greater investments, reducing imports, and making India a global manufacturing hub.
  • Addressing Manufacturing Challenges: PLI is often touted as the panacea to India’s manufacturing problems. Scholars believe that the PLI can significantly restructure India’s domestic manufacturing, push its share in the GDP to 25 per cent, and foster seamless upgradation of domestic firms into regional and global production networks.

Challenges faced by the Production linked Incentive Scheme (PLI):

  • Value Addition vs. Assembly Issue: PLI incentives based on sales, not value addition, promotes assembly over actual manufacturing. (E.g., seen in Mobile and Allied Component Manufacturing)
  • Ambiguities in Scheme Design: Lack of clarity in awarding incentives may lead to corruption and malfeasance.
  • Unintended Consequences: Expanding PLI to labor-intensive sectors may create a dependency on subsidies. Removing them later could be challenging, leading to inefficiencies.
  • Bias Towards Larger Firms: Disbursement suggests favoring bigger companies, neglecting the significant contribution of MSMEs to India's manufacturing.
  • Lack of Sector-Specific Understanding: PLI doesn't address unique needs of different sectors. For instance, container manufacturing faces distinct challenges due to high costs and a small market.
  • One-Size-Fits-All Approach: Treating all sectors equally hinders success. For example, technology-intensive industries like pharmaceuticals require more resources for R&D compared to textiles.
  • WTO Limitations: WTO rules limit India's ability to link PLI subsidies to domestic value addition, potentially restricting the growth of domestic industries.


PLI scheme has seen major success in the Mobile and allied Component Manufacturing sector, with the largest mobile phone production and export between 2021 and 2023. To integrate India into global supply chains and make it a manufacturing hub, certain reforms are also needed, like focusing on supply chain co-location, increasing the efficiency of domestic manufacturing, infrastructure development and pushing for labour-intensive sectors to ensure long-term sustainability.


Subjects : Social Issues

Sept. 26, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 26, 2023

Q2. Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) initiative of Japan and India's Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) are complementary to each other. Comment. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: We can introduce the answer by highlighting the outcome of India-Japan joint summit and how IPOI and FOIP was appreciated in it. We can also introduce by highlighting the importance of Indo-pacific region for India.     

Body: Since the directive is to Comment, we need to state how FOIP and IPOI are complementary to each other by stating their various components. This must be followed by highlighting the differentiating aspect of both policies. 

For value addition, you may state examples/facts in your arguments. 

Conclusion: Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of body section or by stating challenges surrounding Indo-pacific region.  



Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) initiative and Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) are policy-measures of Japan and India respectively to address various challenges such as piracy, terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), natural disasters and attempts to change the status quo by China in the Indo-pacific. Recently, in a joint summit (March 2022), India and Japan appreciated the complementary nature of both policy-measures.   


Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) initiative and Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) are complementary to each other in the following ways:  

  • Maritime Security: Owing to varied threats and economic importance of Indo-Pacific region, both FOIP and IPOI focuses on maintaining maritime security in the region.    
  • Maritime Connectivity: Japan is an official partner of maritime connectivity component of India’s IPOI. Under the component, both nations believe in strengthening transit and human resource connectivity in the region. 
  • Trade and Connectivity: Both IPOI and FOIP aim to work towards enhancing trade and connectivity by removing barriers. North East Connectivity Improvement Project in India is an example of India-Japan cooperation under IPOI and FOIP.  
  • Capacity Building and Information Sharing: Strong maritime domain awareness is the first step toward effective maritime enforcement capacity. India’s IPOI and Japan’s FOIP doctrine aims to develop a seamless, real-time, comprehensive overview of the larger Indo-Pacific area. 
  • Disaster Management: Cooperation in the field of disaster prevention is central to both India’s IPOI and Japan’s FOIP. Japan has know-how and technologies which India can use whereas India has requisite manpower/human resource.  


Components of IPOI and FOIP 



Differentiating Components of Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) initiative of Japan and India's Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) – 

  • Maritime Ecology and Maritime Resources: Japan doesn’t share India’s IPOI sustainable use of marine resources in theory (not part of FOIP) and Australia is India’s partner in this component of IPOI. 
  • Air Space: Japan’s FOIP talks holistically not just about marine space but also air space. India’s IPOI focusses only on marine collaboration, protection, security and sustainable use of marine resources. 
  • Global Health and Food Security: FOIP talks about emergency food aid to support vulnerable countries and cooperating to achieve universal health coverage in Indo-pacific. IPOI is silent on these fronts. 
  • Cyber Security and Digital Connectivity: FOIP aims at seamless digital connectivity and enhancing cyber security in the region. India’s IPOI, on the other hand, focusses more on addressing its geopolitical needs w.r.t. Indo-pacific region.   

Indo-pacific region faces multiple challenges in the form of China’s dominance, North Korean threat, marine pollution etc. However, owing to the significance of the region (generates 1/3rd of the world’s economic output), collaborative policy measures like IPOI and FOIP are needed.

Subjects : Polity

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 26, 2023

Q1. 'Think and Relate East’ is the new way to go beyond ‘Look East’ and ‘Act East’. Discuss.(10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Start by defining the terms "Look East" and "Act East" policies and explain how these policies have been successful in increasing trade and cooperation between India and Southeast Asia or      


Heading 1: Write the successes and drawbacks of the “Look East” and “Act East” policies.   

Heading 2: How Think and Relate East can help overcome the drawbacks. 

Conclusion: Restate the importance of India adopting a more proactive approach to engaging with the Indo-Pacific region. 



"Think and Relate East" deals with India's engagement with the Indo-Pacific region which goes beyond the traditional "Look East" and "Act East" policies, which were focused on economic and strategic engagement with Southeast Asia. "Think and Relate East" takes a more holistic approach, and seeks to build deeper cultural, social, and political ties with the region, with emphasis on India’s North-East. 


Need to go beyond “Look East” and “Act East” policies: 

Despite the many benefits of "Look East" and "Act East" policies like strengthened diplomatic relations, strategic ties, enhanced trade and economic cooperation, increased connectivity etc., the policies had their limitations. These include- 

  • Implementation challenges: Despite progress, delays and hurdles in project implementation have affected the speed and depth of cooperation. 
  • For example, the IMT highway project was scheduled to be ready by 2015 but now it is expected to be completed only by 2023. 
  • Trade imbalance: The trade balance between India and Southeast Asian countries favours the latter, necessitating efforts to address imbalances and promote balanced trade relations. 
  • For instance, India's trade deficit with Southeast Asia stood at $25.8 billion in 2021-22. 
  • Limited focus on Northeastern India: The Look East policy has not been able to address the multiple challenges faced by the region including poor infrastructure, education, healthcare, employment, and increased insurgency. 
  • For instance, economic integration of the North-East with other parts of India is hindered by geography and lack of connectivity initiatives.  
  • Growing influence of China: The growing influence of China on Southeast Asian nations poses threat in the form of strategic realignments and economic dependencies. The two policies have not been able to counter this. 
  • For example, China's increasing influence in Myanmar through infrastructure projects like the BRI. 


Benefits of Think and Relate East 

  • Economic Opportunities: Strengthening cultural and people-to-people connections can create a conducive environment for increased trade, investments, and economic collaborations between Northeast India and East Asian countries. 
  • It leads to enhanced market access, diversification of trade, and economic growth for India. 
  • Regional Influence: By actively engaging with the East and building strong relationships, India can expand its regional influence and play a more prominent role in shaping regional agendas and decision-making processes. 
  • Security Cooperation: Building trust and closer relationships through cultural exchanges and people-to-people connections can lay the foundation for enhanced security cooperation. 
  • It can involve intelligence-sharing, and coordinated efforts to address common security challenges such as terrorism, piracy etc. 
  • Knowledge Exchange and Innovation: Collaborative projects in education, research, and technology can facilitate knowledge exchange and innovation between Northeast India and East Asian countries. 
  • People-to-People Connections: The approach encourages initiatives that facilitate direct interactions and collaborations between individuals, academia, artists, and professionals from different countries. 
  • For example, cultural exchange programs, like art festivals, film collaborations, and academic exchanges. 


The "Think and Relate East" approach is a new and innovative way for India to engage with the Indo-Pacific region. This approach is necessary for India to protect its interests in the region and to play a more active role in shaping the future of the Indo-Pacific. 

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 26, 2023

Q3. Outer space, the final frontier, holds the promise of unity among nations, yet it also poses the challenge of preserving the cosmic commons for generations to come. In light of the statement, highlight the problems associated with space activities and the relevance of international cooperation in managing outer space effectively? (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Define Outer space

Body: Mention problems associated with space activities and then mention relevance of International Cooperation

Conclusion: Way ahead



Outer space, often called space, is the vast expanse beyond celestial atmospheres, starting around 100 km above Earth at the Kármán line where the atmosphere ends. It is used to distinguish it from airspace (and terrestrial locations).

Problems with space activities

  • Space Traffic and Risk of Collision: The problem stems from a rapid surge in satellite launches over the last ten years. Before 2012, satellite launches remained relatively steady. However, in 2013, we saw a dramatic increase, with 210 new satellite launches that year. 
    • By 2019, the number had tripled to 600 launches, and it doubled again to 1,200 in 2020. The situation intensified even further in 2022, with a staggering 2,470 satellite launches. 
  • Lack of International Coordination: Lack of consensus among nations on global guidelines for space exploration, resource utilization, and exploitation may result in disputes, potentially causing harm to the environment and cultural heritage.
    • At present, the management of space traffic is done separately by individual countries and regional organizations. Each of these entities has its own set of rules, preferred methods, definitions, and communication systems.
  • Menace of Space Debris: With over 24,000 objects larger than 10 centimeters, one million between 1 and 10 centimeters, and possibly more than 130 million smaller than 1 centimeter have been recorded in outer space.
    • For ex: In 2009, an accidental collision occurred between an Iridium communications satellite and a defunct Russian satellite, creating thousands of pieces of space debris.
    • The 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test created thousands of trackable fragments and a significant number of smaller debris, posing risks to both crewed and uncrewed missions in orbit.
  • Space Warfare: Satellites can be intentionally redirected to collide with others, creating more space debris and risking damage to crucial civilian infrastructure. This could disrupt essential functions like communication, observation, and navigation, impacting the global supply chain.
    • The growing participation of countries in space activities, driven by increased private sector engagement, such as in the United States, China, India, and Japan, may potentially lead to future conflicts in space.
  • Notable Gaps in the Outer Space Treaty : As of now, the Outer Space Treaty, also known as the Treaty on Principles Governing Activities in Outer Space, is a global agreement that lays the foundation for international space law which bans nuclear weapons in space,mandates the peaceful use of celestial bodies like the Moon,ensures open access to space for all nations,prohibits any nation from asserting ownership over outer space or celestial bodies.
    • However, there are notable gaps in space laws encompass the non-ratification of the 1979 Moon Treaty by major spacefaring nations, the absence of a formal dispute resolution mechanism, silence on issues related to collisions and space debris, and inadequate provisions regarding interference with the space assets of other nations

Relevance of International Cooperation

  • Shared Resource Management: Outer space is a global common with limited resources. Collaborative efforts are necessary to ensure equitable access and sustainable use of these resources, such as orbital slots and celestial bodies like the Moon.
    • For ex: The ISS showcases international cooperation in utilizing a shared space resource for research and technological advancement.
  • Conflict Prevention: As more countries and private entities engage in space activities, the risk of conflicts, such as satellite collisions or territorial disputes, increases. International cooperation can establish rules and mechanisms for dispute resolution to prevent hostilities.
    • For ex: SpaceX has launched thousands of Starlink satellites to create a global satellite internet network and Amazon's Project Kuiper obtained regulatory approvals for launching constellation of over 3,000 micro-satellites
  • Space Debris Mitigation: The proliferation of space debris poses a common threat to all space-faring nations. Collaborative initiatives are crucial for tracking and mitigating space debris to protect valuable space assets.
    • For ex: In 2022, India and the USA entered into a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) agreement to jointly monitor objects in space.
  • Scientific Advancements: Cooperation enables the sharing of scientific knowledge and research findings, fostering innovation and progress in space exploration and technology development.
    • For ex: Systems like GPS (United States), GLONASS (Russia), Galileo (European Union), and Bei Dou (China) provide global navigation and positioning services through the joint operation of satellite constellations
  • Peaceful Use of Space: International cooperation reinforces the commitment to using outer space for peaceful purposes, as outlined in the Outer Space Treaty. This helps maintain a stable and secure space environment.
    • For ex: Multiple countries operate space surveillance networks like the United States' SSN, sharing data and warnings about potential collisions.

In this regard, in 2023, the United Nations (UN) has put forth a proposal for a fresh treaty with the objectives of safeguarding peace and security in outer space and averting the escalation of an arms race. These negotiations aim to craft a set of global standards, regulations, and principles to confront challenges facing space systems. Therefore, International cooperation in outer space governance is crucial for addressing the growing challenges and opportunities in space exploration, ensuring the peaceful and sustainable use of outer space, and preventing conflicts and environmental degradation in this unique domain.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Sept. 25, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 25, 2023

Q3. In the context of the recently introduced Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023,  discuss the concept of data federalism and write the various implications of this Act. (10M, 150 W)

Model Answer

Approach: Question is asking about implications of Digital Personal Data Protection Act, of 2023 and the associated concept of Data federalism.

Introduction: Can write definition of data federalism or a brief background of Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023

Body: write key provisions of the DPDPA,2023. Elaborate the principles of data federalism and write the associated implications of the act. 

Conclusion: Elaborate on need to achieve a balanced approach and effective implementation of the act. You can also summarise your body arguments in conclusion.


Answer: The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 addresses privacy concerns in the era of rapid technological advancement. It aims to safeguard privacy rights of citizens regardless of gender, caste, religion, or domicile. This act has significant implications for data federalism and privacy rights.


Data federalism

It refers to the decentralized governance of data, allowing regional authorities to have a say in data management. It aims to balance central oversight with local autonomy, ensuring data protection while respecting regional needs and priorities. 


Principles of Data federalism

  • Decentralization of Data Governance: Data governance authority and decision-making should be dispersed across different levels of government, allowing for local control and tailored policies.
  • Autonomy of Data Jurisdictions: Different regions or states within a country should have the autonomy to establish their own data protection and privacy regulations, aligned with broader national frameworks.
  • Interoperability and Harmonization: While allowing for regional autonomy, there should be mechanisms in place to ensure that data protection laws and regulations can work together seamlessly, avoiding conflicts and ensuring consistency.
  • Data Localization and Sovereignty: Encouraging the storage and processing of data within national or regional boundaries to enhance data security and ensure that data is subject to the jurisdiction's legal framework.
  • Collaborative Federalism: Governments at different levels should collaborate in setting data protection policies, sharing best practices, and working together to address cross-border data flow challenges.


Key Provisions of  Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023

  • Key Definitions: 
  • Data Principal: The individual whose data is sought to be collected. 
  • Data Fiduciary: The service provider who determines the purpose and manner of data processing.
      • Data Processor: The entity which processes the data on behalf of the data fiduciary
  • Rights of Individuals:
      • Access to Information: Individuals can access basic information in specified languages.
      • Right to Consent: Prior consent needed for data processing; individuals must be informed of data collection purpose.
      • Right to Erase: Data principals can request data correction or erasure.
  • Data Protection Board:
      • Proposed establishment to oversee compliance with the bill.
      • Allows consumers to file complaints in case of unsatisfactory response from Data Fiduciary.
  • Cross-border Data Transfer:
      • Permits data storage/transfer to notified countries with suitable data security measures and Indian data access assurance.
  • Financial Penalties:
      • Data Fiduciaries face penalties for data breaches or failure to notify users.
      • Data Principals may be fined up to Rs. 10,000 for false document submission or frivolous complaints.
  • Exemptions:
    • Government can exempt businesses based on user volume and data processing scale, considering startup concerns.
    • National security exemptions retained, allowing agencies to bypass certain provisions for India’s interests.



Positive Implications of the Act:

  • On Government: Mandates robust security practices, prompting investments in data protection measures like encryption and regular audits. Establishes a framework for the government to regulate data handling practices, ensuring compliance with legal standards.
  • On Citizens: The Data Protection Act empowers individuals by granting them authority over their personal data, aligning with their fundamental right to privacy. It establishes safeguards against unauthorized access, breaches, and ensures transparency in data handling, reinforcing adherence towards constitutional principles.
  • On Businesses: The Act Imposes compliance requirements on businesses, necessitating investments in data protection measures. Adherence to the Act builds trust with customers, as it demonstrates commitment to safeguarding their data.
  • On Startups and SMEs: May face initial challenges in adapting to compliance requirements, but exemptions may provide relief. Also, it presents opportunities for startups offering data protection solutions to thrive in the market.
  • On Tech Industry: Promotes innovation in data processing techniques while necessitating compliance with legal requirements. Creates a demand for data protection solutions and services, fostering growth in the tech industry and establish themselves as responsible custodians of customer data..


Areas of potential concern in the Act:

  • Data federalism: A central Data Protection Board (DPB) for control over state-collected data raises apprehensions over data federalism concerns among the states.
  • Challenges in Cross-Border Data Flows: Act's provisions are significantly stricter and less detailed than those of other countries, it may impede the flow of data across borders. This could have negative implications for international business operations and global collaborations.
  • Potential Intrusion into Citizen's Privacy: Broad definition of "lawful purposes" allows extensive data processing without clear limitations, potentially compromising citizens' privacy.
  • Exemption for Government-Notified Data Fiduciaries: Proposed exemption for government-notified data fiduciaries from sharing data processing details with data owners could limit transparency and accountability.
  • Compliance Burden on Businesses: The Data Protection Act imposes additional compliance requirements on businesses, particularly small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which may struggle with the financial and administrative burden of implementing comprehensive data protection measures.
  • Impact on Innovation and Research: Stringent data protection regulations may hinder innovation and research in fields that rely heavily on data, such as healthcare and artificial intelligence. Researchers and innovators may face challenges in accessing and using data for legitimate purposes.


A balanced approach in a Data Protection Act ensures that individuals' privacy rights are upheld while still allowing for legitimate data processing necessary for various lawful purposes. Simultaneously, adherence to the spirit of data federalism ensures that data governance aligns with diverse regional needs and preferences, promoting effective and inclusive decision-making in a digital society.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 25, 2023

Q2. Indian diaspora has been contributing greatly to India’s growth and promoting its interest in their host countries, but they can't be taken for granted. In this context, discuss some of the challenges faced by the Indian diaspora and suggest measures in this direction. (10M, 150 W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Introduction: We can introduce the answer by explaining the meaning of the Indian diaspora and quoting some data. We can also introduce by highlighting any recent Indian diaspora-related news like celebration of ‘Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas’ etc.

Body: Since the directives are to discuss and suggest, we shall first discuss the importance of the Indian diaspora in India’s and host country’s development. Then we will discuss challenges faced by the Indian diaspora and this must be followed by measures India can take to address these challenges.

For value addition, you may state examples/facts in your arguments.

Conclusion: Here we can conclude either by summarising the arguments of body section or by stating the importance of the Indian diaspora in the Nation’s development.


Answer: Indian Diaspora is a generic term used for addressing people who have migrated from the territories that are currently part of India to other foreign countries. It is composed of ‘NRIs’ (Indian citizens not residing in India) and ‘PIOs’ (persons of Indian origin who have citizenship of another country).


Contribution of diaspora in promoting India’s growth and its interests in their host countries

  • Economic Aid in Form of Remittances: Remittances help to bridge the balance of payment (BoP) gap and support a country’s development. 
    • In 2022, Remittances to India crossed $100 billion for the first time.
  • Economic Investments: Indian diaspora members often invest in India through foreign direct investment (FDI), portfolio investments, and remittances. This infusion of capital helps stimulate economic growth, create jobs, and fund development projects.
  • Technology and Innovation Transfer: Many Indian professionals and entrepreneurs abroad are involved in cutting-edge technology, research, and innovation sectors. They often collaborate with Indian institutions and businesses, facilitating the transfer of technology and knowledge back to India.
  • Cultural Diplomacy: The Indian diaspora promotes India’s rich culture, traditions, and heritage in their host countries. 
    • Cultural events, festivals, and initiatives like yoga and Indian cuisine contribute to cultural diplomacy and enhance India’s image abroad.
  • Bridge Knowledge Gap: Diaspora acts as an important ‘bridge’ to access knowledge, expertise, and resources from the rest of the world for the development of India.


Challenges faced by Indian Diaspora

  • No Proper Grievance Redressal: There are multiple portals such as e-Migrate, and the Centralised Public Grievance Redressal and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS) to resolve the grievances of Indian nationals abroad. However, multiple portals delay grievance resolution and lead to duplication of work.
  • Country/Region-Specific Problems: There are region/country specific problems faced by Indian diaspora.
    • For instance, Indians in Gulf countries come across discriminatory policies like the KAFALA system (requires a local sponsor) whereas Indians in US/UK mostly come across racial discrimination.
  • Lack of Policy: The government has no clear policy on diaspora in place, despite their socio-economic contributions to the development of the country.
  • No Centralised Database: There is no centralised database of Indian diaspora. The MEA figures differ from country-specific embassies figures and other country data on migrants.
  • Women Exploitation: There has been increasing cases of women being deserted in NRI marriages.


Measures to Counter the Challenges faced by Indian Diaspora

  • Create an Authentic Database: An authentic embassy-wise database must be created and the diaspora must be encouraged to register themselves.
  • Dedicated Policy for Diaspora: The government should draft a clear policy document on the diaspora which would serve as a guiding principle for engagement with the community.
  • Rehabilitation of Workers: A rehabilitation scheme to ensure livelihood security for workers who lost their jobs or were unable to return to their place of employment is required.
  • Skilling of Potential Migrant Workers: With new labour markets emerging in East-Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the skilling of potential migrant workers is needed.
  • Tackle Discrimination: There should be foreign centres/embassy dedicated offices to deal with all forms of discrimination and harassment faced by Indians.


The overseas community of India plays a very vital role in the development of India and in aiding the foreign policy goals of India. The Government of India does acknowledge the role played by the Indian diaspora but the above measures must be adopted to effectively address the challenges faced by them.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 25, 2023

Q1. India-Bangladesh has witnessed the strengthening of their relationship in the last two decades. However, there are still cardinal issues to be addressed. Explain (10M, 150 W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:  Write about the notable advancements in India-Bangladesh relations and highlight the obstacles in the bilateral relations between the two countries.


●  Type-1: General introduction about the relationship between India and Bangladesh

●  Type-2: Recent trends in the India-Bangladesh relationship

Body: Divide the body into two parts- Part-1. Write about notable advancements in India-Bangladesh relations. Mention the obstacles between India and Bangladesh in Part-2.


  • Type-1: Prospects of India-Bangladesh relations
  • Type-2: Other measures to improve the ties between both nations.


Answer: India played a crucial role in forming Bangladesh with the formation of Mukti Bahini in 1971. India was also the first nation to acknowledge Bangladesh as an independent state. Indo-Bangladesh ties are based upon shared history, common heritage, linguistic and cultural bonds, etc.

Notable Advancements between India and Bangladesh

  • Trade: The bilateral trade volume has witnessed substantial growth, fostering economic ties and benefiting both nations. This trade relationship has resulted in increased investment, job creation, and improved connectivity.
    • Example, India has emerged as Bangladesh's largest trading partner in South Asia, and Bangladesh is the 4th largest export destination for India.
  • Connectivity: Enhanced connectivity between the two countries facilitates trade and people-to-people contact.
    • Example, The Maitri Setu Bridge, inaugurated in 2021, over River Feni in Tripura.
    • The Chilahati-Haldibari rail link has restored a historic rail connection, further improving cross-border transportation and trade.
  • Line of Credit (LoC): The financial assistance has supported the implementation of infrastructure projects and contributed to Bangladesh's socio-economic development.
    • Example, one-fourth of India’s LOC is allocated to Bangladesh, specifically in areas such as transport, power, information and communication technology (ICT), and other key sectors.
  • High Impact Community Development Projects (HICDPs): These initiatives have improved the quality of life for communities and fostered people-to-people bonds between the two nations.
    • Example, India has undertaken several High Impact Community Development Projects in Bangladesh, focusing on crucial areas like education, healthcare, water management, cultural exchanges, and infrastructure development.
  • Energy cooperation: India helps address Bangladesh's energy demands and promote regional energy security. This cooperation has laid the foundation for further collaboration in renewable energy and power transmission projects.
    • Example, Bangladesh imports 1160 MW of electricity from India
  • Military Cooperation: Robust military cooperation enhances interoperability, strengthens defense capabilities, and promotes mutual understanding and trust between the armed forces of both countries.
    • Example,  joint exercises such as Exercise Sampriti (Army) and Exercise Milan (Navy)
  • Resolution of bilateral issues amicably: Successful resolution of the long-standing border dispute, leading to improved bilateral relations and enhanced security along the border.
    • Example, Land Boundary Agreement, 2015

Obstacles in India-Bangladesh relations

  • Teesta River Dispute: The Teesta River dispute arose from Bangladesh's dissatisfaction with its insufficient water allocation. However, the signing of a treaty in 2011 between India and Bangladesh did not materialise, mainly due to opposition from the West Bengal government.
  • Illegal Migration: This issue involves both refugees and economic migrants, leading to socio-economic and political ramifications in the border states.
  • Drug Smuggling and Human Trafficking: Instances of drug smuggling, poaching, and human trafficking across borders undermine security and socio-economic development.
  • Terrorism: The border region faces a vulnerability to terrorist infiltration, with various extremist groups aiming to expand their influence.

○  Example, The presence of groups like Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) underscores the importance of close cooperation in intelligence sharing, counterterrorism operations, and border security.

  • China Factor: China's involvement in Bangladesh through the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) raises concerns for India's national security. China's military equipment procurement by Bangladesh and its pressure to undertake infrastructure projects pose challenges.

○  Example, China is also pressuring Bangladesh to dredge the entire course of the Teesta River and use the reclaimed land to build infrastructure on loans from China. This is being done because India-Bangladesh don’t have a river agreement on Teesta.

The current relationship between India and Bangladesh can aptly be described as a 'Shonali Adhyay' or golden chapter,  in their bilateral ties. To safeguard their interests in the region, both countries should leverage the shared values of openness, mutual trust, cooperation, and mutual respect.


Resolving issues between India and Bangladesh

●  Resolving water dispute: Lessons could be drawn from the recently signed, Kushiyara River agreement creating a win-win situation for both countries.

●  Resolving the illegal immigrant issue: Addressing this challenge requires enhanced border management and comprehensive immigration policies.

●  Resolving Narco-terrorism and Human Trafficking: Strengthening border surveillance, intelligence sharing, and joint operations are necessary to combat these issues effectively.

●  Addressing the China factor:It is essential for India and Bangladesh to engage in constructive dialogue to address China’s rising presence and associated concerns and maintain regional stability.


Subjects : Current Affairs

Sept. 22, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 22, 2023

Q2. The National Rural Health Mission envisaged architectural correction of the rural healthcare system, but certain gaps still persist in the system. Identify those gaps and suggest remedial measures to strengthen rural healthcare system.  (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: We can introduce the answer by briefly writing about National Rural Health Mission. We can also introduce by highlighting the importance of Rural Healthcare.


Heading 1: We have to write about the persisting gaps in rural healthcare system. 

Heading 2: We have to write about the remedial measures that need to be taken to strengthen rural healthcare system 

Here we can quote relevant examples and data/stats in support of arguments.  
Conclusion:   We can conclude by highlighting the importance of NRHM in strengthening rural healthcare. We can also conclude by highlighting the importance of rural healthcare in realizing the SDG 3 of UN.



National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched in 2005 to provide healthcare services to the rural population. The Mission committed to increasing public expenditure on health from 0.9% of GDP to 2-3% of GDP.


Gaps in Rural Health Services:

  • Shortage of infrastructure: Due to the shortage of Primary Health Centers and Community Health Centers, an average facility is serving much more people than it is equipped to serve.
  • For example, India has just 25,743 PHCs and 5,624 CHCs against the estimated need for 29,337 PHC and 7,322 CHCs.
  • Lack of personnel: As per Rural Health Statistics 2019-20, there is a shortfall of 76.1% specialists at the CHCs as compared to the requirement for existing CHCs.
  • Altogether, 56,581 positions of doctors and other health staff are vacant in rural areas.
  • Low Spending: India spends way too less on health in comparison to other developed nations like the U.S. and Japan.
  • For example, Economic Survey 2020-21 has strongly recommended an increase in public spending on healthcare services from 1% to 2.5-3%.
  • Awareness Deficit: Rural masses are not aware of the health services being provided in the under several health schemes which impacts the efficacy of such schemes.
  • For example, due to lack of education, vaccine hesitancy was seen among rural population during COVID-19 pandemic.


Remedial Measures to Strengthen Rural Health Services:

  • Connecting Communities through Technologies: Tele-health can be used to increase access to specialist consultations from an accessible PHC/CHC.
  • For example, Indian Council for Medical Research's, Arogyasri, is an internet-based mobile telemedicine system that integrates multiple hospitals, mobile medical specialists, and rural mobile units/clinics.
  • Access to Health data: It should be available with rural health networks so they could monitor the health indices of the population and spot those individuals who are more likely to end up in secondary or tertiary care.
  • Citizen's participation: In a cross-country analysis of governance systems and health outcomes, countries with robust local government were found to have consistently lower infant mortality rates than those with more centralized forms.
  • For example, In West Bengal and Kerala where primary healthcare is co-managed by panchayats – health outcomes are far better than the other states.
  • Comprehensive Healthcare Management: This would lead to the appropriate utilization of primary health facilities and reduce the burden at the secondary and tertiary levels of care by reducing unnecessary referrals.


National Rural Health Mission through its financial and human resources has a key role to play in identifying, adopting and scaling innovative solutions to address the equity gaps in rural healthcare.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 22, 2023

Q1. To effectively address poverty, the welfare of urban poor cannot be an afterthought in policy making. Discuss. (10M/150W)

Model Answer



We can introduce the answer by highlighting the problem of urban poverty in India. This can be done by using facts/examples. We can also introduce by highlighting government policy measures to address urban poverty.     


Since the directive is to discuss, we first shall state the need for addressing urban poverty. This must be followed by enlisting policy measures of government to address urban poverty and finally by measures to effectively address urban poverty.

For value addition, you may state examples/facts in your arguments.


Here we can conclude either by summarizing the arguments of body section or by stating the importance of urban India in Nation’s development. 



Urban India is plagued with deteriorating conditions of urban poor, which mostly includes migrants from villages, informally employed residents, slum dwellers etc. They are deprived of proper policy measures which further worsens the situation. The fight against poverty is incomplete without addressing urban poverty. 


Need to Address Urban Poverty

  • Rising Population: According to a survey by the UN State of the World Population report, by 2030, 40.76% of the country’s population is expected to reside in urban areas. By 2035, the percentage rises to 43.20%. Thus, urban poverty will also increase and needs to be addressed.
  • Attracting Investments: International investments are attracted by urban centres. Capital cities, in general, are the favored locations for FDI. They are the key nodes in the global system as they function as a bridge between nations.
  • High Crime Rates: The segregation and divide between rich and poor has increased the urban crime rates. Addressing urban poverty would decrease the crime rate.
  • Pressure on Infrastructure: The sprawling slums and suburbs put pressure on urban infrastructure.
  • Policy Failures: Urban poverty doesn’t allow proper policy implementation as the policies are not specifically addressed to them.



Measures by Government to Address Urban Poverty

  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation 2.0: It aims at making the cities ‘water secure’ and ‘self-sustainable’ through circular economy of water.
  • Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana (National Urban Livelihoods Mission): The scheme aims to reduce poverty and vulnerability of the urban poor households by enabling them to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities.
  • Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban): The mission aims to provide universal coverage of water supply to all households through functional taps in all 4,378 statutory towns.
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Housing for All - Urban): The scheme seeks to address the housing requirement of urban poor including slum dwellers. A total of 1.20 crore houses were sanctioned and 53% completed till December 2022.


What more needs to be done?

  • Urban-poor Specific Mission Mode Campaigns: Such campaigns should cover schemes related to LPG connection, bank accounts, life and accident insurance, EPFO and ESI facilities, and healthcare programmes like Ayushman Bharat and Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), employment schemes and drinking water, electricity, sanitation and other projects.
  • Value Addition and Employment Guarantee: Skilling, upskilling, and re-skilling opportunities must be readily available for poor households in ways that enable them to combine work with skill upgradation. Apprenticeships to the eligible will also help.
  • Urban Local Bodies Reforms: The finances of ULBs don’t allow them to freely undertake initiatives to address urban poverty at their level. Finance augmentation measures like municipal bonds, better property tax collection, etc. alongside functional autonomy would be helpful.
  • Better Infrastructure: Urban accommodation, followed by improvement of schools, health facility expansion, etc. would aid in connecting deprived households to human development requirements.
  • Addressing Regional Development: The influx of migrants from villages to cities puts pressure on urban infrastructure and resources, thereby inflating urban poverty. Balanced regional growth must be ensured.


Addressing urban poverty should not be limited to policy making and jargons, it must be a mission-oriented process. The urban centres of India must become shining light of prosperity, not the den of poverty and segregation.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 22, 2023

Q3. Indo-Canada ties have grown from mid-20th-century diplomacy to a diverse 21st-century partnership involving trade, tech, and people. In light of recent developments, analyze the Indo-Canada relations.(10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Give a brief about Indo-Canada ties 

Body: Mention arguments for growing Indo-Canada Relations and post that mention issues in Indo-Canada Relations

Conclusion: Mention Way ahead


Initially after India’s Independence, India-Canada relations were modest with limited diplomacy and trade. During the Cold War, their shared Commonwealth status and support for the UN fostered closer ties. In the 1980s, the growing Indian diaspora strengthened people-to-people connections. Trade surged in the 1990s post-liberalization, and the 21st century witnessed substantial growth, especially in IT, biotech, and renewable energy sectors.


Some of the key sectors of cooperation:

  • Trade: India is Canada’s tenth-largest trading partner with total bilateral trade between India and Canada to be around USD 8.16 billion in 2022-23.
    • India's exports to Canada encompass pharmaceuticals, iron and steel products, chemicals, gemstones etc.
    • On the other hand, Canada exports uranium, natural gas, oil, coal, minerals, and advanced technologies in areas such as hydropower, mining, and renewable energy.
  • Technology: Canadian firms like BlackBerry invest in India's tech sector, while Indian IT companies like TCS, Wipro etc.  expand in Canada to tap the North America Market. Both countries have shown interest in cooperating in the technology sector, including partnerships in artificial intelligence. In the realm of science and space, ISRO and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) have signed agreements for joint space exploration and utilization. ISRO's commercial division, ANTRIX, has effectively launched numerous Canadian satellites.
    • In its 100th Satellite launch aboard the PSLV in 2018, ISRO also carried the inaugural Canadian Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite.
  • People-to-People: Canada hosts one of the world's largest Indian diaspora communities (around 3% of its population), including the second-largest Sikh population globally, after India.
    • Since 2018, India has been the largest source country for international students in Canada.
  • Energy: India and Canada forged a Nuclear Cooperation Agreement (NCA) in 2010 and signed Uranium supply agreement in 2015.
  • Security and Defense : In 2015, an SOI was signed between DRDO and Canada's Defence Research and Development Council. Security cooperation was bolstered in 2018 through the Framework for Cooperation on Countering Terrorism between India and Canada.
  • Canada's Indo Pacific Strategy: It terms India as a "crucial  partner” and it  seeks to collaborate with India in shared areas, including security, democracy, pluralism, and human rights.


Issues in Indo-Canada Relations:

  • Pro-Khalistan Stance: Canada's perceived leniency towards Khalistani supporters, vandalism of Hindu temples, and the freedom granted to Khalistani leaders to organize separatist activities have strained India-Canada relations, leading to violence against Indian diplomats and diplomatic facilities.
  • Trade Hurdles: India and Canada encounter trade hurdles involving market access, agriculture barriers and regulatory issues. Further, complex labor laws, market protectionism, including stalled CEPA and BIPPA (Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements) negotiations hinder bilateral trade.
  • Close Relations with China: China has become Canada's second-largest trading partner after the United States. Many Chinese students enroll in Canadian universities, contributing to people-to-people ties.


Having said that, tense India-Canada relations won't likely affect trade and investments as both trade complementary products, not competing ones. Focus should be on constructive engagement with the Sikh diaspora to counter misinformation spread by separatists, prioritizing cooperation in areas like trade, energy, infrastructure, and transport. De-hyphenation of political disputes from trade, particularly by resuming negotiations like the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), is essential to forge a new path ushering into the 21st century, embracing both diverse collaborations and opportunities.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Sept. 21, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 21, 2023

Q2. Despite having self-sufficiency in food production, India still faces the challenges of hunger and food insecurity. Throw light upon the factors causing these challenges and suggest measures that the government can take for the same. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Briefly explain the concept of hunger and food insecurity. Substantiate with report findings.  


Heading 1: Factors causing the issue of hunger and food insecurity: Highlight different underlying reasons for this issue.    

Heading 2: Measures needed to tackle the issue of hunger and food insecurity: Mention the measures that can be taken to counter this issue.    

Conclusion: Mention the significance of measures required to tackle the issue of hunger and food insecurity for forming an equitable society.   


Answer: Despite India achieving self-sufficiency in food production for over four decades, it does not ensure food security. The National Family Health Survey 2019-21 (NFHS-5) indicates a significant number of young children in India experiencing food insecurity including zero-food prevalence. In the 2022 Global Hunger Index, India ranks 107th out of the 121 countries.


Factors causing the issue of hunger and food insecurity

  • Poverty and inequality limit access to nutritious food options, compounded by inadequate water and sanitation facilities, leading to malnutrition.
  • For example: India is home to the largest number of poor people i.e., 228.9 million (Multidimensional Poverty Index 2022).
  • Ineffective implementation of schemes leads to problems of exclusion of eligible beneficiaries, food inflation in deficit regions, food wastages, etc.
  • For example: Lack of food-based metric in Poshan 2.0 to monitor the effectiveness of the scheme.
  • Gender inequality limits food access to women within the households.
  • For example: A quarter of women of reproductive age in India are undernourished (NFHS 4, 2015-16).
  • Climate change and extreme weather events, causing flood and drought, affect agricultural productivity leading to hunger.
  • For example: India's food production could drop 16% and number of people at the risk of hunger could increase 23% by 2030 due to climate change (IFPRI).


Measures needed to tackle the issue of hunger and food insecurity

  • Promoting sustainable agriculture practices like nutrition-sensitive, climate-smart agriculture, supported by government subsidies and schemes to attain food security.
  • For example: Initiatives like PM PRANAM, Eat Right India movement, etc.
  • Reforming the public distribution system through digitization, expansion of food items, quality control, etc., can help enhance its reach and efficacy.
  • For example: Aadhar linking and DBT are good steps.
  • Increasing focus on young children and women is crucial in reducing hunger and achieving food security as these two sections are worst hit.
  • For example: Realizing the full potential of ICDS scheme, Mission Indradhanush, Mission Vatsalya, etc.
  • Ensuring effective implementation of existing schemes related to poverty, hunger, agriculture, etc.
  • For example: Introducing food-based trackable metrics in Poshan 2.0.


India's self-sufficiency in food production is a positive step, but more needs to be done to ensure food security. The NFSA 2013 and PMGKAY have been crucial in addressing the issue, but further reforms in the PDS and poverty alleviation are necessary for sustainable progress.


Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 21, 2023

Q3. India's journey from women development to women-led development reflects immense progress in empowering women. In this context, discuss the significance and challenges associated with the Women Reservation Bill in India. (10M/150W)

Model Answer



Introduction: Mention status of women(politically) and distinct feature of the Bill.

Body: Discuss various dimensions related to the significance and challenges associated with the Women Reservation Bill in India 

Conclusion: Mention way ahead/measures.



Despite being one of the largest and most resilient parliamentary democracies globally, women's representation in both the Parliament and State Legislatures remains below 15 percent. In this regard, 128th Constitutional Amendment Bill, 2023 was introduced in Lok Sabha. This Bill seeks to implement a 33% reservation for women in both the Lok Sabha and all the State Legislative Assemblies, including seats designated for SC/STs.


Significance of Bill:

  •     Increases Political Participation: Promotes active participation of women in decision-making and fosters their leadership roles in politics.

      For ex: Once the bill is ratified, the representation of women MPs in the Lok Sabha will increase from the current 82 to 181.

  •     Promotes Inclusive Governance: It ensures a government that better represents the diversity of the population which will incorporate diverse perspectives.

      For ex: More holistic discussion on  gender-based violence prevention, reproductive rights, childcare, and family policies.

  •     Promotes gender equality: Challenging and dismantling stereotypes, it showcases women excelling in traditionally male-dominated domains.
  •     Boost International Image: Boosts India's global standing by aligning with international norms for advancing gender equality and women's political involvement.

  For ex: With the passage of this bill, India will exceed the global average for female representation in national parliaments, which stands at approximately 26 percent


Challenges involved

  •     Tokenism: Women may be perceived as symbolic figures rather than competent leaders, potentially eroding their influence and credibility.

      For ex: Following the introduction of women's reservations in Panchayati Raj Institutions, a trend has emerged where sarpanch patis have assumed decision-making roles on behalf of their wives

  •     Reservation Rotation: Rotating reserved constituencies can disrupt the continuity of development work and hinder the overall effectiveness of elected representatives.

      Venkatachaliah Commission Report (2002)  pointed out that frequent rotations hamper decision-making and governance at the local level.

  •     Social Disharmony: Reservations might be perceived by the public as discriminatory against men, possibly sparking resistance and social tensions. Further, it could disturb the current reservations for marginalized communities which were introduced to redress historical social and economic inequalities.
  •     Lack of Political Consensus: Fostering agreement among political parties and stakeholders can pose a substantial hurdle in realizing the potential of the Bill.

      For ex: Few political parties are opposing the bill as it lacks provision for a sub-quota for Other Backward Classes (OBC) and Muslim women.


Overall, to facilitate the passage of a bill promoting increased female political representation, consensus-building among political parties is crucial. Awareness campaigns are necessary to garner public support, emphasizing the benefits of gender diversity in government. Thus, this bill will go a long way in realizing the vision of social justice as envisaged in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.



Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 21, 2023

Q1. The government schools saw a sharp rise in the number of enrolments, whereas basic literacy levels of children have taken a big hit. In this context, elaborate on the issues plaguing primary educational institutions. Also, suggest measures to ensure impactful outcomes of learning in schools. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: We can introduce the answer by highlighting the ASER report.


Since the directives are to elaborate and suggest, we first shall elaborate on all issues plaguing Indian primary education system. This must be followed by suggesting measures to improve learning outcomes in India. 

Conclusion: Here we can conclude by stating the impact of primary education. 



Recently released Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2022 report shows that government schools saw a sharp rise in enrolment whereas basic literacy levels of children have taken a big hit (reading ability as compared to numeracy skills worsening sharply). This poses questions on quality of education in primary schools of India.  


Issues with Primary Educational Institutions – 

  • Poor Learning Outcome: The learning levels w.r.t. foundational skills like reading, arithmetic and english is extremely poor in Indian schools.
  • For instance, the performance of Std VIII in basic arithmetic i.e., the proportion of children who can do division stood at 44.7% in 2022. (ASER 2022)
  • Infrastructure deficit: There is a serious issue with outdated buildings, one-room classrooms, the lack of drinking water facilities, separate bathrooms, and other educational infrastructure.
  • For instance, the proportion of schools with drinking water available is only 76%. (ASER 2022)
  • Quality of Teachers: Lack of teachers with the necessary qualifications, abilities, and knowledge to build a high-quality educational system. Additionally, poor pay and management of teaching cadres contributes to teacher shortages and underqualified teachers.
  • For instance, teachers do not indulge in innovative teaching methods and rely on conventional methods only.
  • Teacher Absenteeism: Teachers are frequently absent during class time. This issue is made worse by a lack of accountability and inadequate governance mechanisms.
  • For instance, as per UNESCO report, 25% of teachers were absent from school and only about half were teaching, during unannounced visits to government primary schools.
  • High drop-out rates: School dropout rates are relatively high, particularly for female students.
  • For instance, around 4% (6-14 years) and around 8% (15-16 years) girls in Uttar Pradesh are not enrolled in schools.


Major Government Initiatives to Improve Basic Learning and Elementary Education 

Measures to Ensure Impactful Learning – 

  • Maintaining Pre-requisite Infrastructure: A school should have basic amenities like a large classroom with furniture, clean, sanitary restrooms, clean drinking water etc.
  • Quality of Teachers: Enhancing the quality of teachers by giving them proper training and providing them with contemporary teaching resources like smart classrooms and digital course materials.
  • Extra-curricular Activities: A school should be involved in various co-curricular activities that serve as a key component in sustaining students’ interest in school.
  • Proper implementation of a government initiative: Various government initiatives aimed at improving school learning but are ineffective due to poor implementation.
  • For instance, according to ‘Right to Education’ (RTE), the pupil-teacher ratio should be 30:1 at the primary level and 35:1 at the secondary level. However, only few government schools follow these guidelines.
  • Assessment and evaluation tools: Taking proper and summative assessments will provide a better understanding of the child.


The idea of lifelong learning will be ingrained in the school environment only by improving the quality of education. This will make students attend class, learn, and develop into productive citizens who can contribute to the development of the country.


Subjects : Social Issues

Sept. 20, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 20, 2023

Q1. Elaborate on various measures undertaken by the Government of India to improve women’s health. Also, discuss various policy options that India should pursue to improve women’s health in India.  (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Highlight the World Economic Forum’s report and India’s poor performance in it. 

Body: State the policy measures India has implemented for improving women’s health. This must be followed by stating policy suggestions to improve women’s health in India.

Conclusion: Here we can conclude by stating the importance of women’s health w.r.t. overall development of India. 


Answer: World Economic Forum released the ‘Global Gender Gap Index, 2022’ which ranks India 135th amongst 146 countries. However, India is ranked last i.e., 146th when it comes to the health and survival component of the index. This poses serious questions on Indian women healthcare programmes efficacy.   


Policy Measures by Government to Improve Women’s Health:

Institutional Delivery Scheme

  • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK): The JSSK entitles pregnant women and newborns to free delivery, including cesarean section, free transportation, diagnostics, drugs, other consumables, diet, and blood.
  • Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY): It is a demand-driven, conditional cash transfer scheme that aims to improve institutional delivery.

Pregnant Women and New-born Health

  • Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA): On the 9th day of each month, PMSMA provides pregnant women with a scheduled, cost-free, and high-quality antenatal check-up by a Specialist/Medical Officer.
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY): Under PMMVY, a cash incentive of ` 5000/- is provided directly to the Bank / Post Office Account of Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers (PW&LM) for first living child.

Women Health and Nutrition

  • Initiatives to tackle Anaemia in Pregnant women: The government offers financial and technical support to States/UTs under the National Health Mission (NHM) for the implementation of the Anaemia Mukt Bharat Strategy.
  • Scheme for Adolescent Girls: It primarily aims at breaking the intergenerational life-cycle of nutritional and gender disadvantage and providing a supportive environment for self-development


Policy Measures to be Adopted:

  • Synergy between the central and state policies: The synergy between the central and state policies will bring changes in women's healthcare.
  • For example, Mahatari Jatan Yojana in Chhattisgarh aims at reducing malnutrition among pregnant women, similarly, National Nutrition Mission aims at reducing malnutrition amongst women and new-born.
  • Wages of Health Workers: The health workers at local level must be properly renumerated for their tireless service.
  • For instance, Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) workers across the country do not have fixed wages and a fixed wage component within their remuneration is needed.
  • Need for food fortification: To solve the problem of anaemia among women, the government needs to ensure nutritional aspects of provided foodgrains, through approaches like food fortification.
  • Mental health of women: Creating awareness and providing possible remedies to help de-stigmatize mental health issues would help improve women health.


Though India has multiple schemes both at states and central level which covers major aspects of women’s health. However, the poor pace of progress does poses questions and thus a mission mode functioning is required to effectively address women's health issues.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 20, 2023

Q2. Lack of active involvement of vulnerable sections impacts the effectiveness of welfare schemes in India. Highlight the challenges and suggest measures for enhancing the participation of vulnerable sections in the policy process. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Start with the significance of people’s participation in the success of any scheme. 

Body: Address the answer by highlighting why active involvement of the vulnerable section is crucial. Then mention challenges followed by measures to increase people’s participation to increase the effectiveness of welfare schemes. 

Conclusion: Conclude with initiatives taken by the government to increase people’s participation.    


Answer: Welfare schemes are designed to provide social protection, support, and upliftment to disadvantaged and marginalized groups in society. However, without active involvement and participation from these groups, the intended benefits of the schemes may not reach those who need them the most. 


Active involvement of vulnerable sections is crucial:

  • Enhancing program relevance: Vulnerable sections' participation aligns welfare schemes with realities, addresses their issues, and makes programs more relevant and impactful.
  • Promoting ownership and empowerment: Active involvement empowers vulnerable sections to shape policies that directly impact their lives, fostering a sense of ownership and agency.
  • Ensuring effective implementation: Involving vulnerable sections in the policy process allows policymakers to gain valuable insights for effective implementation strategies.


Challenges hinder the effectiveness of welfare schemes:

  • Limited Awareness: Lack of awareness due to illiteracy, limited information access, language barriers, and absence of awareness campaigns hampers scheme participation.
  • Exclusion and Discrimination: Discrimination based on caste, gender, religion, or socio-economic status hampers vulnerable groups' participation, perpetuating inequalities, and undermining welfare schemes.
  • Administrative Challenges: Administrative inefficiencies, corruption, and bureaucratic hurdles hinder access to welfare schemes, undermining trust and discouraging active engagement.


Measures to enhance the participation of vulnerable sections in the policy process:  

  • Inclusive representation: Promote representation of vulnerable sections in decision-making bodies through affirmative action, quotas, or reserved seats at all governance levels.
  • Capacity building: Offer training and education to empower vulnerable groups for active policy participation by enhancing their knowledge and advocacy skills.
  • Outreach and awareness campaigns: Engage vulnerable sections through targeted campaigns to inform them about policies, consultations, and participation opportunities, utilizing diverse communication channels.
  • Collaborative partnerships: Promote collaborations between policymakers, civil society, and communities to foster dialogue and meaningful participation in policy development for vulnerable sections.
  • Monitor and evaluate outcomes: Establish monitoring and evaluation systems to assess policies for vulnerable sections, ensuring inclusivity, effectiveness, and identifying gaps for improvement.


By recognizing the challenges, they face and implementing measures to enhance their participation, we can create a more inclusive and responsive policy environment. Empowering vulnerable sections through awareness, capacity building, and inclusive decision-making processes will lead to more impactful and sustainable welfare schemes, ultimately fostering social equity and upliftment for all.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 20, 2023

Q3. Discuss the potential repercussions of rapid urbanization as a threat to the bird biodiversity. Suggest short-term and long-term strategies to ensure recovery and conservation of India’s bird diversity. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Quote data or report related to the decline in bird biodiversity in India and relate to rapid urbanization in India.


Heading 1: Rapid urbanization as a threat to the bird biodiversity

Heading 2: Suggest short term and long-term strategies to ensure recovery and conservation of India’s bird diversity.

Conclusion: You can mention about the significance of birds in the ecosystem or mention some initiatives taken to conserve bird biodiversity.



Around 48% of bird species worldwide are known or suspected to be undergoing population declines, according to the State of the World’s Birds report, 2022. Further, the recent ‘State of Indian Birds 2023’ exercise, based on 30 million observations by more than 30,000 birdwatchers, concluded that birds in India are faring poorly, especially the rapid decline seen in urban areas.


Rapid urbanization as a threat to the bird biodiversity:

  • Decrease in bird species richness: Species with traits like limited natal dispersal, migratory habits, fear of humans, insect-eating habits, or low yearly reproduction tend to avoid urban areas. This results in a homogenization of species and lower overall biodiversity in cities.
  • High rate of predation: Cities attract birds due to better food, nesting spots, and milder winters. But this preference results in downsides like increased predation on feral animals, and poor-quality food.
  • Movement Barrier: Urban sprawl has led to a highly fragmented landscape, with islets of suitable bird habitat surrounded by highways and buildings that frequently act as barriers, resulting in a significant loss of local biodiversity.
  • Environmental stress factors: Chemical pollution, noise, artificial light at night (ALAN), and human presence are reducing bird diversity in urban areas across all geographical zones.


Strategies to ensure recovery and conservation of India’s bird diversity:

Short term strategies:

  • Reducing the predator population in urban areas: The recent ‘State of Indian Birds 2023’ exercise identified that free roaming cats are the most important reasons for the decline of bird population in urban areas.
  • Trap, neuter, return: To control the population of free roaming feral cats and dogs, neutering can be undertaken.
  • Reducing Pollution: Control pollution sources, including air and water pollution, and promote sustainable practices that reduce pollution in urban and industrial areas.


Long Term strategies:

  • State of India's bird report 2023 recommended for the conservation of specific bird species like grassland specialists which have declined by more than 50%, for protecting and maintaining grassland ecosystems.
  • Research and systematic monitoring of birds over a long period of time to understand small scale changes in bird population.
  • Habitat conservation and restoration: Protect and preserve natural habitats, such as forests, wetlands, grasslands, and coastal areas, that are essential for birds' nesting, feeding, and breeding.
  • Public awareness & limiting human disturbances


Recognizing the threat, the government of India has come up with many species’ conservation projects like Project Vulture. Additionally, the government has announced a 10-year comprehensive plan for conservation of birds and their habitats in India which includes multiple measures, such as curbing illegal trade of birds, habitat conservation and constant surveillance of avian disease.


Subjects : Current Affairs

Sept. 19, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 19, 2023

Q3. What is the significance of the recently announced India-Middle East-Europe Economic corridor(IMEC) for India and the world? Discuss the challenges associated with the successful implementation of the said corridor? (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction: Describe what is India-Middle East-Europe Economic corridor(IMEC) along with mentioning the countries involved.


Heading 1: Significance of  India-Middle East-Europe Economic corridor(IMEC)

Heading 2: Challenges associated with IMEC implementation.

Conclusion: In conclusion, can mention about how IMEC can help in promoting India’s interest, India’s global rise and as a measure to tackling rising chinese influence.


Answer: The India-Middle East-Europe economic order(IMEC) is an infrastructure development project launched on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Delhi it aims for the faster movement of goods between India, Middle-east and Europe through development for railway network, shipping networks, energy cables, and data links.


Significance of  India-Middle East-Europe Economic corridor(IMEC):

IMEC corridor as major geopolitical and geoeconomic significance for India and world promoting India’s strategic interests as follows.


Geopolitical significance:

  1. Normalisation of relations and stability in the Middle east: The main participants of IMEC include Saudi Arabia, UAE, Israel along with India, USA and Europe Union. This promotes normalisation of diplomatic relations between Israel and Saudi Arabia which are the main countries of the Middle East and also promotes regional stability.
  2. Counter to Chinese influence in Middle east region: The IMEC corridor which is led by India, USA and European Union will acts at a counter to the Chinese influence and presence in Middle- east due to its belt and Road initiative. Thereby promoting transparent and rules based order.
  3. Promoting India’s strategic interests in the region: The IMEC will help India to bypass Pakistan and also an alternative route for India to connect to Europe along with route through Iran’s Chabahar port. Thus, promoting India's long term strategic interest.
  4. Rising India’s Influence: IMEC is also seen as revival of ancient spice route as a counter to China’s BRI.


Geoeconomic Significance:

  1. Better access to Market and employment creation: Through IMEC corridor India gets quicker and easier access to markets of Middle eastern countries. India can make use of its cultural links to promote growth of trade with the region.
  2. Faster movement of Goods: According to a US report, the IMEC corridor will make trade between India and Europe 40% faster thereby increasing trade competitiveness of India.
  3. Infrastructure development: This corridor will enable India to develop infrastructure like railway tracks etc in the countries that lack infrastructure.
  4. Strengthening of regional supply chains, economic cohesion, and energy network in the region.


 Challenges associated with successful implementation of IMEC corridor:

  1. Missing infrastructure links and logistics standardisation issue: Of the total rail route length of 2915 km, 1095 km is still missing of which more than 500km has to be built new. Alongwith this, there is the issue of standardisation of the gauge engine for intercontinental cohesion.
  2. Chinese resistance and presence in the region: China has heavily invested in the region through its Belt and Road Initiative. Thus the issue of pushback from China and also Piraeus port in Greece is controlled by Chinese state companies which is an important part of IMEC.
  3. Potential pushback by Egypt: Since IMEC bypasses the Suez Canal of Egypt, Egypt stands to lose billions of dollars in loss of revenue due to lowered traffic through the Suez Canal.
  4. Issue of Rise in Logistics costs: The number of times the cargo will get off loaded as it changes hand from ships to rail will increase the handling cost which includes terminal handling costs, container yard charges and so on.
  5. Geopolitical tensions in the region: The Geo-political tensions between Israel-Saudi Arabia, USA and Saudi Arabia due to Chinese presence may derail the projects progress.


IMEC provides India a good opportunity to integrate with global supply chains, promote growth of India’s trade and commerce, thereby ensuring long term growth and development. Hence care should be taken to address the bottlenecks in the implementation of project in a fair and transparent manner to ensure sustainability of the project.


Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 19, 2023

Q1. Despite the enactment of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013, the practice of manual scavenging persists in India. Examine the reasons for the ineffectiveness of the Act and suggest measures to effectively eliminate manual scavenging in the country. (10M/150W)

Model Answer



We can introduce the answer by briefly writing about the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 and its objectives.

Body: We have to write the reasons for the ineffectiveness of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 to eliminate the practice of manual scavenging. We have to suggest remedial measures that need to be taken to end the inhumane practice of manual scavenging in India.

Conclusion: We can conclude by highlighting the need to safely manage sanitation service.  We can also conclude by summarizing the arguments used in body section.



Answer: According to Safai Karamchari Andolan, 472 deaths due to manual scavenging have been reported across the country between 2016 to 2020. This is despite the enactment of Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013


Reasons for the ineffectiveness of the Act :

  • Legal Loopholes: The Act bans ‘hazardous cleaning’ of septic tanks and sewer pits, without ‘protective gear’ and other cleaning devices but it does not define what the ‘protective gear’ is.
    • Besides this the Act does not provide for the rehabilitation of those who were liberated from manual scavenging before passing the law in 2013.
  • Social perception: Manual scavenging is a caste-based and hereditary profession and defined as a "cultural occupation" attached to lower castes.
    • Lack of opportunity and education compels manual scavengers to continue in their inherited work.
  • Indifferent Attitude: A number of independent surveys have talked about the continued reluctance on the part of state governments to admit that the practice prevails under their watch.
    • For example, the Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has said that only 508 districts out of the total 766 districts in the country have declared themselves manual-scavenging free.
  • Issues due to Outsourcing: Many times, local bodies outsource sewer cleaning tasks to private contractors.
    • Many of these fly-by-night operators neither maintain proper rolls nor provide necessary protective gear to sanitation workers.


Remedial measures to effectively eliminate manual scavenging:

  • Adopt operational guidelines: There is a need to develop national standard operating procedures to assess mitigate the occupational risks of all types of sanitation work and for municipal-level oversight of sanitation service providers.
  • Institutional reforms: Promote the gradual formalization and mechanization of the work. For example, National Action for Mechanised Sanitation Ecosystem (NAMASTE) has been formulated to promote mechanisation; sewer and septic tank workers are to be provided with training and protection gear besides health insurance, and the scheme will cover all urban local bodies in the country.
  • Bridge the knowledge gaps in the sector: Build the necessary knowledge base or institutional database to address the issues of quantification of the sanitation workforce and documentation of challenges that these workers face and good practices in improving working conditions.
  • Awareness Campaigns: Public awareness campaigns should be conducted to inform manual scavengers and their communities about their rights under the Act and the availability of rehabilitation programs.


The eradication of manual scavenging is not only a legal obligation but also a moral imperative. It requires concerted efforts from all stakeholders, including the government, civil society organizations, and communities, to create a society where no one is forced into such degrading and hazardous work.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 19, 2023

Q2. Analyse the impact of the various government policies and schemes for the development of tribal communities in India. Suggest measures to make these policies more inclusive and responsive to the needs of tribal communities. (10M/150W)

Model Answer


Introduction:   Start with the introduction of Tribal development in India.    

Body: Address the answer by highlighting some key policies and schemes for tribal development and their impact. Then you must highlight measures to make these policies more inclusive and responsive to the needs of tribal communities.

Conclusion: Conclude with way forward to improve socio-economic conditions of tribals.  


Answer: Tribal development in India is a complex and multifaceted process that seeks to address the socio-economic challenges faced by indigenous tribal communities. These communities have historically experienced marginalization, discrimination, and limited access to basic services. In recent years, the Indian government has implemented various policies and schemes to uplift tribal communities and promote their overall well-being.



Issues in government policies and schemes for the development of tribal communities:


  • Lack of Targeted Approach: Government policies often fail to address the specific needs and challenges faced by tribal communities, resulting in ineffective implementation.
  • Limited Participation: Lack of meaningful participation of tribal communities in policy formulation and decision-making processes undermines the inclusiveness and effectiveness of the initiatives.
  • Cultural Insensitivity: Policies often overlook the unique cultural aspects and traditions of tribal communities, leading to a disconnect and ineffective outcomes.
  • Social Exclusion and Discrimination: Tribal communities often face social exclusion, discrimination, and stigma, affecting their overall development and well-being.
  • Weak Monitoring and Evaluation: Insufficient monitoring and evaluation mechanisms hinder effective implementation, accountability, and assessment of the impact of tribal development policies and schemes.


Measures to make these policies more inclusive and responsive to the needs of tribal communities:

  • Collaborative Partnerships: Promote collaboration between government, NGOs, and civil society for comprehensive and sustainable tribal development, leveraging diverse expertise and resources.
  • Contextual Understanding: Conduct research to understand tribal communities' needs, tailor policies to their unique contexts, and address socio-economic, cultural, and geographical challenges.
  • Strengthen Implementation Mechanisms: Strengthen government agencies implementing tribal development policies with resources, training, and support for effective implementation of initiatives.
  • Empower Local Institutions: Empower local self-governance institutions with authority, resources, and technical assistance to address tribal communities' developmental needs effectively.
  • Access to Justice: Ensure the implementation of laws protecting tribal rights, establish specialized courts for cases of violations and land disputes.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation: Establish effective monitoring and evaluation systems, regularly review policies, and update them based on feedback, performance indicators, and implementation lessons.


These measures are inspired by Tribal Panchsheel policy, which ensures that the policies become more inclusive, responsive, and effective in addressing the specific needs and aspirations of tribal communities, ultimately leading to their holistic development and empowerment.


Subjects : Social Issues

Sept. 18, 2023

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 18, 2023

Q1. SHGs are a major tool for promoting "gender equality" and "gender empowerment". Discuss. (10 M, 150W).

Model Answer


Introduction: Define Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and their significance in socio-economic development.

Body:  Body will have 2 parts:

Heading 1: The role of SHGs in Promoting Gender Equality and gender empowernment

Heading 2: Challenges Faced by SHGs

Conclusion: Highlighting Government Initiatives and Policy Support or Summarize the significant impact of SHGs in advancing gender equality and empowerment, underscoring their indispensable role in socio-economic development.



Answer: SHGs are informal groups where people come together to overcome their common problems, to save money, share resources, and support each other. They are often formed by women who are marginalized or excluded from traditional financial institutions. SHGs can play a major role in promoting gender equality and empowerment in a number of ways.

 Self-help groups can promoting gender equality and empowerment:

  • Economic empowerment: SHGs provide women with access to finance, training, and business development services, enabling them to start their own enterprises and generate income. This not only improves their economic status but also gives them greater decision-making power within their households and communities.

○        For example, in Rajasthan, the Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) project has helped over 200,000 women farmers form SHGs and improve their income levels.

  • Social empowerment: These groups provide a platform for women to speak up and participate in decision-making processes at the local level.

○        For instance, Kerala's Kudumbashree Mission empowers women through SHGs to combat alcoholism with campaigns, counseling, and collaborations.

  • Increased political participation: SHGs can help women to become more involved in the political process by providing them with training in leadership and advocacy skills.

○        For example, in Kerala, the Kudumbashree project has helped over 300,000 women form SHGs and participate in local governance.

  • Reduced violence against women: Self-help groups can provide a safe space for women to share their experiences of violence and to receive support from other women.
  • Improved health and well-being

○        For example, in Odisha, the Mission Shakti project has helped SHGs set up community health centers, provide health insurance, and offer training programs in health and hygiene.


Major issues faced by SHG in achieving gender equity and gender empowerment:

  • Social Barriers:
    • The prevailing patriarchal mindset in Indian society can lead to negative perceptions and biases towards women-led initiatives,
    • Geographical mobility: In the case of SHGs dominated by women, it is found that there is no stability of the units as many married women are not in a position to associate with the group due to the shift of their place of residence
    • Lack of Education and Awareness: Even though the authorities take measures for creating awareness among the group members about the schemes beneficial to them, still the majority of the group are unaware of the schemes of assistance offered to them.
  • Limited institutional support: Inadequate training facilities, lack of Workshops for skill development and incentives for training.
  • Financial Constraint: Due to the limited financial autonomy at home, women’s SHGs fail to augment their collateral corpus adequately. This makes banks reluctant to finance projects led by such SHGs.
  • Limited market linkages: Low rural literacy hinders information gathering and effective product marketing. Additionally, SHGs face challenges in marketing due to digital illiteracy, limiting access to digital opportunities.


Addressing these challenges requires targeted interventions, capacity building, policy support, and resource allocation to maximize the impact of SHGs in empowering women and promoting gender equality.

Subjects : Social Issues

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 18, 2023

Q3. Recently there has been a renewed push for biofuels with the inauguration of the “Global biofuels alliance”. Discuss the significance of such an alliance and the steps taken by India to promote biofuels.

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:                                                                             

 Type 1:
Since the question makes a statement of recently launched Global Biofuel Alliance(GBA), introduction can be a context based on the launch of GBA on the sidelines of the G20 summit in India.
 Type 2: Can define Biofuels and then relate push given to it by relating to launch of GBA.
 Heading 1:
Significance of global biofuel alliance
 Heading 2:
Steps taken by India to promote biofuels production and consumption.

Conclusion: you can mention about the challenges associated with the GBA or necessary steps needed to ensure food security while promoting biofuels production and consumption.

Answer: On the sidelines of 2023 - G20 summit in New Delhi, impetus to the production and use of biofuels was given by launching Global Biofuels Alliance (GBA), which would attempt to bring countries together to codevelop, accelerate technological advances in production processes, and advocate for the use of biofuels.

Significance of global biofuel alliance:

  • Energy security and promoting Independent national policy: More than 85% of crude oil demand of India is met by import and this makes India vulnerable to supply side shocks like oil price rise during Gulf war of 1970s and recent Russia-Ukraine war, threatening energy security. So, by reducing the import of crude oil by blending crude oil with bio fuels like ethanol, India can ensure energy security.
  • Reduction of Fiscal deficit and inflation: India imported more than $120bn worth of crude oil in the financial year 2021-22, which is subject to increase in the coming years due to rising demand. This puts a financial stress leading to current account deficit and fiscal deficit.
  • Increased Technology Transfers for India: Through the GBA, India gains access to advanced technologies and international climate funds, expediting advancements in the compressed biogas sector and third-generation ethanol plant capacities. This transfer of knowledge and resources can help India accelerate its transition to cleaner energy sources.
  • Leadership role in climate change mitigation initiatives: Since ethanol blended fuels burn better with less emissions along with reducing usage of fossil fuels. Thus taking steps towards net carbon neutrality targets of India.
    • For example, According to the NITI Aayog report titled ‘Roadmap for Ethanol blending in India 2020-25’, carbon monoxide emissions were 50% lower in two-wheelers and 30% lower in four-wheelers after ethanol blending.
  • Employment creation and alternate source of income for farmers: Investments in Biofuel sectors will create a lot of employment opportunities for youth. It also is an alternate source of income for farmers especially when they are getting low sugarcane prices.Thus biofuel production by sugarcane can help farmers earn remunerative prices and help in doubling farm income.

Steps taken by India to promote biofuels production and consumption:

  • The Ethanol blending programme aims to reach the target of 20% blending of petrol by 2025-26.
  • The Administered pricing mechanism has been re-introduced. Under the APM, the government sets a fixed price for ethanol that is used for blending with petrol. Thus ensuring fair price for their product, and to encourage the use of ethanol as a renewable fuel.
  • Amendment to Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951 which legislates exclusive control of denatured ethanol by the Central Government for smooth movement of ethanol across the country.
  • The Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana was launched in 2019 to promote the use of biofuels and encourage the production of advanced biofuels, including ethanol from agricultural residues, municipal solid waste, and other waste materials.
  • The National Biofuels Policy was launched in 2018 to promote the production and use of biofuels, including ethanol. The policy aims to promote sustainable biofuels production, reduce dependence on imported crude oil, and create new job opportunities in the biofuels sector.
  • Reduction in Goods & Service Tax (GST) on ethanol meant for Ethanol blending Programme from 18% to 5% to boost the demand of ethanol in the market.

The launch of Global Biofuels initiatives to promote biofuels production and consumption is a step in the right direction to promote climate friendly, less emissions intensive technology along with promoting growth and development. However, care should be taken to promote the 2nd generation biofuels, which are produced from agricultural waste, used cooking oil and processed animal residues , thereby ensuring food security in India.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Sept. 18, 2023

Q2. How effective have the welfare schemes been in addressing the key issues faced by the elderly population in India? (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer: The question expects the student to evaluate the effectiveness of welfare schemes for the elderly in Indian which addresses the challenges faced by the elderly population, focusing on aspects such as healthcare, social security, infrastructure, and intergenerational support.


Type 1: Start with data on elderly in India.

Type 2: Start with brief background about policy approach towards elderly in India.

Body: Address the answer by highlighting some key policies and schemes aimed at the welfare of the elderly population in India, the issues involved and measures.


Type 1: Conclude with way forward to ensure ease of living for elderly in India.

Type 2: Summarize the topic and conclude on a positive note.

Answer: According to the National Commission on Population, the share of the elderly in India’s population, close to 9% in 2011, is growing fast and may reach 18% by 2036. The welfare schemes and policies for the elderly in India have aimed to provide support and security, but their effectiveness remains a subject of scrutiny due to various challenges and limitations.

Schemes and programs aimed at the welfare of the elderly population in India:

  • Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS): It provides a monthly pension to elderly individuals living below the poverty line.
  • Annapurna Scheme: It provides free food grains to eligible senior citizens.
  • National Programme for the Health Care of Elderly” (NPHCE) to provide primary, secondary, tertiary health care facilities.
  • Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana: This scheme aims to provide assistive devices and aid to senior citizens belonging to below poverty line (BPL) category who suffer from age-related disabilities such as low vision, hearing impairment, loss of teeth and locomotor disabilities
  • Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP): It focuses on the welfare of senior citizens by providing financial assistance for old age homes, day care centers, healthcare services, and awareness programs.
  • Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana to offer a guaranteed payout of pension to senior citizens every month.
  • Senior Citizen Savings Scheme (SCSS): It is a savings scheme offered by the government with higher interest rates for individuals above 60 years of age.

Issues in ensuring the effectiveness of Welfare schemes:

  • Limited coverage: Restrictive eligibility criteria exclude elderly above poverty line but still financially challenged, impacting inclusivity and effectiveness.
  • Bureaucratic processes: Complex application processes hinder elderly participation due to limited mobility, education, and information access, discouraging their involvement.
  • Implementation challenges: Challenges in implementation and monitoring hinder schemes' impact due to corruption, payment delays, and inefficient delivery mechanisms.
  • Inadequate healthcare infrastructure: Inadequate geriatric healthcare in rural areas limits access to specialized services, impacting the overall well-being of senior citizens.
  • Inadequate pension amounts: Insufficient pension amounts undermine financial security for the elderly, failing to meet basic needs amidst rising expenses.

Additional information (Can also be integrated into conclusion):

 Measures to address the challenges faced by the elderly population in the country:

●        Strengthen healthcare infrastructure: Enhance geriatric healthcare in rural areas by increasing facilities, training specialized professionals, and ensuring affordable medications.

●        Introduce age-friendly policies: Tailoring policies to address elderly needs, including accessible infrastructure, transportation, and social support, enhances their quality of life.

●        Foster community support: Promoting community support systems reduces isolation and fosters social interaction for the elderly through centers, clubs, and support groups.

●        Strengthen legal protection: Implementing laws safeguarding elderly rights, like the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, offers legal protection against abuse.

●        Encourage active aging: Encouraging active aging through exercise, learning, and recreation enhances the health and well-being of senior citizens.

With initiatives such as SAMPANN Project, SACRED Portal for Elderly, SAGE (Senior care Ageing Growth Engine) Initiative etc., government is ensuring the well-being and dignity of our elderly population, enabling them to lead fulfilling lives and receive the support they deserve. With a collective effort, we can create an inclusive and supportive society for our senior citizens.

Subjects : Social Issues
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