Feb. 29, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 29, 2024

Q.3 What do you understand about space sustainability? How does orbital crowding, space debris work against the sustainability of outer space? Suggest some measures for space sustainability. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has three main parts – 1) Meaning of space sustainability and 2) How orbital crowding, space debris work against sustainability of outer space 3) Measures for space sustainability


Type 1: Mention about the orbital crowding and space pollution


Heading 1: Mention about space sustainability

Heading 2: Orbital crowding, space debris work against the sustainability of outer space

Heading 3: Measures for space sustainability

Conclusion: Highlight the threat posed by space pollution and space assets and need for sustainable outer space


Answer: With the increasing number of satellites and other objects in orbit, orbital crowding and space debris are becoming major issues that threaten the sustainability of outer space. There are currently more than 26,000 objects larger than 10 cm in orbit, and over 500,000 pieces of debris smaller than 1 cm, which pose significant risks to space assets.


Space Sustainability

  • Space sustainability refers to the responsible and long-term use of outer space resources, while ensuring the preservation of the space environment and its ability to support present and future generations.
  • It encompasses a wide range of practices, including the safe and sustainable operation of spacecraft and space infrastructure, the responsible management of space debris and other forms of space pollution, and the promotion of international cooperation and collaboration in space activities.


Orbital crowding, space debris work against the sustainability of outer space in following ways

  • Increase space debris: Orbital crowding can lead to an increase in the amount of space debris, which can damage or interfere with satellites or another spacecraft in the same orbit.
  • Congestion: Orbital crowding can also lead to congestion, which can make it difficult for spacecraft to manoeuvre and prevent them from accessing their orbital pathway.
  • Risk to astronauts: The amount of radiation exposure can be increased, which can lead to damage to both humans in space and spacecraft.
  • Kessler syndrome: Physical crowding of orbits can lead to a chain reaction called Kessler syndrome, where debris collisions create more debris and make space activities more hazardous.


Measures for space sustainability:

  • Establish an international agreement on the use of space resources: This would help to ensure that all countries are on the same platform when it comes to the use of space resources, and it could provide a framework for sustainable development.
  • Minimize space debris: Countries should work together to develop effective debris removal systems, such as the Space Debris Removal System (SDRS).
  • Promote responsible resource use: Countries should work together to develop more efficient and eco-friendly technologies, and they should also ensure that resources are used in a safe and sustainable manner.
  • Make use of reusable technology: Reusable technology can reduce the number of materials and resources needed for space exploration, and it can also help to reduce waste. Examples of reusable technology include reusable rockets, reusable satellites, and reusable rovers.


Space sustainability is crucial for the continued peaceful and socioeconomic benefits of outer space. Measures like guidelines, ratings, and initiatives towards space situational awareness and debris monitoring can promote space sustainability and mitigate the threats posed by orbital crowding and space debris.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 29, 2024

Q.1 Nanotechnology is based on changing physical and chemical properties of matter at nanoscale. Discuss the multifaceted applications of nanotechnology. Also mention some potential issues in the use of nanotechnology. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main components – 1) Applications and 2) Potential Issues and challenges


Type 1: Give the description of nanotechnology and explain its working and Type 2: Give some recent initiative taken by the government to promote nanotechnology


Heading 1: Applications of Nanotechnology: Give points with suitable examples

Heading 2: Potential Issues: Give points with suitable examples


Type 1: Give some suggestions to resolve the above issues and challenges

Type 2: Highlight the importance of nanotechnology in providing solutions to different sectors


Answer: Nanotechnology involves manipulating and controlling matter at the nanoscale, which is typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. At this scale, the physical and chemical properties of materials can exhibit unique and often enhanced characteristics that differ from their bulk counterparts.

Applications of Nanotechnology

  • Medicine and Healthcare: Nanoparticles are utilized for targeted drug delivery, where drugs are encapsulated within nanoparticles to improve their stability and release at specific sites.
  • Agriculture: Nanoscale delivery systems improve the efficiency of nutrient delivery, pest control, and crop protection.
    • For example, Nano liquid urea will result in increased fertilizer efficiency (more than 80%) which leads to reduction in input cost.
  • Electronics and Computing: Nanoscale transistors and nanowires enable the miniaturization of electronic components, leading to faster and more efficient devices.
    • For example, Quantum dots, which are nanoscale semiconductor particles, are used in high-resolution displays and lighting applications.
  • Material Science: Nanocomposites combine nanoparticles with traditional materials to enhance mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability.
    • For example, Nanocoating offers improved surface properties such as scratch resistance, anti-reflectivity, self-cleaning, and corrosion resistance.
  • Environmental Monitoring and Sensing: Nano sensors are utilized for real-time monitoring of pollutants and environmental parameters.
    • For example, detection of water pollution by nano sensors in wetlands.

Potential issues in the use of nanotechnology

  • Health and Safety Concerns: Some nanomaterials can display toxic properties towards humans and the environment.
    • For example, nanomaterials of gold (almost inert elements) can become highly active at nanometer dimensions.
  • Nano-Pollution: Most nanoparticles are of very small dimensions and they can easily enter the food chain and bioaccumulate. They can also cause air pollution as they can float in air just like PM2.5.
  • Lack of Standards: Presently, there are no rules, standards and guidelines for development and use of nanotechnology.
  • Weaponization of nanotechnology: The use of nanotechnology in offensive fields can result in development of new age weapons.
    • For example, nano bullets can potentially cause internal bleeding without any visible wounds on the outside.

To address these challenges, it is crucial to invest in research and development, establish robust safety regulations, promote interdisciplinary collaborations, and engage stakeholders in discussions on the ethical, social, and environmental implications of nanotechnology.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 29, 2024

Q.2 How can robotics, as a multidisciplinary technology, potentially revolutionize various sectors and industries in India? Additionally, Highlight the challenges within the Indian robotics ecosystem that demand immediate attention.(10M/150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question has two main components – 1) Various potential applications of robotics in India. 2) Challenges in the Indian robotics ecosystem.


Type 1: You can briefly mention the development of Robotics in India.    


Heading 1: Scope of Robotics In India: 

Heading 2: Challenges in the Indian robotics ecosystem. 


Type 1: You can conclude with the recommendations.



India has made significant strides in the field of robotics, with a focus on developing and harnessing the potential of cutting-edge technologies to promote innovation that leads to sustainable and inclusive development across the economy. Robotics installations in India have surged by 54% to 4,945 units in 2021, now India ranks 10th in the world for the highest annual installation of industrial robots in the world.


Scope of Robotics In India: 


  • Agriculture: Productivity and operational efficiencies can be enhanced by using robots to execute labor-intensive operations in the field. 
    • For example, operations like, precision sowing of seeds, weed removal, spraying of fertilizers and pesticides, intelligent irrigation of crops and automated sorting and packing of agri-commodities can help reduce the usage of agri-inputs and initial cost. 
  • Education: They can promote active engagement, problem-solving, and collaboration among students as active learning tools. By introducing robotics in the classroom, children can develop their critical thinking and creativity skills. 
    • For example, a school in Hyderabad has introduced robots as teachers.
    • Manufacturing Sector: Automation in electronics, automotive, pharmaceuticals and others can increase efficiency and productivity through quality control and safety. 
      • For example, automate repetitive tasks like material handling and assembly.
    • Bio-technology and Healthcare: Robots can be utilized for precision surgery, rehabilitation, diagnostics, and drug discovery.


  • Military and Security: There is a wide range of usage of artificial intelligence and robotics in the military in India.
  • For example, deployment of robotics surveillance mechanisms in monitoring terrorist activities and also successful transmission of intelligence reports.


    • Space and Aviation:  Space robots are gradually changing the traditional modes of space transportation, on-orbit construction, on-orbit maintenance, and planetary exploration.
      • For example, the ISRO developed a female-looking humanoid robot named Vyommitra for the unmanned Gaganyaan mission.


  • Disaster Response: Robots can be used for searching for survivors in the emergency. This type of robot can have the ability to track earthquakes and tsunamis. 
  • For example, disaster risk mitigation using drones. 



Major Challenges In The Indian Robotics Ecosystem


  • Technological Limitations: Presently, foundational research focusing on breakthroughs in core robotic technologies is in the nascent stages in India. 
  • Investment: The cost of adopting robotics technology is high due to the cost of procuring imported hardware components and training personnel.
  • Skilled Workforce: Lack of skilled resources and technical expertise impedes growth of the robotics ecosystem in India because robotics is a multidisciplinary field.
  • Lack of Standards: Absence of dedicated legislation for robotics or allied technologies such as artificial intelligence adds to the “privacy and security risks”, which also hinders the widespread adoption of robotics.

Way Forward:

  • Strengthening Robotic automation: India must undertake ambitious and groundbreaking exploratory research through mission mode ‘moonshot projects’ through convergence with Artificial Intelligence.
  • Skilling: Dedicated engineering degrees in robotics are required for undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctorate programs across all higher education institutions in India.
  • Scientific approach: Government in collaboration with Private players should nurture a robust R&D to build the foundation of the Indian robotics ecosystem. 
  • Institutional Framework: Independent agencies institutionalized under the Ministry of Electronics and IT should streamline the implementation of the National Strategy on Robotics through a whole ecosystem approach.
Subjects : Current Affairs

Feb. 28, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 28, 2024

Q.2 Har Gobind Khorana's contribution to the deciphering of the genetic code has revolutionised the field of molecular biology. Discuss the scientific contributions of Har Gobind Khorana and its significance in advancing our understanding of genetics. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer:

The question is asking about the contributions of Har Gobind Khurana in the areas of genetics and its significance, so based on the demand, the question can be segmented into two parts-1) Contribution of Har Gobind Khurana in the field of genetics and 2) Significance of Har Gobind Khurana’s contribution


In introduction, the candidate should write about the genetic science and its importance in association with Har Gobind Khurana.

We can also introduce the question, by briefing about the current events and development in the fields of genetics. 


We can write about the current development in genetics following the contributions of Har Gobind Khurana’s.

In the second part of the answer, we can write about the significance of his contributions, what are the new developments have been done in the field of genetics.


Conclude the answer with supporting the arguments given by you in the answers.

We can conclude the answer by a current development in genetic science.


Answer: Har Gobind Khorana was an Indian-American biochemist who was born in the year 1922. He co-shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for his work demonstrating the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids, which handle the genetic code of the cell and regulate the cell’s synthesis of proteins. The year 2022 marked the 100th birth year of Nobel Prize winning chemist Har Gobind Khorana. 

Contribution of Har Gobind Khurana in the field of genetics:

  • Development of Genetics Code: He discovered how a DNA’s genetic code determines the synthesis of protein that impacts cell functioning.
  • Deciphering of RNA Codes: He made important contributions to this field by building different RNA chains with the help of enzymes and helped others to decipher a variety of mechanisms regarding RNA codes.
  • Synthesis of synthetic genes: In 1972, he became the first person in the world to fully synthesise a working gene outside of a living creature after years of research.
  • DNA Sequencing: He used polymerase and ligase enzymes to link pieces of DNA together, this was achieved even before the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Significance of Har Govind Khurana’s contribution in genetic science:

  • Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9: His contribution in genetics led to the advancement in genome editing including the development of CRISPR/Cas9.
  • Advancement in modern medical Science: He also made significant contributions to the science of PCR tests, which was widely used to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • Development of Vaccines during Covid-19: Polymerase Enzyme was also used for developing Covid-19 vaccines.
  • Determining the human based disease: The artificial genes developed by Khurana, are being used in cloning and in labs for sequencing, engineering new plants and animals, and are integral to the expanding use of DNA analysis to understand gene-based human disease as well as human evolution.

Thus, Har Gobind Khorana made important contributions to this field by building different RNA chains with the help of enzymes. Using these enzymes, he was able to produce proteins. In his honour, Hargobind Khurana Scholarship Scheme was launched by the Punjab Government in 2013.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 28, 2024

Q3.  Enumerate the contributions of Indian scientists in the field of space technology. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

A simple and straightforward question. Mention the achievements of Indian scientists in the field of space technology.


Type 1: Mention ISRO and its objectives.

Type 2: Define space technology.


Some key achievements of Indian scientists in the field of space technology.


Summarise your answer by writing down the role of space technology in inclusive development.


Answer: India’s pioneer space exploration agency ISRO was set up in 1969. Its vision is to develop and harness space technology for national development, while pursuing planetary exploration and space science research. From India’s first satellite Aryabhatta (1975) to Chandrayaan 3 space mission, India has made significant advances in space technology with multi-dimensional applications.


Some key achievements of Indian scientists in field of space technology are:


  • General satellite programs: ISRO has developed and launched a series of satellites providing different services such as remote sensing, telecommunication, navigation etc across the country.
  • Earth Observation satellites such as the IRS series have been instrumental in monitoring and managing natural resources, agriculture, forestry, and disaster management. These satellites contribute to sustainable development and resource planning.
  • Series of communication satellites like INSAT and GSAT, providing telecommunication services across the country.
  • The development of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) or NavIC enhanced accurate positioning and timing information.
  • Launch vehicles: Developed and operationalized a series of indigenous satellite launch vehicles. These vehicles have been extensively used for launching satellites into various orbits, both for domestic and international clients.
  • E.g.: PSLV, GSLV-mk3, LVM3 etc.
  • Planetary science and astronomy: ISRO has been actively involved in studying celestial bodies and deep space.
  • E.g.: discovering extremophile bacteria in the upper stratosphere.
  • India's first multi-wavelength space observatory Astrosat launched in 2015 has allowed astronomers to observe and study active galactic nuclei, binary star systems, and various celestial phenomena.
  • Space Explorations by ISRO: Various missions have expanded our knowledge, contributing to global scientific advancements in space exploration.
  • Chandrayaan mission: For detailed lunar surface maps, laying the groundwork for future exploration.
  • Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM): Develop interplanetary technology and explore Mars' surface, features, minerals, and atmosphere with indigenous instruments.
  • Solar probe Aditya L1: Main objective of the mission is to study coronal mass ejections , their properties, and other parameters that affect space weather.
  • Human space programs: The establishment of the Human Space Flight Centre and the development of necessary technologies for crewed missions boosts ISRO's commitment to human space exploration, Gaganyaan. ISRO's advance into human space programs represents a significant leap in India's space capabilities.



These achievements underscore India's commitment to space exploration, technological innovation, and the peaceful use of outer space for socio-economic development. The collaborative efforts of scientists, engineers, and support staff within ISRO have been critical to these accomplishments. Thus, space technology fosters inclusive development through connectivity, resource monitoring, disaster response, healthcare access, education, and environmental sustainability for all.


Value addition:

  • AVATAR Scramjet: This is a long-term project to develop a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) restricted to the launch of satellites.
  • ASAT: In 2019, India conducted its first successful Anti-Satellite (ASAT) test, demonstrating the capability to shoot down satellites in low Earth orbit.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 28, 2024

Q.1 What is ‘Aditya L1 Mission’? What do you understand by ‘Lagrange Points’ and describe the principle used for setting Lagrange's Positions? (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

The question asks about the space based observatory mission, Aditya L1. Further, the concept behind its positioning is asked, so one needs to write about the Lagrange Points and the principle it uses.


We can start by mentioning what the mission is about. Further, the objectives of the mission can be written briefly along with its significance.


As asked in the question, one should start by defining what Lagrange Points are. Here the significance of these points can also be mentioned. Further, a diagram representing all the Lagrange Points along with the advantages/disadvantages of positioning at these points and examples can be written. 


Summarize the importance of the Aditya L1 Mission and the significance of Lagrange Points in space exploration and observation, emphasizing their role in advancing our understanding of the Sun and the cosmos.


Answer: Aditya-L1 is India's inaugural space-based observatory-class solar mission, dedicated to the study of the Sun, particularly its outermost layer, the solar corona. 

It aims to improve our understanding of solar activity and its effects on space weather, which can impact Earth's technology and infrastructure. It will take approximately 125 days to reach the L1 point. The spacecraft is planned to be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system.

Lagrange Points and Principle used:

  • Lagrange points are positions in space where the gravitational forces of two large objects, such as the Earth and the Moon or the Earth and the Sun, produce enhanced regions of attraction and repulsion. These five points result from the interaction of these gravitational forces, and at each point, the gravitational forces of the two large objects, as well as the centripetal force felt by an object in a rotating frame of reference, balance each other out.  This means that a small object, such as a spacecraft, can stay at these points without using much fuel to maintain its orbit.
  • This creates unique locations for spacecraft to position themselves for various purposes, such as Earth observation, space telescopes, or interplanetary travel.
  • There are five Lagrange Points, each with distinct characteristics. These points enable a small mass to orbit in a stable pattern amid two larger masses–i.e. Earth and the Sun or Earth and the Moon.

Lagrange’s Points in the Sun-Earth System

  • L1: L1 is considered the most significant of the Lagrange points for solar observations. A satellite placed in the halo orbit around the L1 has the major advantage of continuously viewing the Sun without any occultation/ eclipses. 
    • Useful for solar observatories like the upcoming Aditya-L1 Mission.


  • L2: Positioned directly 'behind' Earth as viewed from the Sun, L2 is excellent for observing the larger Universe without Earth's shadow interference.
    • The James Webb Space Telescope orbits the Sun near L2.


  • L3: Positioned behind the Sun, opposite Earth, and just beyond Earth's orbit, it offers potential observations of the far side of the Sun.


  • L4 and L5: Objects at L4 and L5 maintain stable positions, forming an equilateral triangle with the two larger bodies.
    • They are often used for space observatories, such as those studying asteroids.


  • However, L1, L2, and L3 points are unstable, meaning that a small perturbation can cause an object to drift away from them. Therefore, satellites orbiting these points need regular course corrections to maintain their positions


The Aditya L1 Mission holds great importance as it aims to enhance our understanding of the Sun and its impact on space weather. It provides valuable insights into solar phenomena, aiding in forecasting space weather events critical for satellite communications and Earth's technology. Lagrange Points are pivotal in space exploration, enabling strategic positioning of observatories like Aditya L1, which offer uninterrupted solar observations.


Subjects : Current Affairs

Feb. 27, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 27, 2024

Q3. The adoption of electric vehicles is rapidly growing worldwide. How do electric vehicles contribute to reducing carbon emissions and what are the key benefits they offer compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles?(10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach:  Break down the question into sub-parts and then answer each part individually.

Introduction: Introduce with data on increasing adoption of electric vehicles


Sub-Heading 1: How electric vehicles reduce carbon emissions

Sub-Heading 2: Key benefits of electric vehicles over traditional combustion engines

Sub-Heading 3: India’s e-vehicle policy and its challenges

Conclusion: The road ahead for e-vehicles in India


Electric vehicles are said to be the future of mobility with the Indian government setting a target of 30% of electric vehicle penetration in the automobile market by 2030. 


Key benefits of Electric Vehicles over traditional combustion engines:

  • Environmental Impact: EVs produce zero tailpipe emissions, reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles.
  • Reduced Dependence on Fossil Fuels: EVs can be charged using electricity from a variety of sources, including renewable energy. This helps decrease reliance on fossil fuels. A shift to electric vehicles can contribute to reducing dependence on oil imports, enhancing energy security for countries.
  • Higher Energy Efficiency: Electric motors are generally more efficient than internal combustion engines, converting a higher percentage of stored energy from the grid to power at the wheels.
  • Operating Costs: Electricity is often cheaper than petrol or diesel on a per-mile basis, leading to lower fueling costs for EV owners. EVs have fewer moving parts than traditional vehicles, resulting in lower maintenance costs. There's no need for oil changes, and the braking systems in EVs often last longer due to regenerative braking.
  • Performance: Electric motors provide instant torque, leading to quick acceleration and a responsive driving experience. EVs are typically quieter than traditional vehicles, providing a smoother and more comfortable driving experience.
  • Government Incentives:  Many governments around the world offer incentives, such as tax credits or rebates, to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles, while plying of vehicles running on petrol/diesel is often restricted in areas of poor air quality.


 Challenges for Electric Vehicle Adoption:

  • High Initial Cost: Electric vehicles often have a higher upfront cost compared to traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. This cost can be a significant barrier for many consumers, despite potential long-term savings on fuel and maintenance.
  • Limited Range Availability : Concerns about the limited driving range of electric vehicles and the availability of charging infrastructure lead to worry about the possibility of running out of battery power before reaching a charging station.
  • Charging Infrastructure: The availability and convenience of charging infrastructure remain a significant challenge. While efforts are underway to expand charging networks, the density of charging stations is not yet sufficient, particularly in rural or less populated areas.
  • Battery Technology: Although advancements in battery technology have been significant, there is still room for improvement in terms of energy density, charging speed, and overall cost. Battery degradation over time is another concern.
  • Consumer Awareness: Many consumers still lack awareness of the benefits of electric vehicles, including reduced operating costs, environmental impact, and government incentives. Education and awareness campaigns are crucial for overcoming this challenge.
  • Supply Chain Challenges: The supply chain for key components, especially batteries, may face challenges in meeting the growing demand for electric vehicles. This could lead to supply constraints and potential cost increases.
  • Policy and Regulatory Uncertainty: Rapid changes in policies and regulations can create uncertainty for both consumers and manufacturers. Clear, consistent, and supportive policies are essential for fostering confidence in the electric vehicle market.


Addressing these challenges requires a collaborative effort from governments, manufacturers, and other stakeholders to create a supportive ecosystem for electric vehicles. Electric mobility will be a big contributor to India achieving its target of net zero emissions by 2070.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 27, 2024

Q1. Discuss the significance of technology in promoting sustainable agriculture practices. (10M/150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer

The question has only one part 1) Significance of technology in promoting sustainable agriculture practices

Introduction: Define the meaning of sustainable agriculture and write about its importance in brief.

Main Body:

Heading 1: Significance of technology in promoting sustainable agriculture practices

Conclusion: Write how sustainable agricultural practices will help small and marginal farmers and write about some government schemes in this regard.


Answer: Sustainable agriculture can be defined in many ways, but ultimately it seeks to sustain farmers, resources and communities by promoting farming practices and methods that are profitable, environmentally sound and good for communities. Sustainable agriculture fits into and complements modern agriculture.

Significance of technology in promoting sustainable agriculture practices

  • Precision agriculture: Precision agriculture uses technology like GPS, sensors, and drones to monitor crops, soil, and weather conditions. This helps farmers optimize the use of resources, minimize waste, and reduce the environmental impact of agriculture.
  • Crop breeding: Advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering have enabled the development of crops that are more resistant to pests and diseases, require less water, and can withstand extreme weather conditions.
    • For example, GM crops like Bt-cotton have reduced the need for chemical pesticides, leading to lower environmental pollution.
  • Vertical farming: Vertical farming is a sustainable agriculture practice that uses technology to grow crops in a controlled environment, using less water and land than traditional farming methods.
  • Smart irrigation systems: Smart irrigation systems use technology like sensors and weather data to optimize irrigation and reduce water waste. This can help conserve water resources and reduce the environmental impact of agriculture.
  • Integrated pest management: Integrated pest management is an approach to pest control that uses a combination of methods, including biological controls, cultural practices, and chemical controls. Technology can help farmers implement integrated pest management practices more effectively and efficiently
    • For example, pheromone traps and digital monitoring systems can provide real-time data on pest populations, enabling targeted and timely interventions.
  • Livestock management technology: Livestock management technology can help farmers improve the health and welfare of their animals, reduce waste, and increase productivity
    • For example, the Government has launched the Kamdhenu App to provide information on livestock management.
  • Renewable energy: Solar and wind power can help farmers reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and reduce the carbon footprint of agriculture.
    • For example, farmers can install solar panels to generate clean energy for powering farm operations.

Most of the farmers in India are small and marginal, and they are not able to use these technologies due to a lack of skill, awareness, and poverty. The government has launched different schemes like PMKSY to improve water use efficiency, Sub-Mission on farm mechanization to promote farm mechanization, etc., which can help address these issues. This can help India to tackle food security issues along with achieving the goal of doubling the farmers' income.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 27, 2024

Q2. Highlight the potential applications of 5G in various sectors of daily life. (10M/ 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

The main heading in the answer is that of ‘potential applications’ of 5G. Along with it, basic features of 5G and challenges in its implementation can be added.


 Type- 1 : Define 5G along with its features.

 Type- 2 : Give data on usage and implementation of 5G since its launch.


Heading-1 : Potential applications of 5G in various sectors

Heading-2 : Challenges and limitations in its adoption


 Type- 1 : Conclude with a futuristic vision on how to overcome the existing challenges

 Type- 2 : Conclude with any recommendations of a committee on 5G  


5G is the fifth-generation technology standard for cellular networks and it is the latest upgrade in the long-term evolution (LTE) mobile broadband networks. It is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra-low latency, more reliability, increased availability and a more uniform user experience to more users.

Potential applications of 5G in various sectors:


  • Improvement in education delivery : Due to the pandemic, remote learning became a norm for people. With the advent of the 5G, the increased speed, better connectivity, and higher reliability will help boost remote education for students.
  • 5G will also provide a major impetus to digital universities.
  •  Vocational training programmes, delivered in the ‘phygital’ mode, can improve the employability of youth and women.




  • Advancements in the healthcare sector: From patient monitoring, robot-assisted surgery to remote diagnostics, 5G can prove to be crucial in several ways.


    • For example: Telemedicine and remote consultations in real time



  • Improvements in manufacturing operations: With 5G, the automated manufacturing operations can be reconfigured and this can help to meet the changing needs of the market.


    • For example : Remote monitoring of warehouses or use of 5G enabled automatic guided vehicles on assembly lines.



  • Enhancement in agricultural productivity : With the help of 5G’s high-capacity connectivity, smart agriculture can reach the rural farming regions and this will also help lower costs. This will enhance the overall agricultural productivity.


    • For example : 5G powered sensors can help measure crop and soil characteristics in real time.



  • An enabler for futuristic technology:  Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality along with the Internet of Things can work on the back of 5G networks to drive economic growth.


    • Government of India in Union Budget 2023-24 has announced to set up 100 5G labs to explore use cases in futuristic technologies.


Challenges in implementation of 5G:


  • Infrastructural Issues : The higher frequency bands used in 5G, such as millimeter waves or mmWaves, have a limited range and are more easily obstructed by buildings and trees. This means that to achieve comprehensive coverage, many more small cell towers are required, often positioned much closer together. 
  • Telecom sector woes : Cut throat tariff wars, revenue losses for telecom companies and high spectrum licensing fee has resulted in very few companies bidding for high frequency spectrum bands.
  • Digital divide : Rural and remote regions may experience limited 5G access due to these range limitations, exacerbating the digital divide.
  • Expensive for the end consumer : 5G will not be as affordable as 4G. Also, many existing mobile devices don’t support the new technology, hence many users will require to change their devices. It will result in a financial burden on some users and thus will contribute to challenges in its rollout.


  • Dependence on import for telecom equipment: India is greatly dependent on the import of telecom equipment.  5G presents an opportunity for the promotion of domestic manufacturing as well as indigenous technology due to the changed nature of network components as compared to 3G and 4G. 


5G represents a breakthrough in wireless communication technology and is expected to add over 1 trillion dollars to global GDP by 2030. India should work on resolving challenges related to 5G as recommended by the AJ Paulraj Committee.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Feb. 26, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 26, 2024

Q.1 What are Quantum Dots? Highlight the properties of quantum dots. Also discuss their potential applications in various fields. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

The question asks about the Quantum dots and the mechanism behind its working. Further, the properties which make it significant and help overcome the limitations of present technology have to be discussed. Also, the applications with respect to various fields, both presently as well as in the future, are to be mentioned.


We can start by describing the Quantum Dots, their physical and chemical characteristics. One can also mention the characteristics/properties that make them valuable in the present scenario.


One can discuss the unique properties by way of mentioning the keywords, followed by a brief explanation of this distinctive property of Quantum Dots. Substantiating with appropriate examples wherever possible is recommended. The next part of the answer should explain the uses of this technology in various fields, preferably emerging ones.


In conclusion, one can mention the usefulness of this technology with respect to Indian needs. Alternatively, one can also write about the steps that need to be taken to scale up this technology and make it affordable.


Answer: Quantum dots are semiconducting nanocrystals that are typically in the size range of 2 to 10 nanometers (approximately 10 to 50 atoms). These nanocrystals are often composed of materials like cadmium selenide (CdSe), indium arsenide (InAs), or other semiconducting compounds. Quantum dots possess unique and highly tunable optical and electronic properties, which make them valuable for a wide range of applications.


Properties of Quantum Dots:

  • Quantum Confinement Effects: Quantum dots demonstrate quantum confinement effects, where electrons and holes are confined within a limited volume. This leads to discrete energy levels, contributing to their size-dependent optical and electronic properties.
  • Semiconducting Properties: Quantum dots exhibit semiconducting behavior due to their small size. 
    • For example, This is essential for many electronic and optoelectronic applications.
  • Long Photoluminescence Lifetimes: Quantum dots exhibit long photoluminescence lifetimes, meaning they continue to emit light for extended periods. 
    • For example, This is advantageous for biological imaging and tracking, where prolonged fluorescence is desirable.
  • Broad Absorption Spectrum: Quantum dots have a broad absorption spectrum, which means they can absorb a wide range of incoming light, including ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. 
    • For example, This is beneficial for applications in photovoltaics, where they can capture a broad range of sunlight wavelengths.
  • Narrow Emission Spectrum: Quantum dots emit light at very specific and narrow wavelengths. This characteristic leads to the production of vibrant and well-defined colors.
    • For example, It is particularly advantageous for improving color accuracy in displays, such as QLED (Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode) screens.


Applications of Quantum Dots:

  • Display Technology: Quantum dots can enhance the quality of displays, such as LED lamps and television screens, by emitting clear and vibrant light.
  • Medical Imaging: They can illuminate tumor tissue during surgery, aiding surgeons in precise removal.Their nanoscale size makes them ideal for use in tiny sensors.
  • Flexible Electronics: Quantum dots hold promise for flexible electronics, paving the way for innovative and adaptable devices.
  • Slimmer Solar Cells: Quantum dots could lead to more efficient and compact solar cells, improving renewable energy solutions.
  • Encrypted Quantum Communication: Quantum dots might play a role in developing secure quantum communication technologies, protecting sensitive information.


Quantum dots are ultra-small semiconductor particles with unique traits. They can change color and emit light for extended periods, which can fulfill a range of needs, from more efficient displays and lighting to improved medical imaging and advanced computing.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 26, 2024

Q.3 What are the various  applications Artificial Intelligence is having in the field of education? Also discuss its potential effects in transforming the learning experience in the field of education. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the Answer: 

While structuring the answer, identify the key words such as AI, learning experience, applications, potential effects and proceed accordingly.


Type 1: Explain the meaning of the key term Artificial Intelligence in the context of education.

Type 2: Introduction can be contextualized by citing the need for transforming the learning experience in the field of education.


Heading 1: Various applications of AI in the field of education in order to transform the learning experience

Heading 2: Discuss the positive effects of AI

Heading 3: Highlight the negative effects of AI 


Type 1: Conclude by writing a suitable way forward and mentioning specific suggestions.

Type 2: Way forward can be written by linking with Sustainable Development Goal 4.

Answer: In the realm of education, through the utilization of cutting-edge technologies like machine learning and natural language processing, the objective of AI is to emulate cognitive abilities akin to those of humans.


Applications of AI in transforming the learning experience:

  • Intelligent Tutoring Systems: AI facilitates intelligent tutoring systems, providing personalized feedback.
  • For example, Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor offers tailored support and feedback in math and science learning.
  • Personalized Learning: This enables personalized learning with tailored paths, adaptive content, and interventions.
    • For instance, Platforms like PeerAI and Adaptiv Academy analyze student data, identifying learning styles, strengths and provide individualized learning paths.
  • Adaptive Education: AI creates adaptive learning systems adjusting instruction based on student responses.
  • For example, DreamBox Learning utilizes AI to tailor math instructions to individual learning levels, fostering engagement and motivation.
  • Automated Grading: AI automates grading tasks, including essays, freeing teachers to offer personalized support.
  • For example, Gradescope utilizes AI for faster and reliable grading of essays and short-answer questions.


Positive effects of AI in the field of education:

  • Better educational outcomes: Personalized and adaptive learning facilitated by AI can result in improved academic achievements for all students, irrespective of their diverse backgrounds or learning capacities.
  • Enhanced engagement: AI platforms analyze learner preferences and adapt the content accordingly. Incorporating quizzes fosters active participation and motivates students to retain information effectively.
  • Educational accessibility/Bridge learning gaps: AI platforms bring quality education to remote areas with digital libraries. Students access materials, overcoming language barriers via translation features for multi-language content.

Negative effects of AI in the field of education:

  • Limitations in Teaching Effectiveness: AI algorithms may not match the teaching effectiveness of human educators, lacking the nuanced understanding and empathy crucial for effective teaching.
  • Emotional Disconnect: AI lacks emotional capacity, leading to a potential emotional disconnect between students and the technology which can affect the students' perception of care and support.
  • Bias and Fairness: AI algorithms can perpetuate existing biases, leading to unfair outcomes for certain groups of students.


The Sustainable Development Goal 4 prioritizes inclusive, equitable, and quality education for all. To achieve SDG 4, AI can be a potential ally. However, it requires collaboration among stakeholders, robust policymaking, responsible use, transparency, and accountability to truly enhance education and enable lifelong learning opportunities, leaving no one behind.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 26, 2024

Q.2 What do you understand by Bio-Computer? Discuss the various opportunities in this technology? (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

The question asks about the new technology, i.e. Bio-Computers and expects one to explain the working briefly. Further, the applications of this technology in the present and in future is to be discussed


We can introduce it by explaining what a biocomputer is, along with its important components. Here, one can also write the aim/purpose of this new technology.


We can start by explaining the mechanism behind the Bio-Computer, also explaining the future expectations from this technology. This will create a link between the introduction and later part of the answer, i.e. the opportunities in this technology. The next part should elaborate on the applications of Bio-Computers


Since it is an emerging technology, there is progress to be made in certain areas and improvements in the present technology. One can conclude by highlighting these future expectations going forward with this technology.


Answer: Bio-computers involve connecting 3D brain cultures cultivated in a lab to real-world sensors and input/output devices. This innovative technology aims to leverage the computational capabilities of the brain to gain insights into the biological underpinnings of human cognition, learning, and diverse neurological disorders. 


These 3D brain cultures (miniature brains), measuring up to 4 mm in size, are constructed from human stem cells and replicate numerous structural and functional aspects of a developing human brain. They serve as valuable tools for researching human brain development and assessing the effects of drugs.


Mechanism behind the ‘Bio-computer’:

  • Researchers aim to merge brain organoids with advanced computing techniques, employing machine learning to fashion "bio-computers."
  • These organoids will be cultivated within structures featuring multiple electrodes for recording neuron firing patterns and replicating sensory inputs.
  • Subsequently, machine learning methods will be employed to scrutinize how neuron responses impact human behavior and biology.


Opportunities for ‘Bio-computers’:

  • Complex Information Processing: They outshine machines at processing complex information.
  • Neurosciences and Drug Development: Brain organoids developed using stem cells from individuals with neurodegenerative diseases offer a powerful tool for understanding and potentially treating conditions like Parkinson's disease and microcephaly.
  • Comparative Studies: These organoids can provide insights into the biological basis of human cognition, learning, and memory by comparing the data on brain structure, connections, and signaling between healthy and patient-derived organoids.


Way Forward:

  • Scaling Up: To improve the computing capacity, there is a need to scale up the brain organoid as currently, the brain organoids have a diameter of less than 1 mm, roughly three-millionth the size of an actual human brain. Accordingly, there is a need for incorporating non-neuronal cells to aid biological learning.
  • Use of ‘Big Data’ Infrastructure: These hybrid systems will generate very large amounts of data (i.e.Neural recordings from each neuron and connection) that needs to be stored and analyzed using ‘Big Data’ infrastructure.
  • Microfluidic Systems: Researchers will also have to develop microfluidic systems to transport oxygen and nutrients, and remove waste products.
  • Ethical Issues: There is also a need to identify, discuss, and analyze ethical issues as they arise in the course of this work.
Subjects : Current Affairs

Feb. 23, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 23, 2024

Q2. The Forest Rights Act of 2006 has been instrumental in safeguarding and bolstering the rights of forest dwellers, yet it also raises certain concerns. Discuss. (10M, 150W).

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:


We can start by writing Briefly about the Forest Rights Act of 2006 and its purpose in protecting the rights of forest dwellers.


Heading 1: Positive Impacts of the Forest Rights Act:

Heading 2: Concerns Associated with the Forest Rights Act:

Conclusion: Summarize the dual nature of the Forest Rights Act, acknowledging its achievements while recognizing the need for addressing associated concerns. Or you can write the way forward as well.


Answer: Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006 recognises & vests Forest & occupancy rights of Forest Dwelling Scheduled Tribes (FDST) & other Traditional forest dwellers (OTFD) who have been residing in Forests from at least 3 generations (75 years) prior to December, 2005. 


Provisions of FRA has resulted in protecting & enhancing the rights of Forest dwellers”:


  • Undo Historical Injustice: Granting recognition to ancestral rights over Forest resources deprived under Colonial acts: 


      • Eg - Indian Forest Act 1878 which banned Shifting cultivation (Podu) by Tribals & limited access to Forest produce especially under “Reserved area” 


  • Empower Forest dwellers: To access and use forest resources in sustainable manner by extracting and selling Minor Forest Produce (MFP) 
  • Recognise IFRs: Individual Forest Rights to continue habitation and cultivation that existed before December 2005 for at least 3 generations (75 years) 
  • Community Forest Rights (CFR): Aims to protect and manage Forest resources by the community: 


      • Eg - Gram Sabha is made authority to initiate nature of IFR & CFR 


  • Relief and Developmental Rights: To Rehabilitate in case of eviction & displacement and provisions of basic amenities 
  • Expands Constitutional mandate: To protect and develop Indigenous communities. Eg - Gonds, Santhals etc 



Certain drawbacks which persists and dilutes the noble aim of the Act: 


  • Administrative apathy: In enforcement of rights of OTFD and FDST and use of act as instrument to encroach welfare measures for tribals. 
  • Issues with Forest Conservation Rules 2022: 


      • Prescribe rule for diversion of Forest land for Non-forest purposes thus contradicting provisions of Godavarman Judgement 1996
      • Omit required "Prior Informed Consent" of Gram Sabha before proceeding for Stage 1 & 2 clearance of Project


  • Limitations of Digitized services: Eg- Requirement of Aadhaar Card under Van-Mitra initiative poses challenges with areas impacted by poor internet connectivity and digital illiteracy 
  • Limited recognition of CFR in priority areas: Eg- States such as Maharashtra, Jharkhand & Odisha with significant FDST & OTFD population have made limited progress in recognition of Forest Rights under the Act 
  • Inadequate Rehabilitation process: E.g. - Tribals displaced due to Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.



Strengthening & implementing the Act in spirit of letter is ideal way forward: 

    • Encouraging forest protection by the local user community: Eg: Nepal increased forest cover to 45% by this practice (1990-2020)


  • Empowering Gram Sabha: Involvement of Gram Sabha in effective decision making and screening of projects shall be sin quo non. 
  • Education & Awareness: Eg - Such awareness programmes can be conducted under PM - Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana 
  • Strengthening Accountability & Monitoring mechanism: Integrated plans for both development & conservation of forests as well as ensuring penalty measures for violations and non-compliance shall be ensured 



Thus, aims of “Antyodaya” shall be integrated with objectives of National Forest Policy 1988 to safeguard the rights of Tribals and ensure the fulfillment of objectives of the Forest Rights Act 2006.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 23, 2024

Q1. What are the key provisions of the Biological diversity (Amendment) Act, 2023? What are the concerns related to conservation in light of recent amendments?(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

The question asks about the recent amendments to the Biodiversity Act, 2002. The demand is to explore how the newly amended provisions raise concerns about conservation.


We can start by writing briefly about the BDA, 2002, the convention it seeks to fulfill. Further, one can mention the aim/purpose of this convention or the Act.


Based on various provisions, one can write about the amendments in a tabular format in a contrasting format to clearly mention which provisions are being changed. In the next part of the answer, we can write about the concerns these provisions will have on conservation.


We can write about the need for the amendments and also the necessity of balancing both conservational and developmental needs, thereby developing sustainably.



The Biological Diversity Act, 2002, was created to fulfill India's obligations under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) of 1992. The CBD acknowledges countries' rights to regulate their biological resources. The Biological Diversity (Amendment) Act was introduced to amend the 2002 Act in line with current needs, promoting sustainable biodiversity conservation and use in India.


Key Provisions of the Biological Diversity (Amendment) Act, 2023


The Biological Diversity Act, 2002

Amendments to the 2002 Act

Access to Biological Resources

The Act mandates that individuals or entities wishing to access biological resources or related knowledge in India must either secure prior approval or notify the regulatory authority of their intentions.

The Act alters the categorization of entities and activities requiring notification and introduces exemptions in specific cases.

Intellectual Property Rights

The Act necessitates obtaining approval from the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) before seeking Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) associated with biological resources from India.

The Act proposes that approval will be necessary prior to the actual granting of the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), rather than during the application process.

Exempting AYUSH Practitioners

No earlier provision

The Act aims to provide exemptions to registered AYUSH medical practitioners and individuals accessing codified traditional knowledge, among others. These exemptions would relieve them from the requirement of prior intimation to State biodiversity boards when accessing biological resources for specific purposes.

Benefit Sharing

The Act enforces benefit sharing of both financial and non-financial benefits with those responsible for conserving biodiversity or possessing traditional knowledge linked to it. 

The NBA establishes the conditions for benefit sharing when granting approvals for various activities.

The Act removes the applicability of benefit sharing requirements from research, bio-survey, and bio-utilisation.

Criminal Penalties

The Act enforces criminal penalties, including imprisonment, for violations such as the failure to obtain approval or give prior intimation for specific activities.

In contrast, the Act decriminalizes these offenses and introduces fines ranging from one lakh to fifty lakh rupees instead.


Concerns related to conservation:


  • Favoring Industry Interests:
  • The amendments appear to favor industry interests over biodiversity conservation, thereby contradicting the CBD's core principles


      • Undermines the community participation and “equitable sharing of benefits” among the communities that have safeguarded it for generations.
    • Removal of Criminal Penalties:
      • The Act seeks to decriminalize violations, thereby eliminating the NBA's authority to lodge FIRs against entities failing to adhere to regulations. 
      • This move has the potential to undermine the enforcement of laws aimed at safeguarding biodiversity and impede endeavors to discourage illicit activities.
    • Special Treatment for Domestic Corporations:
      • Permission for using biodiversity resources applies only to foreign-controlled companies. This may raise concerns about potential bypassing by domestic companies with foreign shareholding, leading to unchecked exploitation.
    • Conservation Challenges:
      • The Act seems to prioritize reduction of regulations and facilitation of business interests, giving rise to apprehensions about the potential adverse effects on biodiversity and traditional knowledge holders.


  • Traditional Knowledge of medicines and Concerns: While exemptions for AYUSH practitioners can encourage the adoption of tribal and forest community knowledge and boost research, concerns include the threat of biopiracy, leading to illegal use of biodiversity and traditional cultural knowledge. Additionally, there's a risk of faster depletion of resources and exemption from benefit sharing for Indian medicine practitioners.



The Biological Diversity (Amendment) Act, 2023, while attempting to align with contemporary needs, raises concerns about potential negative impacts on biodiversity conservation, traditional knowledge holders, and the enforcement of biodiversity protection laws in India. It calls for a delicate balance between supporting sustainable development and safeguarding the nation's rich biological heritage.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 23, 2024

Q3. How does the economic impact of climate change influence national development strategies? What policy measures can be implemented to address these challenges, ensuring sustainable and inclusive growth?(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach:  Break down the question into sub-parts and then answer each part individually.

Introduction: Introduce with data on the economic impact of climate change


Sub-Heading 1: Economic influence of climate change on national development strategies

Sub-Heading 2: Policy measures undertaken to address these challenges 

Conclusion: The way forward for climate change negotiations 


Climate change poses significant economic challenges, impacting various sectors and hindering sustainable development. According to UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report 2023 the modeled costs of adaptation in developing countries are estimated at US$215 billion per year this decade. Despite these needs, public multilateral and bilateral adaptation finance flows to developing countries declined by 15 per cent to US$21 billion in 2021. 

This highlights the urgency to understand and address the economic implications of climate change.


Economic influence of climate change on national development strategies:

    • Agriculture and Food Security: Climate change directly impacts agricultural productivity due to altered rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and more frequent extreme weather events. Developing countries, heavily reliant on agriculture, face heightened risks of food insecurity and loss of livelihoods, necessitating a shift in development strategies towards climate-resilient agricultural practices.
      • The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that global crop yield could decline by up to 25% by 2050 due to climate change. 


  • Health Costs: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that between 2030 and 2050, climate change could cause approximately 250,000 additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress. The economic cost of these health impacts is projected to be between USD 2-4 billion per year by 2030. 


  • Infrastructure and Urban Development: Climate change necessitates reconsideration of infrastructure development strategies, particularly in urban areas prone to flooding, sea-level rise, and extreme heat. Increased disasters due to climate change will create concerns for climate refugees. 
    • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) reports that the cost of ensuring infrastructure is resilient to climate change in Asia and the Pacific could be about $1.7 trillion per year until 2030. 
  • Water Resources Management: Climate change exacerbates water scarcity issues, impacting not only drinking water supply but also water availability for agriculture and industry. 
    • The United Nations World Water Development Report notes that by 2050, up to 5.7 billion people could be living in areas where water is scarce for at least one month a year, creating urgent demands for national strategies focused on water efficiency and sustainable management.
  • Tourism: Regions dependent on tourism face economic challenges due to climate change, as natural attractions (e.g. coral reefs, ski resorts) are directly impacted, requiring countries to diversify their economies and invest in sustainable tourism practices.

Policy measures undertaken to address these challenges:


  • Carbon Pricing , Carbon Tax and Emissions Trading Systems (ETS): According to the World Bank, as of 2021, about 64 carbon pricing instruments have been implemented or are scheduled for implementation globally.
  • For example : The European Union's Emission Trading System (EU ETS), the world's largest carbon market, has been instrumental in reducing the EU's emissions by about 35% below 2005 levels in ETS sectors.


  • Energy Efficiency Standards and Building Codes: The International Energy Agency (IEA) notes that energy efficiency measures can contribute to over 40% of the emissions reductions needed to meet global climate goals. 
    • For example : Japan has implemented the Top Runner Program, which sets progressively higher energy efficiency standards for appliances and vehicles, driving innovation and market shifts towards more efficient products.
  • Afforestation and Reforestation Initiatives: Trees play a crucial role in carbon sequestration, and policies promoting afforestation and reforestation are vital. 
    • For example : The Bonn Challenge, launched in 2011, is a global effort to restore 350 million hectares of degraded and deforested lands by 2030. 
  • Climate Adaptation and Resilience Building: Recognizing the importance of adaptation, the Global Commission on Adaptation calls for increased investment in adaptation solutions. The Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) initiative helps vulnerable countries build early warning systems to protect populations from climate-related disasters. 
    • Bangladesh's Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme is an example of integrating climate resilience into national development, focusing on improving early warning systems and disaster preparedness.
  • International Cooperation and Agreements: International agreements such as the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) set global targets for reducing emissions and increasing resilience. Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are central to the Paris Agreement's implementation, where countries outline their plans for emission reductions and adaptation measures.


India's comprehensive approach, characterized by a blend of policy initiatives(NAPCC, ISA, Green Energy Corridors Project, Push for renewables and electrification) and ambitious targets(achieving >500 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2030), demonstrates a strong commitment to tackling climate change while pursuing sustainable development. 

Need today is for international cooperation that can formulate a certain policy , generate funds and address issues of climate justice keeping at center the cherished principle of combined but differentiated responsibilities according to respective capabilities (CBDR-RC) of nations.

Subjects : Environment

Feb. 22, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 22, 2024

Q1. Discuss the green energy initiatives of India as a signatory nation to the Paris Agreement. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding and structuring the answer: Start your answer by discussing the objective of the Paris climate agreement then discuss the main part of the answer. Question has 1 main part – green energy initiatives of India.

Introduction: Highlight the objective of the Paris climate agreement and India in line with this objective.


Write down the green energy initiatives of India.

Conclusion: In conclusion, can discuss further steps needed or balancing between growth and environmental concerns. 

Answer:  India is a signatory nation to the Paris climate Agreement which aims to limit global warming to well below 2° Celsius and preferably limit it to 1.5° Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. For the same, India has made substantial efforts to transition toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy system. 

Five nectar elements (Panchamrit) of India’s climate action:

  • To reach 500GW Non-fossil energy capacity by 2030.
  • To ensure 50 per cent of its energy requirements from renewable energy by 2030.
  • Reduction of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to 2030.
  • Reduction of the carbon intensity of the economy by 45 per cent by 2030, over 2005 levels.
  • Achieving the target of net zero emissions by 2070.

Some key aspects of India's green energy initiatives under the Paris Agreement are:

  • Push for Solar energy production:. India has become a global leader in solar energy capacity. 
    • For example, National Solar Mission to promote solar power production.
    • For example, "Solar Parks" program to develop large-scale solar projects to meet energy demand. 
    • For example, Rooftop Solar Scheme, PM-KUSUM, International Solar Alliance to fulfill the aim to source nearly half its energy from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030.
  • Push for wind energy: Currently with an installed capacity of 40 GW, India has 4th largest wind energy installed capacity and is targeting a wind capacity addition of 100 GW by 2030.
    • For example, National Offshore Wind Energy Policy 2015 and National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy 2018.
  • India Renewable Idea Exchange (IRIX) Portal by MNRE: It promotes the exchange of ideas among energy conscious Indians and the global community. 
  • Promotion of Green energy corridors: To synchronize the electricity produced from renewable resources, with the conventional power stations in the grid. 
  • Promotion of Bioenergy: India is exploring bioenergy sources, such as biogas and biofuels, to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and decrease emissions. 
    • For example, biomass-based boiler technology was launched in India (Kurukshetra, Haryana) to promote biomass energy production. 
    • For example, the launch of the Global biofuel alliance on the sidelines of the 2023 G20 summit.
  • Push to Green Hydrogen: 
    • For example, the National Green Hydrogen mission aims to make India a ‘global hub’ for using, producing and exporting green hydrogen. 
  • Promotion of Electrification of mobility: India is promoting electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce emissions from the transportation sector. 
    • For example, FAME scheme, National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, PLI scheme, Vehicle Scrappage Policy,  EV30@30 campaign etc.


While India's green energy initiatives are significant, the country faces challenges such as financing, grid integration, and addressing the energy needs of its growing population. Hence, care should be taken to balance India’s determination to contribute to global climate change mitigation efforts with its energy security and development goals.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 22, 2024

Q2. List down the causes and current status of desertification in India. Also examine the role played by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in addressing the concerns. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:   

Understanding and structuring the answer:   

The question has three main headings: 1) Causes of desertification 2) Current status of desertification in India and 3)Role played by UNCCD in addressing the concerns posed by desertification.


Type 1: Define desertification. 

Type 2: Give some data about the extent of desertification in India and the world.


Heading 1: Causes of desertification 

Heading 2: Current status of desertification in India.   

Heading 3: Evaluation of role played by UNCCD in addressing the concerns posed by desertification..      


Type 1: Relate it to SDG 15- states our resolve to halt and reverse land degradation. 

Type 2: Mention the steps taken by India in addressing desertification.


Answer: Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas. It is caused by a multitude of factors, including climate change, human-caused soil overexploitation, and deforestation. 

Causes of desertification: 

According to the United Nations, every year, the world loses 24 billion tons of fertile soil and dryland degradation reduces national domestic product in developing countries by up to 8 % annually. 

Natural Causes:

  • Climate Variability: Changes in long-term climate patterns, such as prolonged droughts and shifts in precipitation, can lead to reduced soil moisture and increased evaporation.
  • Geomorphology: Geological processes, like the natural expansion of sand dunes or erosion, can gradually transform landscapes into arid and desert-like conditions.
  • Soil Characteristics: Certain soil types are naturally more prone to aridification due to low water-holding capacity, reduced fertility, and susceptibility to erosion.
  • Topography: Steep slopes and rugged terrains can enhance water runoff and erosion, leading to land degradation and desertification.

Anthropogenic Causes:

  • Deforestation: Clearing forests for agriculture, logging, and urbanization reduces vegetation cover, leading to increased soil erosion, loss of soil fertility, and decreased water retention.
  • Overgrazing: Unsustainable grazing practices by livestock lead to vegetation removal, soil compaction, and erosion, accelerating land degradation.
  • Unsustainable Agriculture: Improper farming practices, such as excessive tilling, monoculture, and inappropriate irrigation, can degrade soil quality, leading to reduced productivity and desertification.
  • Urbanization and Infrastructure Development: Construction, urban expansion, and infrastructure projects often lead to soil compaction, reduced vegetation cover, and increased vulnerability to erosion.
  • Mining and Extractive Industries: Extractive activities can disrupt landscapes, degrade soil quality, and release pollutants into the environment, contributing to desertification.

Current status of desertification in India:

  • According to the Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas 2021,  around 83.69 mha of the country underwent desertification in 2018-19. This was greater than the 81.48 mha in 2003-2005 and 82.64 mha in 2011-13.
  • If we consider the data with respect to different states, around 23.79% of the area undergoing desertification / land degradation in the country was contributed by Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Ladakh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Telangana.
  • India witnessed an increase in the level of desertification in 28  states and Union territories between 2011-13 and 2018-19.

In 2019, the government raised its target of restoration of degraded land from 21 million hectares to 26 million hectares by 2030 following a commitment made during the UN Convention to Combat Desertification. 

Role played by UNCCD in addressing desertification:

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) helps in addressing desertification through the following: 

  • Convention Framework: UNCCD provides a framework for countries to develop and implement national action plans to combat desertification and mitigate the impacts of drought and land degradation.
  • Capacity Building: UNCCD offers training, capacity-building programs, and technical assistance to member countries to enhance their understanding of sustainable land management practices.
    • For example, in Kenya, UNCCD has supported the development of land management training centers. 
  • Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN): UNCCD launched the LDN concept, aiming to achieve a balance between land degradation and land restoration. Countries strive to maintain or improve the productivity of land resources, avoiding further degradation.
  • Drought Management: UNCCD assists countries in developing strategies for managing drought, including early warning systems, preparedness, and response plans to minimize the impacts on vulnerable populations.
    • For instance, Jordan has implemented drought contingency plans to manage water resources during drought periods
  • Ecosystem Restoration: UNCCD promotes restoration initiatives that improve the health and productivity of degraded land through reforestation, afforestation, agroforestry, and other sustainable practices.
    • Great Green Wall Initiative supported by UNCCD aims to restore 100 million hectares of land across the Sahel region 
  • Sustainable Land Management: UNCCD supports projects that promote sustainable land management practices. 

Despite the limitations, the UNCCD operates in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly Goal 15 (Life on Land), and contributes to global efforts to achieve a more sustainable and resilient planet. 

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 22, 2024

Q3. Discuss the challenges faced in achieving sustainable use and management of water resources in India. Suggest a comprehensive strategy for water conservation and management in India.(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:   

Understanding and structuring the answer:   

The question has two main headings: 1) Challenges faced in achieving sustainable use and management of water resources and 2) Comprehensive strategy for water conservation and management in India. Additionally, provide a case study for a comprehensive answer.   


Type 1: State the situation of the water crisis and quote the country’s vision regarding the crisis. 

Type 2: Write a comprehensive introduction by mentioning the challenges, objectives and the significance of water conservation efforts. Quote some relevant data.  


Heading 1: Challenges faced in achieving sustainable use and management of water resources: Enlist the hurdles in achieving sustainable management of water resources.   

Heading 2: Comprehensive strategy for water conservation and management in India: Enlist multidimensional approaches towards water conservation. For value addition, use institutional data and a case study.      

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking conclusion: Mention the need for adopting a comprehensive strategy for sustainable water management. 


Answer: India has 18% of the world’s population, but only 4% of its water resources, making it among the most water-stressed in the world. Count’s  per capita water availability is around 1,100 cubic meter which is well below the internationally recognized threshold of water stress of 1,700 cubic meter per person.(WB)

Country's vision is sustainable development, maintenance of quality and efficient use of water resources to match with the growing demands. Integrated water management is vital for poverty reduction, environmental sustenance and sustainable economic development. 

Challenges faced in achieving sustainable use and management of water resources: 

  • Population growth and rapid urbanisation has increased demand for water for drinking, sanitation, agriculture and industrial purposes. 
  • For example: A ‘grave water risk’ will be faced by 30 Indian cities by 2050 due to overcrowding (WWF 2020 report). 
  • Groundwater depletion due to inefficient irrigation techniques leading to declining water tables. 
  • For example: 89% of groundwater extracted is used for irrigation purposes. 
  • Ineffective waste water management and pollution due to influx of industrial discharge, untreated sewage and agricultural runoff, hindering the management process. 
  • For example: India’s water treatment capacity is less than 30% (CPCB report). 
  • Governance & institutional challenges include inadequate enforcement of regulations, lack of departmental coordination and water disputes between states.  
  • For example: Lack of financial support, Cauvery river dispute, etc. 
  • Climate change induces situations like erratic rainfall patterns, increased frequency of droughts and floods, melting of glaciers, etc. 
  • For example: Sea level rises lead to storm surges in coastal regions, polluting freshwater resources. 

Comprehensive strategy for water conservation and management in India: 

  • Encouraging groundwater management and water-efficient practices in agriculture, industries and domestic sectors using reduce, recycle & reuse methodology. 
  • For example: Per Drop More Crop under PMKSY, watershed management, etc.  
  • Policy and governance support to address water allocation issues, pollution control and sustainable water management.  
  • For example: AMRUT 2.0 making cities water secure, Atal Bhujal Yojana for groundwater management.  
  • Research and technological interventions to enforce data-driven decision-making and innovation with cost efficiency. 
  • For example: Use of soil-moisture sensors, ISRO's Bharat Krishi Satellite programme, etc.  
  • Adapting to climate change using climate smart agriculture techniques, implementing drought and flood management measures, promoting water-efficient crop varieties, etc. 
  • For example: Sahi Fasal campaign (National Water Mission). 
  • Enhancing public awareness and international collaboration for realising the full potential of water conservation initiatives. 
  • For example: LiFE mission initiatives, rainwater harvesting, etc. 

Case study- Israel's pioneering water conservation includes advanced drip irrigation, precision agriculture, treated wastewater reuse, water pricing reforms, public awareness campaigns and comprehensive planning, enhancing efficiency and conservation in a water-scarce nation. 

In the face of growing water scarcity and increasing demands, adopting sustainable water management practices and drawing inspiration from successful countries can pave the way for a future where water resources are conserved and efficiently utilized for generations to come. 



Subjects : Environment

Feb. 21, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 21, 2024

Q1. What is green hydrogen? Discuss the role of the Green Hydrogen Mission in ensuring energy security as well as giving impetus to our battle against climate change.  (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:

Understanding the demand of the question: 1) Write about the green hydrogen and its advantages, and 2) talk about the potential of the Green Hydrogen Mission in ensuring energy security and giving impetus to our battle against climate change 


Type 1: Begin by defining green hydrogen.

Type 2: Briefly talk about the Green hydrogen mission introduced by the government.


Heading 1: Mention how the Green Hydrogen Mission can secure India’s energy security. 

Heading 2: Mention how the Green hydrogen Mission can help achieve climate change objectives. 


Type 1: Conclude by writing a way forward to maximise the benefits of the hydrogen fuel technology.

Type 2: Give suggestions to make the Green Hydrogen Mission a success.

Answer: Green hydrogen, also referred to as ‘clean hydrogen’ is produced by using electricity from renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, to split water into two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom through a process called electrolysis. 


Significance of Green Hydrogen Mission in securing India’s energy security: 

The Union Government recently cleared India’s Rs 20,000 cr National Green Hydrogen Mission to make the country a global green hydrogen hub. It can help India in achieving its energy security as:

  • Diversification of Energy Sources: By investing in green hydrogen production, India can diversify its energy sources beyond traditional fossil fuels. 
  • Renewable Energy Integration: Green hydrogen production is directly linked to renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. This synergy helps in integrating intermittent renewable energy into the energy mix more effectively, providing a stable and reliable source of energy even when sunlight or wind conditions are variable.
  • Storage and Grid Balancing: Green hydrogen can act as a form of energy storage, helping manage energy supply-demand imbalances. Excess renewable energy can be used to produce hydrogen, which can then be stored and converted back into electricity during peak demand periods, contributing to grid stability.
  • Decentralised Energy Production: The Green Hydrogen Mission can promote localised hydrogen production using renewable resources available across various regions.
  • Import Reduction: As India imports a significant portion of its fossil fuel requirements, adopting green hydrogen can reduce the need for energy imports, thereby enhancing national energy security and reducing exposure to geopolitical uncertainties.


Significance of Green Hydrogen Mission in fighting climate change: 

The Green Hydrogen Mission has the potential to provide a significant impetus to India's battle against climate change in several ways:

  • Carbon Emission Reduction: By replacing fossil fuels in various sectors, including transportation, industry, and power generation, green hydrogen can lead to substantial reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. 
  • Clean Energy Transition: Green hydrogen can act as a versatile clean energy carrier that complements the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. This accelerates the transition away from fossil fuels, which are major contributors to climate change.
  • Decarbonizing Hard-to-Abate Sectors: Certain sectors, such as heavy industries and aviation, are challenging to decarbonize due to technological limitations. Green hydrogen can provide a clean energy solution for these sectors by replacing fossil fuels as a source of energy or feedstock.
  • Air Quality Improvement: The combustion of fossil fuels contributes not only to climate change but also to air pollution. Shifting to green hydrogen can improve air quality by eliminating harmful emissions from combustion processes.
  • International Climate Commitments: The use of green hydrogen aligns with India's commitments under international agreements such as the Paris Agreement. 

As India is scaling up to the target of having 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030, aligning hydrogen production needs with broader electricity demand in the economy would be critical.  The green hydrogen has been anointed the flag-bearer of India’s low-carbon transition but it will take some heavy lifting to get the ecosystem in place.  Enforcing time-bound mid- and long-term policies would inspire the private sector to invest more in green hydrogen. 

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 21, 2024

Q2. Analyse the potential of a circular economy approach in addressing the challenges of waste management and pollution in India. Also suggest policy measures to strengthen the circular economy in India. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:    

Understanding and structuring the answer:    

The question has two main headings: 1) Potential of a circular economy approach in addressing the challenges of waste management and pollution in India, 2) Policy measures to strengthen the circular economy in India. 


Type 1: Define circular economy and show the need for adopting it in India. Provide relevant data. 

Type 2: Write the objective of the circular economy and provide data to show the utility of the concept.  


Heading 1: Potential of a circular economy approach in addressing the challenges of waste management and pollution in India: Enlist various benefits that will arise by the adoption of circular economy format.    

Heading 2: Policy measures to strengthen the circular economy in India: Suggest what could be done on policy level and beyond to realize the full potential of the circular economy concept. For value addition, use institutional data and a case study.       

Conclusion: State the current state of economy and show the significance of the circular economy in leading the economy in a sustainable manner. 


Answer: Circular economy is an economic system that is based on expanding the life cycle of products by reusing, recycling, repairing and renovating existing products as much as possible. With a growing population, rapid urbanization, climate change and environmental pollution, India must move towards a circular economy. India's circular economy development route is estimated to generate an annual value of US$ 218 billion by 2030

Potential of a circular economy approach in addressing the challenges of waste management and pollution in India: 

  • Reduced waste as the life-cycle of a product is expanded by prioritizing the reduction, reuse and recycling of materials. 
  • Enhanced resource efficiency as the pressure on the production line is reduced, thus conserving raw materials and decreasing energy and water consumption. 
  • Reduced pollution due to reduced waste generation, hence, conserving air, water and soil quality. 
  • Increased economic activity by creating new business opportunities, generating jobs in waste management and recycling sectors. 

Policy measures to strengthen circular economy in India: 

  • Introducing National Policy for circular economy would be a watershed moment as it would bring all the fragmented sectors under a single umbrella. 
  • For example: It would help extend EPR provision to all the applicable sectors. 
  • Waste management and recycling infrastructure development would encourage the formalization of the sector through public-private partnership. 
  • For example: Swachh Bharat Mission emphasizes on waste management. 
  • Incentives and tax benefits would attract businesses to endeavor in the recycling and waste management industry. 
  • For example: Imposing lower GST rates on recycled materials.  
  • Dedicated circular economy funds would provide impulse for sector specific initiatives, technological innovations, etc. 
  • For example: Atal Incubation Centres, Green growth” strategy in Budget 2023-24.  
  • Awareness and education amongst the public through various media campaigns will give push to the demand side of the curve. 
  • For example: LiFE mission on sensible consumption and production. 

Case study- Denmark is a circular economy frontrunner, integrating circularity in waste management, energy and construction. Emphasizing waste separation, recycling and energy recovery, it promotes sustainable public procurement and supports circular business models. 

With only 2% of the world’s landmass and 4% of freshwater resources, a linear economy model of ‘Take-Make-Dispose’ would constrain India’s manufacturing sector and consequently, the overall economy. Therefore, it is essential to recognize the material flow in the manufacturing process and shift towards a circular economy, which provides multipronged economic and ecological benefits. 

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 21, 2024

Q3. Discuss the significance of agroforestry in mitigating the impacts of climate change. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer

The given question has 1 demand – how Agroforestry helps in mitigating climate change impact.


Type 1: Define Agroforestry. 

Type 2: Show how Agriculture and climate change are deeply intertwined.


Heading 1: Agroforestry helps in mitigating climate change impact.


Significance of agroforestry with respect to  food security and climate change.


Answer: Agriculture and climate change are deeply intertwined. Agriculture is responsible for almost 30 percent of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and is the root cause of 80 percent of tropical deforestation. 

Intensive agriculture – characterized by monocultures and aimed at feeding farm animals — is one of the sectors that generate the highest amount of CO2 emissions. But agroforestry, which is the management and integration of trees, crops and/or livestock on the same plot of land, can be a panacea in this regard.


Agroforestry helps in mitigating climate change impact:

  • Improving livelihood: When properly applied, agroforestry can improve livelihoods through enhanced health and nutrition, increased economic growth, and strengthened environmental resilience and ecosystem sustainability.
  • Social sustainability: In turn, such improvements can contribute to increased social sustainability due to decreased social migration in which human needs are satisfied in a way that fosters environmental health. 
  • Soil Health: Agroforestry can control runoff and soil erosion, reducing water, soil material, organic matter, and nutrients.
  • Carbon sequestration: Agroforestry has the excellent potential of reducing atmospheric CO2 through carbon sequestration through plants and soil, leading to green carbon and carbon sink.
  • Sustainable production: Farm diversification is a growing strategy for economic competitiveness, especially throughout the industrialized temperate zone. Agroforestry offers great promise for fruit crops' sustainable production, high-value medicinal crops, dairy and beef cattle, sheep, goats, and biomass for biofuel. With agroforestry, degraded land can be transformed into food-growing carbon sinks.
  • Reducing stress: The agroforestry benefits derive from the interactions between trees and shrubs and crops and livestock. Positive interactions may relieve stress to plants and animals, enhance yields, retain soil, and capture water.
  • Environment-friendly: Agroforestry systems also yield proven strategies for long-term carbon sequestration, soil enrichment, biodiversity conservation, and air and water quality improvements, benefiting both the landowners and society.


This climate-smart farming system enables economically-viable production while significantly restoring land, mitigating climate change, safeguarding local biodiversity and strengthening food and nutritional security for the growing population.

Subjects : Environment

Feb. 20, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 20, 2024

Q2. What are Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs)? Despite their importance, explain how Eco-Sensitive Zones pose certain challenges. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer 

Understanding and structuring the answer: The demand of the question is to explain about the eco-sensitive zones, their importance and associated challenges.


Type 1: Explain about the Eco-sensitive zones and 

Type 2: Mention about any events associated with eco-sensitive zones like protests etc..


Heading 1: Eco-sensitive zones - mention about the area, prohibited activities, etc. 

Heading 2: Importance of eco-sensitive zones

Heading 3: Challenges associated with eco-sensitive zones

Way forward: Suggest steps to address the various problems associated with the eco-sensitive zones


Answer: Ecologically sensitive zones (ESZ) are zones of transition from an area of lower protection to an area of higher protection like national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Last year, farmers' protests erupted in Kerala against the Supreme Court’s order to establish 1-km Eco-Sensitive Zones around all protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries and national parks.


Eco-Sensitive Zones:


  • Boundary limit: As per the National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016), issued by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, land within 10 km of the boundaries of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries is to be notified as eco-fragile zones or Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZ).
  • Sensitive corridors: Areas beyond 10-km can also be notified by the Union government as ESZs, if they hold larger ecologically important ‘sensitive corridors’.
  • Prohibited activities: Various activities are prohibited in an ESZ, such as commercial mining, saw mills, commercial use of wood, etc., apart from regulated activities like felling of trees. 
  • Permitted activities: Various activities are permitted in the ESZs like, ongoing agricultural or horticultural practices, rainwater harvesting, organic farming, among others.


Importance of Eco-Sensitive Zones:


  • Shock absorbers: ESZs are created as “shock absorbers” for the protected areas, to minimize the negative impact on the “fragile ecosystems” by certain human activities taking place nearby.
  • Transition zone: ESZs are meant to act as a transition zone from areas requiring higher protection to those requiring lesser protection.  
  • Purpose: ESZs are not meant to hamper the daily activities of people living in the vicinity, but are meant to guard the protected areas and ‘refine the environment around them’


Challenges Associated with ESZs:


  • Adversely affect the developmental works: Many state governments have pointed out that the 10 km boundary would encompass many habitations and important cities; and would adversely affect the developmental works.
  • Loss of livelihood:  Buffer zones around protected areas already restrict so many activities, creation of ESZs will only worsen the sustenance and livelihood of poor farmers.
  • Lack of Awareness: Many people, including local communities, might not be aware of the ecological significance of these zones, leading to unintentional harm.
  • Inadequate Enforcement: Weak implementation of regulations and lack of monitoring can result in violations and damage to sensitive zones.


Way Forward


  • Community Engagement: It is important to involve local communities in the decision-making process for the management of ESZs.
  • Empowering Gram Sabha: Gram sabha must be empowered with to take decisions in case of developmental projects
  • Alternate Livelihood support: It is important to provide alternative livelihood options for local communities who depend on the resources found in ESZs for their livelihoods.
  • Promoting Eco Restoration: Afforestation and reforestation of degraded forest, regeneration of lost habitats, reducing climate change impacts by promoting carbon footprints and through education, is needed.
Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 20, 2024

Q 1. How do invasive species affect the biodiversity in India? List the measures that can be taken to control its spread and protect the biodiversity. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer:   

Understanding and structuring the answer:   

The question has two main headings: 1) Impact of invasive species on the native biodiversity in India and 2) Measures to control the spread of invasive species and protect the native biodiversity. Additionally, provide a case study for a comprehensive answer.   


Type 1: State the situation of invasive species in India by quoting relevant data. Type 2: Define invasive species and state its impacts in short. Quote some relevant data related to India.  


Heading 1: Impact of invasive species on the native biodiversity in India: Enlist the different impacts invasive species have on native biodiversity.   

Heading 2: Measures to control the spread of invasive species and protect the native biodiversity: Enlist multidimensional approaches towards controlling spread of invasive species. For value addition, use institutional data and a case study.      

Conclusion: Give a forward-looking conclusion – Type 1: Mention the need for adopting a comprehensive strategy for controlling the spread of invasive species. Type 2: Suggestive steps in the case study could be written as a conclusion.  


Answer: An invasive species is an organism (both plant and animals) that is not indigenous, or native, to a particular area but aggressively colonizes and spreads in new habitats, often causing harm to native biodiversity


Impact of invasive species on the native biodiversity in India 


  • Outcompeting native species for resources such as food, water and space by growing rapidly and spreading aggressively. 
  • For example: Bengal shrub-mint at Kanha Tiger Reserve
  • Habitat alteration by modifying the physical structure of the environment and changing nutrients cycling patterns. 
  • For example: Pasturelands, forests and plantations altered by Lantana camara
  • Putting predation pressure by invasive predators upon the native species that have not developed defense against them, leading to sharp population decline or even extinction. 
  • For example: Birds, reptiles and small mammals predated by alien invasive species, Indian mongoose
  • Genetic pollution through hybridization resulting from interbreeding with native species, lead to dilution of genetic integrity and possibly extinction of original native species. 
  • For example: African catfish introduction from Bangladesh. 
  • Disease transmission via introduction of new diseases or parasites to vulnerable native species lacking immunity. 
  • For example: Spread of Tomato leaf curl virus in India via non-native tomato varieties. 

Measures to control the spread of invasive species and protect the native biodiversity 

  • Early detection and monitoring through regular surveys accompanied by early response and rapid control. 
  • For example: Zoological Survey of India maintains a database of more than 150 invasive faunal species. 
  • Restoration and habitat management using preferably locally adapted native species. 
  • For example: Management Action Plans (MAPs) for the restoration of selected wetlands in India. 
  • Strict regulation helps in providing a legal framework for necessary actions at all stages of detection and control of invasive species. 
    • For example: Central government has brought the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2022 which  regulates and prohibits possession of invasive species.
  • Research and innovation in the field of genetic engineering and biotechnology could contribute to the development of effective management techniques. 
  • For example: Through ICAR, hundreds of universities in India have programmes on various invasive species, use of remote sensing, etc. 
  • International cooperation enhances knowledge exchange and coordinated action against invasive species. 
  • For example: Coordination under Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network, etc. 


Case study- New Zealand has established a comprehensive bio-security system and invested in early detection and rapid response programmes regarding invasive species. They have implemented a range of tools, including sniffer dogs, remote sensing technologies and citizen science initiatives, to detect and monitor invasive species effectively. 


Invasive species pose a persistent threat to native biodiversity in India. By implementing proactive measures, fostering international collaboration and promoting public awareness, we can safeguard ecosystems and ensure a sustainable future for India's unique and diverse native flora and fauna. 

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 20, 2024

Q3. Relocation and reintroduction projects have different ecological purposes. Explain. Also, highlight the challenges with respect to the same.(10M,150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the answer: 

The questions asks about the different types of conservation efforts, i.e. relocation and reintroduction. Here, one has to mention the ecological purposes that separate these similar conservation efforts. Further, the challenges/shortcomings with respect to each of the methods are to be discussed. 


We can start by writing the common purpose of these strategies, that is to safeguard and conserve the species along with other necessities.


One can write about the Relocation strategy and its purpose, mention the ecological purpose under a separate heading and then, highlight the challenges of this strategy. Similarly, for the Reintroduction projects, one can write about the strategy and its purpose, its ecological purpose and challenges of the same. It is necessary to substantiate with examples, especially the examples of current strategies taking place, like the Cheetah Reintroduction Programme.


One can summarize both the strategies and then mention the appropriateness of either strategy as per the intended conservational efforts.


Answer: Relocation and reintroduction are pivotal strategies in wildlife conservation, involving the movement of species within their native range and reestablishing populations, respectively.



It refers to the process of moving individuals or populations of a species from one location to another within their native range or to a new area where they have a higher chance of survival. The primary purpose of relocation is to enhance the species' distribution, increase genetic diversity, or reestablish a viable population in a specific region.


Ecological Purpose of Relocation

  • The primary ecological purpose of relocation is to enhance the species' distribution, increase genetic diversity, or reestablish a viable population in a specific region. It is typically used when a species is threatened, and its current habitat is at risk or degraded.
    • For example: The earlier proposed plan for relocation of the Asiatic lions from the Gir Forest in Gujarat to Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh serves as a prominent example of a relocation project. The primary ecological purpose behind this project was to establish a second population of Asiatic lions in a different region to reduce the risk of a catastrophic event decimating the entire population.
    • For Example: Relocation of Tigers from Pilibhit Tiger Reserve to the newly notified Ranipur Tiger Reserve in Chitrakoot.


Challenges with Relocation Projects:


  • Habitat Suitability: Ensuring that the new habitat can support the relocated species is a significant challenge. Inadequate habitat can lead to low survival rates.
  • Stress and Disruption: The process of capture, transportation, and release can be highly stressful and can impact their health and survival rates.
  • Animal-Human conflicts: The relocation process can lead to increased human-wildlife interactions and potential conflicts.



These projects involve releasing individuals of a species into a location within their historic range where the species has been extirpated or significantly reduced in numbers.


Ecological Purpose of Reintroduction Projects:

  • Species recovery: The ecological purpose is to restore populations to their former range, helping to reestablish ecological roles and functions they once played in that area.
    • For example, The Sariska Tiger Reserve witnessed the reintroduction of tigers in the early 21st century after the local population was completely wiped out. 
    • Cheetah Reintroduction Plan in Kuno-Palpur National Park, Madhya Pradesh.
  • Genetic Diversity: Genetic diversity may decrease when populations are small, and reintroducing individuals from captive breeding programs can help mitigate this issue.
  • Ecosystem Functioning: Reintroducing species can have cascading effects on the entire ecosystem. They may fulfill ecological roles (such as predators or pollinators) that have been vacant in their absence.


Challenges with Reintroduction Projects:

  • Ecosystem Effects: The restoration of a species to its historical range can have complex, often unpredictable, effects on the ecosystem. 
    • For example, It may lead to changes in predator-prey dynamics, vegetation, and other ecological relationships.
  • Survival and Adaptation: Individuals reintroduced to a new area may face difficulties in adapting to their new environment and may experience higher mortality rates.
    • For example, Deaths of cheetahs due to chronic renal failure (Sasha), cardiopulmonary failure (Uday), traumatic shock (Daksha) etc.
    • For example, Deaths of 2 cheetahs at Kuno National Park by diseases “myiasis”, triggered by skin infections under wet radio collars due to monsoon rain, leading to maggot infestations and septicaemia.
  • Disease Transmission: Captive-bred individuals may lack immunity to diseases present in the wild. Introducing them could lead to outbreaks or the spread of pathogens.
  • Human Conflicts: Reintroduction projects can sometimes lead to conflicts with local communities, as species may affect livestock or agricultural practices.


Relocation and reintroduction projects are vital tools in conservation efforts, but they come with unique challenges. Their choice depends on the specific goals and conditions of the species and the ecosystems involved. These strategies play a crucial role in restoring and preserving biodiversity and ecological balance.

Subjects : Environment

Feb. 19, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 19, 2024

Q3. What do you understand by ‘microplastics’? Enumerate the challenges associated with Plastic Pollution and the progress that India has made to tackle the menace. (10M, 150 W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

The answer has 2 main headings - ‘Challenges associated with Plastic Pollution’ and ‘Progress in India's Fight Against Plastic Pollution’. It can be structured as given below.

Introduction: Define Microplastics and also can give some data related to that.


Heading-1: Challenges associated with Plastic Pollution

Heading-2: Progress in India's Fight Against Plastic Pollution

Conclusion: Give a solution-oriented conclusion 

Answer: Microplastics are tiny plastic fragments, less than 5 millimeters in diameter, that result from the breakdown of larger plastic items or are directly manufactured for specific uses. These miniscule pollutants are insidious, infiltrating our environment, water bodies, and even the food chain, posing significant challenges.

Challenges of Plastic Pollution

  • Ecosystem Disruption: A staggering 3.4 million tonnes of plastic waste are generated annually in India, with a large portion unmanaged. This debris chokes waterways, suffocates wildlife, and disrupts delicate ecosystems. 
    • In 2020, an estimated 15 billion plastic bags littered India's landscapes, impacting soil quality and hindering plant growth.
  • Human Health Risks: Microplastics can be ingested through contaminated food and water, raising concerns about potential health risks. 
    • Studies suggest links to inflammation, gut dysfunction, and even hormonal disruptions.
  • Microplastic Invasion: A 2022 study found microplastics in 83% of global bottled water samples, highlighting their pervasive presence. 
    • Example: The Ganges River, India's lifeline, carries an estimated 12,000 tonnes of plastic annually, raising concerns about microplastic contamination in its waters.
  • Cleanup Costs: The plastic pollution crisis incurs significant economic costs. India spends an estimated $15 billion annually on plastic pollution cleanup and waste management infrastructure development. 
  • Sectoral Impacts
    • Tourism, a vital contributor to India's economy, suffers due to plastic pollution on beaches and coastal areas. 
    • Fishing industry faces threats from microplastic contamination, impacting livelihoods and food security.

Progress in India's Fight Against Plastic Pollution

    • Plastic Waste Management Rules (2016): Established a nationwide framework for plastic waste management, regulating production, use, and disposal.
    • Single-use Plastic Ban (2022): Prohibited specific single-use plastic items like bags, straws, and cutlery, potentially saving 12.5 billion plastic bags annually.
    • Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR): Holds producers financially and operationally responsible for collecting and managing their plastic waste, incentivizing sustainable design and end-of-life solutions.


  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
  • Promotion of source segregation: Encourages citizens to separate plastic waste at home, enabling easier recycling and processing.
  • Behavioral change campaigns: Raise public awareness about responsible waste management practices, fostering a sense of ownership and participation.
  • This flagship cleanliness initiative has increased waste collection infrastructure by 43% since 2014, with over 66 million household toilets constructed.
  • Innovation Ecosystem: A vibrant start-up ecosystem flourishes, developing cutting-edge solutions.
  • Biodegradable alternatives: Companies like Ecoware and Avani offer plant-based and compostable packaging solutions.
  • Waste-to-fuel technologies: Companies like Axiom Recycle and Nepra Technologies transform plastic waste into usable fuels like diesel and syngas.
  • Innovative collection methods: Ipit Solutions utilizes AI-powered sorting systems for efficient waste segregation.


While India has taken commendable steps, significant challenges remain. Effective implementation of existing regulations, improved waste management infrastructure, and public awareness campaigns are crucial. Additionally, promoting research in eco-friendly alternatives and fostering collaboration between various stakeholders is key to building a sustainable future free from plastic pollution.


Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 19, 2024

Q2.  With an increasing number of electronic gadgets being used day to day, e-waste has emerged as a menace. Discuss the issues in dealing with e-waste and how is India tackling the challenge?(10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach:  Break down the question into sub-parts and then answer each part individually.

Introduction: Introduce with the definition of e- waste and why it is a menace


Sub-Heading 1: Issues in dealing with e-waste

Sub-Heading 2: India’s approach to e-waste management

Sub-Heading 3: Lacunae in the Indian approach

Conclusion: The way ahead for e-waste management in India


Answer: E-waste is  defined as electronic products that are unwanted, not working, and nearing or at the end of their “useful life.”  According to the United Nations’ Global E-Waste Monitor 2020, India now ranks as the world’s third-largest e-waste generator, following only China and the USA.

Issues in dealing with e-waste:

    • Health risk :  Workers managing e- waste are exposed to hazardous substances such as mercury and lead during unsafe e-waste recycling activities. Operating in environments devoid of proper ventilation or personal protective equipment, these workers are at high risk of sustaining physical injuries and chronic health issues.
      • For example: In 2021, WHO released its first global report on e-waste and child health, which called for greater effective and binding action to protect children from the growing threat. 
    • Environmental risk : E- waste is non biodegradable. The negative environmental externalities stemming from the existing scale of informal sector-led e-waste management are equally concerning. The mishandling of electronic waste severely impacts the environment, affecting air, water and soil quality.
      • For example : Improper disposal of electronic trash in landfills or illegal dumping areas allows chemicals to seep into the soil, contaminating groundwater and affecting crops.


  • Lack of collection and recycling facilities: E-waste requires special handling and centers for e-waste management are limited. In 2019, an estimated 53.6 million tonnes of e-waste were produced globally, but only 17.4% was documented as formally collected and recycled.



India’s approach to e-waste management:


  • Institutional arrangement: Central pollution control board (CPCB) is the nodal for e-waste management in India. It collects data related to e-waste generation and provides standard guidelines for their disposal and recycling
  • Legislative framework: In India, E-waste is covered in Schedule 3 of “The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2003”.  The Government of India introduced E-Waste Management Rules in 2016 which have  seen successive amendments with the latest one being in 2023.
  • Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) : India follows the policy of EPR which requires most manufacturers , retailers and wholesalers  of electronic equipment to register with CPCB and set up a mechanism to refurbish , reuse or recycle end of life products. 



Lacunae in the Indian approach:

  • Lack of proper collection and recycling centers: While recycling of e-waste in India has picked up from a mere 10% in 2017-18 to about 33 % in 2021-2022, up from previous years, it indicates that a staggering 10,74,024 tonnes (67%) of e-waste  still remains unprocessed.
  • Missing ecosystem for a circular economy : Countries like Switzerland despite being one of the biggest global producers of e-waste – collects and recycles roughly 90 percent of its e-waste. This is due  to a strong and convenient voluntary ‘take-back’ system, where consumers can take e-waste to a dedicated recycling collection point or any electronic shop that sells the same type of equipment throughout the country.  A strong recycling system also solves the problem of short supply of critical minerals.
  • Lack of awareness about hazards of e-waste : Workers dealing with e-waste are seldom aware of its hazardous impact and mostly deal with it in an unscientific manner and without the use of personal protective equipment.
    • For example :  In 2010, a person lost his life in Mayapuri scrap yard of Delhi due to the radiation emanating out of a cobalt-60 pin while dismantling an electronic machine. 


The way ahead for India in dealing with e-waste lies in formalizing e-waste collection, strengthening the right to repair framework and creating an ecosystem for a circular economy.

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG-12) talks about ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns, which is the need of the hour for tackling the menace of e-waste.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 19, 2024

Q1. What do you understand by  the term ‘bioremediation’? Analyze its importance in solving the increasingly complex problem of waste management in India. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer

Approach to the question:

Understanding the question: The question mainly has two parts. One is to define bio-remediation and the other is to state its significance in solving the problem related to waste management in India

Introduction: One can start the introduction by defining bioremediation and can give certain examples related to it.

Body: Here we have to mention the problem of waste management in India and then analyse from various dimensions the impact of bioremediation - so we have to give the advantages as well as the limitations of the method.

Conclusion: One can mention that bioremediation techniques need to be provided with more research and development. We can also state that such technologies will help in attaining sustainable development goals.


Answer: Bioremediation is defined as the process whereby organic wastes are biologically degraded under controlled conditions to an innocuous state, or to levels below concentration limits established by regulatory authorities.


Importance of bioremediation in solving the increasingly complex problem of waste management in India:

  • Reduced Disruption: Bioremediation can often be carried out on site, without causing major disruption of normal activities.
    • Example: Pune's local bioremediation; city life remained undisturbed.
  • Less Cost: Bioremediation can prove less expensive than other technologies used for hazardous waste cleanup. 
    • Example: Kolkata's cost-effective bioremediation versus traditional waste removal.
  • Solving Landfills problems: Bioremediation tackles garbage at landfills, freeing up land and reducing soil and groundwater contamination risks. 
    • Example: Bengaluru's landfill shrinkage via bioremediation strategies.
  • Inorganic pollutants: Bioremediation addresses pollutants like Arsenic, Mercury, and Chromium.
    • Example: Ganga river's arsenic content decreased using bioremediative techniques.
  • Mining: Bioremediation cleans mining waste, including abandoned mines and fossil fuel drill residues.
    • Example: Jharkhand mines detoxified, restoring local ecosystems.
  • Fly ash sites: Bioremediation aids in revegetating fly ash sites, stabilizing ash against erosion and reducing leaching.
    • Example: Andhra Pradesh's transformed ash landscapes, boosting greenery.


  • Specificity: Bioremediation targets specific pollutants; not effective for mixed or diverse waste contaminants.
  • Time-Consuming: Biodegradation processes can be slower than physical or chemical remediation methods.
  • Unpredictability: Environmental factors influence success; results can vary across different contamination sites.
  • Incomplete Degradation: Some compounds only partially degrade, potentially producing harmful byproducts.
  • Site Limitations: Not all contaminated sites are suitable for biological treatments, limiting applicability.

Bioremediation is natural, cost effective, faster than natural attenuation process that generates fewer secondary wastes with fewer air and water emissions. It has the potential to emerge as an integrated toolbox for environmental cleanup and ecosystem service provider in India.

Subjects : Environment

Feb. 16, 2024

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 16, 2024

Q1. What is the carrying capacity of an ecosystem? Using examples from India, elaborate on the impact of the breach of carrying capacity. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

The answer has 2 main headings - ‘Carrying Capacity of an ecosystem’ and ‘Breach of Carrying Capacity in India’. It can be structured as given below.


Define Carrying Capacity. 


Heading-1: Explain the Carrying Capacity of an Ecosystem.

Heading-2: Breach of Carrying Capacity in India.


Give an optimistic conclusion while talking about sustainability.

Answer: Carrying capacity refers to the maximum population size of a species that a given ecosystem can sustainably support over the long term without degradation of the environment. 

Carrying Capacity of an Ecosystem

  • Natural Resource Availability: It is determined by factors such as the availability of resources like food, water, and shelter.
  • Waste Absorption: It also depends on the ecosystem's ability to absorb waste and regenerate resources. 
  • Environmental conditions: Dependent on the conditions such as climate, soil fertility, and the presence of predators and competitors. 
  • Population Dynamics: It is a fundamental concept in understanding population dynamics and the interactions between organisms and their environment.
  • Overshoot: When a population exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment, it may lead to resource depletion, habitat destruction, competition for limited resources, increased predation, and ultimately, population decline or collapse. This phenomenon is often referred to as "overshoot" and can have detrimental effects on both the species and the ecosystem as a whole.

Breach of Carrying Capacity in India

    • Water Resources: India's per capita water availability has dipped below 1700 cubic meters, placing it in the "water-stressed" category (World Bank, 2023).
      • Impact: Over 60% of India's assessed aquifers are in a critical or overexploited state (Central Ground Water Board, 2022), impacting agricultural productivity and threatening drinking water security for millions.
      • Example: The Yamuna River, Delhi's lifeline, often dries up due to over-extraction, impacting over 20 million people and aquatic life (CPCB, 2023).
    • Urbanization and Land Use: India's urban population is expected to reach 600 million by 2030, requiring an additional 700,000 hectares of land (NITI Aayog, 2022).


  • Example: Chennai urban flood due to encroachments, faulty drainage systems and tampering of natural course of water had made the megapolis prone to flooding every year.


    • Loss of Forest due to diversion of forest land: India has lost 20% of its forest cover since 1950 (Forest Survey of India, 2021).
      • Impact: Deforestation for urban expansion has increased 300% since 2001 (World Resources Institute, 2023), threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services.
      • Example: Mumbai's Aarey forest controversy highlights the conflict between development and conservation, with a potential loss of 2,500 trees critical for carbon sequestration and air quality.


  • Loss of Biodiversity: 


    • Impact: Deforestation, disrupts water cycles, increases soil erosion have increased the loss of endangered species like the Western Ghats' lion-tailed macaque.
    • Example: Illegal logging and encroachment threaten the Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with over 5,000 endemic plant species and 27% of India's wildlife.
  • Air Pollution: 21 Indian cities rank among the world's most polluted (World Air Quality Report, 2023). Delhi's PM2.5 levels often exceed 400 µg/m³, 40 times the WHO safe limit.
    • Impact: Air pollution causes respiratory illnesses, reduces agricultural yields, and damages ecosystems through acid rain and smog.
    • Example: Delhi's air pollution contributes to over 30,000 premature deaths annually, highlighting the severe health and environmental costs.
  • Coastal Ecosystems: Sea level rise along India's coastline is projected to be 0.32-0.99 meters by 2100 (Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, 2023).
    • Impact: Mangroves, crucial for coastal protection and fisheries, are threatened by rising sea levels, pollution, and development.
    • Example: The Sundarbans, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, faces habitat loss and displacement of endangered species like the Royal Bengal Tiger due to climate change and human activities.

From water scarcity and air pollution to deforestation and coastal erosion, the impacts of exceeding carrying capacity are tangible and threaten human well-being and ecosystem health. Embracing sustainable practices, investing in conservation efforts, and respecting ecological limits are crucial for safeguarding India's future.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 16, 2024

Q2. Explain the concept of trophic levels in an ecosystem. How do interactions among biotic components, such as producers, consumers, and decomposers, contribute to the stability of these levels? (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

The answer has 2 main headings - ‘trophic levels in an ecosystem’ and ‘ interactions among biotic components, such as producers, consumers, and decomposers, ’. It can be structured as given below.


Define trophic level.


Heading-1: Explain the concept of trophic levels in an ecosystem.

Heading-2:Explain how interactions among biotic components, such as producers, consumers, and decomposers, contribute to the stability of these levels.


Conclude in a holistic way by giving the importance of  these interactions for the energy flow, nutrient cycling, population regulation, and overall stability of an ecosystem. 


Answer: Trophic levels represent the hierarchical levels of the food chain in an ecosystem, where organisms are grouped based on their main source of nutrition and position in the energy transfer process. There are typically three main trophic levels: producers, consumers, and decomposers.

The concept of trophic levels in an ecosystem:

1-Producers (Autotrophs): These are organisms capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, converting sunlight or inorganic compounds into energy. 

Examples:  Plants, algae, and certain bacteria.

2-Consumers (Heterotrophs): Consumers are organisms that obtain energy by consuming other organisms. They are further divided into primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers (carnivores or omnivores), and tertiary consumers (carnivores at higher trophic levels).

Example: Herbivores, like rabbits feeding on grass, are primary consumers. Carnivores, like foxes preying on rabbits, are secondary consumers. This hierarchical structure continues with tertiary consumers, such as eagles feeding on foxes.


3-Decomposers: Decomposers break down organic matter from dead organisms and waste materials, returning essential nutrients to the soil.

Example: Bacteria and fungi decompose fallen leaves and animals in a forest, breaking them down into simpler compounds and releasing nutrients like nitrogen back into the soil


Interactions among Biotic Components and Stability:


  • Energy Transfer: Producers, through photosynthesis, capture solar energy and convert it into chemical energy stored in organic compounds. This energy is then transferred through the food chain as consumers feed on producers and other consumers. This flow of energy helps maintain trophic structure.
  • Nutrient Cycling: Decomposers play a crucial role in breaking down dead organic matter, releasing nutrients back into the environment. This nutrient cycling ensures that essential elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, are recycled and available for use by producers, contributing to the stability of trophic levels.
  • Population Control: Interactions among trophic levels help regulate population sizes. Predation by consumers keeps the population of herbivores in check, preventing overgrazing and ensuring the health of plant populations. This, in turn, influences the abundance of higher trophic levels.
  • Balance in Ecosystem: The interactions between producers, consumers, and decomposers contribute to a delicate balance within the ecosystem. Changes in one trophic level can have cascading effects on others, affecting the overall stability of the ecosystem.
  • Biodiversity Maintenance: The diversity of species within each trophic level contributes to the resilience of the ecosystem. Different species may have unique roles and functions, and their interactions enhance the overall adaptability of the ecosystem to environmental changes.


Hence,  interactions among biotic components in different trophic levels are vital for the energy flow, nutrient cycling, population regulation, and overall stability of an ecosystem. The balance in these interactions is crucial for the health and sustainability of the ecosystem over time.

Subjects : Environment

Mains Daily Question
Feb. 16, 2024

Q3. “Increasing environmental migration is a tangible reality and is expected to grow significantly in the coming years." In this context, analyze the impact of the rising environmental migration in India and outline the measures India should undertake to effectively confront this challenge. (10M, 150W)

Model Answer


Understanding and structuring the answer:

The answer has 2 main headings - ‘impact of environmental migration in India’ and ‘measures should be undertaken by India to deal with the issues’. It can be structured as given below.


Define environmental migration along with some data.


Heading-1: Write down the impact of environmental migration in India.

Heading-2: Explain how India is trying to deal with the issue.


Conclude in a holistic way by providing the importance of the issue for urgent global effort as environmental migration is a ‘threat multiplier’.

Answer: The escalating issue of environmental migration has garnered widespread attention in recent years, primarily attributed to the shifting climate patterns and environmental degradation. 

As per International Organization of Migration (IOM), environmental migration is referred to as, the movement of a person or groups of persons who, predominantly for reasons of sudden or progressive change in the environment that adversely affects their lives or living conditions, are obliged to leave their habitual place of residence, or choose to do so, either temporarily or permanently, within a State or across an international border

According to the UNHCR : Nearly 32 million displacements caused by environment related issues and climate hazards in 2022, represents a 41 per cent increase compared to 2008 levels. 

Impact of Environmental Migration in India:

  • Large Number of Displacement Events: Current instances of sea-level rise in the Sundarbans, droughts in central India, and floods in the Ganges and Brahmaputra regions displace communities. Also climate-induced migration within India increases due to drought, desertification, and melting glaciers.

Example: There is now a much higher scale of migration from the hills, with entire ghost villages or empty habitations scattered across the Himalayas. According to 2011 census figures, of 16,793 villages in the state 1,053 have no inhabitants and 405 villages have less than 10 residents.


  • Agricultural Challenge and food insecurity: Warming climates reduce agricultural potential, affecting livelihoods and ecosystem services.


  • Lack of urban infrastructure: Leads migrants to crowded, inadequate shelters with limited amenities as Urban areas lack infrastructure to host migrants, exacerbating resource scarcity. Migrants often lack skills for urban employment, posing development challenges.


  • Stress on the Natural Resources: The migrated population in a specific region causes the over exploitation of the natural resources such as water resources  thus further increasing the risk of climate change.


  • Frequent Disease Outbreaks: Climate change is increasing the risk of infectious diseases worldwide. Also due to migration the influx of people in the closed pockets of the city such as slums which are lacking in sanitation infrastructure is further increasing the risk of disease outbreaks in the communities.


  • Social Conflict: Climate change is fuelling social conflicts.

Example: The UNHCR finds that 80% of displaced people worldwide live in areas with acute food insecurity. The desperation over existential resources is sharpening struggles.



  • Loss of Biodiversity in India: Due to the diversion of the forest land to accommodate the migrating population. 


Example: India has four biodiversity hotspots and 90% of this area has been lost, according to the Centre for Science and Environment’s (CSE) new report entitled ‘State of India’s Environment in Figures 2021’. 


  • Proximity to Bangladesh: Shared ecological zones and borders make India susceptible to a substantial influx of migrants from Bangladesh.

Example: The Sundarbans Delta of Bangladesh is one of the high-risk areas and it is estimated that around 50–120 million climate refugees might migrate to India. India needs to be prepared for this crisis and develop a sound refugee policy framework. 


Measures India should Undertake to Effectively Confront the Challenges of Environmental  Migration:


  • Agricultural Resilience: Develop climate-resilient agricultural systems, including drought-resistant crops.

Example: Development of drought-resistant crop varieties like millets in rain-deficient regions. 

  • Livelihood Support and food security in vulnerable  areas:  This would involve supporting the livelihoods of people and strengthening social support systems, particularly for women, children, and Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe populations.

For example: social security measures, including the PDS, NREGA etc.

  • More Resilient Infrastructure:Ensure mega-cities are less vulnerable to the effects of mass urbanization.Long-term plans for financing rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts in climate-induced disasters.

Example: National Smart Cities Mission,National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) provides financial assistance for rehabilitation after climate disasters.

Example: India is part of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. 


  • Need of a Sound Refugee Policy Framework: India needs to develop a proper policy and framework for the climate induced migrants and refugees.


  • International Cooperation: India has been actively engaging in international cooperation on the issue of environmental migration, recognizing the global significance of addressing this challenge. Also India provides capacity building support to other developing countries to enhance their resilience to climate change-induced migration. This  includes training programs, workshops, and knowledge-sharing initiatives aimed at building local capacities to adapt to climate impacts.

Example: Paris Agreement


An urgent global effort is required to establish an international framework and a recognised definition for addressing migration caused by environmental  challenges, ensuring the protection of individuals compelled to relocate due to environmental shifts.

Subjects : Environment
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